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MOLDAVIA. Jean Stroudza, Hospodar ; inaugurated July 21, 1822. WALLACHIA. Gregory Ghika, Hospodar ; inaugurated Sept. 21, 1822.
GREECE. THE Greeks revolted from the Turkish domination in 1821, asserted independence, and established a republican government. The Turks attempted to reduce them to subjection; a destructive war ensued, which lasted several years; at length the governments of Russia, France, and Great Britain interfered; and the Sultan of Turkey was induced to consent to the independence of Greece. In 1827, Count Capo d'Istria was elected President of Greece for the term of seven years; in January, 1828, he entered upon the duties of his office, and he has succeeded in establishing an efficient administration, and in gaining the confidence and affection of the people.
In February, 1830, the plenipotentiaries of Great Britain, France, and Russia, appointed Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg to be the hereditary sovereign of Greece, with the title of “ Sovereign Prince.” The Prince accepted the appointment; but on learning the actual condition of the country and the feelings of the people with regard to an appointment in which they had no voice, he afterwards resigned it.
The government was reorganized by the fourth national Congress, which met at Argo3 in the summer of 1829, Capo d'Istria still remaining at its head. The Panhellenium, a Council of 27 members, was replaced by another body consisting also of 27 members, called the Gerousia, Senate or Congress. This body gives its opinion on matters of legislation ; but has not the power of a negative upon the decisions of the President. Besides the Senate, there is a Ministry, consisting of four departments, each having a secretary, viz. the Home Department; Foreign Affairs, including Commerce; the Judiciary; and Fublic E lucation and Ecclesiastical Affairs.
The country of Greece, which is liberated, comprises the Morea, the most of the continent lying south of ancient Thessaly and Epirus, the island of Negropont and most of the smaller islands in the Archipelago, leaving Candia, Samos, and Scio in the possession of the Turks. The total area is not far from 16,000 square miles. “ The Peloponnesus contains about 280,000 inhabitants; the islands about 175,000 ; and continental Greece, including Acarnania and Ætolia, about 180,000 ;--in all 635,000 souls.”
See Anderson's “ Observations upon the Peloponnesus and the Greek Islands, made in 1829.”
Abbas Mirza, heir presumptive, b. 1785.
In the first volume of the American Almanac, in the article on the “ Use and Abuse of Ardent Spirits,” it was shown that from 30,000 to 40,000 die annually in the United States in consequence of hard drinking. Some remarks were also made on the vast expense of money and the destruction of happiness and character, which attend this loss of life; and it was also shown that a moderate use of ardent spirits, even when it does not lead to intemperance, is useless, if not injurious, to persons in health.
We are now happy in being able to lay before our readers a series of important facts, which show that a deep and lost salutary impression has been made upon the public mind by the influence of Temperance Socie. ties; and which also afford ground for hope that a most pernicious and destructive habit may be eventually banished from the United States. The friends of these societies ascribe intemperance, with its train of evils, not to the tastes and habits of a few, but to the general use of spirituous liquors as an article of luxury, and as an auxiliary to labor in the field and the workshop; and it is against these uses that they especially direct their efforts. The facts which are here presented, have been brought to light chiefly by the efforts of the American Temperance Society, and have been furnished by a gentleman favorably situated for obtaining the most authentic information.
The American Temperance Society, which was formed in February, 1826, employs two agents in travelling from place to place to promote the objects of the institution; and a newspaper entitled “The Journal of Humanity,” printed at Andover, Mass., is devoted to the same object. As many as thirteen state societies have already been formed, one in each of the following states, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, South Carolina, Georgia, Mississippi, Ohio, and Indiana.
The number of minor associations noticed in the publications of the American Temperance Society up to Aug. 19, 1830, was 1605, viz. in Maine 98, New Hampshire 84, Vermont 119, Massachusetts 232, Rhode Island 11, Connecticut 181, New York 372, New Jersey 30, Pennsylvania 95, Delaware 2, Maryland 11, District of Columbia 4, Virginia 111, North Carolina. 17, South Carolina 11, Georgia 47, Florida 1, Alabama 8, Mississippi 9, Louisiana 2, Tennessee 11, Kentucky 19, Ohio 87, Indiana 26, Illinois 4, Missouri 3, Michigan 10..
The societies in these lists are not all connected with the A. T. S., but they all make the same fundamental principle,-entire abstinence from ardent spirits,—the basis of their efforts. Many societies doubtless exist, of which the officers of the A. T. S. have received no information. The whole number of members of these associations cannot be stated. In the
last Report of the A. T. S. it was estimated at 100,000, and more than 60,000 new members were reported to the office of the Journal of Human. ity during the first eight months of the year 1830.
1. The influence of the Societies extends to all classes of the community. The practice of -entire abstinence has been recommended by many of our largest and most respectable medical societies, by ecclesiastical bodies almost without exception in all parts of the country, and by members of the bar in several counties. Societies to promote it have been formed by females, by the young, by mechanics, by apprentices, by people of color, in churches, in the U. S. Army (at five military stations). Sea. men are adopting it extensively: more than 40 vessels from Charleston, more than 50 from Boston, 56 from Gloucester, and 15 (square-rigged) from Portland, are now navigated without ardent spirit. In our largest and best regulated prisons and alms-houses, it is not allowed. In Connecticut, more than 1000 farms are known to be cultivated without it. In New Haven, there are more than 100 master builders, mechanics, and artisans, who use none themselves, and allow none among their workmen.
II. It has diminished the number of distillers and venders of ardent spirits. The First Annual Report of the N. York State Society (Jan. 1830) mentions the discontinuance of 35 distilleries in that State (12 in one county), and that of the Connecticut Society (May, 1830) states that 30 had been stopped, within its limits, during the year preceding. Out of 14 distilleries in one neighborhood in Westmoreland County, Pa., 10 have been stopped within a few months. “ In Connecticut,” says the Report abovmentioned,“ more than 150 retailers have voluntarily relinquished the business within a year." In New London County only, 45 have ceased to deal in ardent spirit. In Sandy Hill, New York, where 20 licenses were formerly granted, there are now but 2. In Augusta, Ky., and Kingston, Me., retailing has ceased. In December, 1829, the Secretary of the A. T. S. had received information of more than 400 dealers in ardent spirit, who had given up the business; and during the first three months of the year 18:30, similar information respecting 267 others was received at the office of the Society. There is a large number of towns, mostly in New England, in which the traffic no longer exists., In Plymouth County, Mass., ardent spirit is retailed only by innkeepers. In Clinton County, N. Y., one fourth of the merchants have banished the article from their stores.
III. It has greatly diminished the consumption of ardent spirits. In proof of this we might refer to a large nuinber of districts in different parts of the country, in which it has been found, by careful investigation, that the consumption of ardent spirits has diminished to the amount of one fourth, one half, two thirds, nine-tenths, and even more. But estimates founded on statements from the public offices will be more satisfactory.
(1.) The quantity of foreign distilled spirits entered at the CustomHouse at Middletown, Connecticut, amounted, in 1828, to 186,845 gallons, in 1829 to 74,944, and in the first six months of 1830, to less than 4,000.
(2.) The Custom-House books at New Haven show that the number of hogsheads (averaging 110 gallons) of foreign spirit, entered there in 1826, was 1760, in 1827, 591, in 1828, 787, in 1829, 445, and for the first 6 months of 1830, 85, which is supposed to be more than half the import
(3.) The quantity of distilled liquors brought into Fredericksburg, Va., by water, was, in 1826, 126,273 gallons, and in the year ending July 1, 1830, 58,950 gallons.
(4.) The following table shows the amount of distilled liquors brought into the port of New York for the first six months of the years 1828, 1829, and 1830.
of the year.
From January 1, to July 31, 1828
1830 Brandy, pipes 7,263
puncheons 7,707 6,290 2,503 Total,
casks 18,341 13,366 5,061 (5.) The following statement, from the game office, extends one year farther back and embraces periods of 12 months each.
1827 1828 1829 Foreign distilled liquors imp'd, (galls.) 2,056,739 2,925,705 1,695,868
exp’d, (do.) 126,534 186,894 428,775
Leaving for that market,
1,930,205 2,738,811 1,267,093 (6.) We refer, finally, respecting the consumption of foreign distilled spirits, to the Annual Reports of the Secretary of the Treasury. From these the following statement of the imports and exports of this article for the three years ending Sept. 30, 1829, is prepared :
1826-7 1827-8 1828-9 Imp'd from Oct. 1, to Sept. 30, (galls.) 3,537,426 5,102,599 3,420,884 Exported
223,815 255,341 905,006
Leaving for home consumption, 3,313,611 4,847,258 2,515,878 Statement (1), omitting the last half year, shows a diminution of three fifths in a single year ;-Statement (2)—with the same omission—a dimi. nution in 1829 of more than three-fifths from the average of the three preceding years ;-Statement (3), a diminution of more than one half in about three years ;-Statement (4), a diminution of more than two thirds from the average of two years (of which two, the last was about one third less than the preceding;)—Statement (5), a diminution of nearly one half from the average of two years ;--and Statement (6), a diminution of more than one third from an average of two years.
When we consider that none of these statements extend back beyond the date at which the efforts of the A. T. S. commenced, and that the imports have been rapidly diminishing down to the latest dates, it would seem that the decrease of consumption throughout the United States, must be at least 65 or 70 per cent. We will suppose it, however, to be only 50 per cent. The average for the two years ending Sept. 30, 1828, was 4,080,134 gallons at the expense of about as many dollars. The saving therefore, already effected in the article of foreign distilled spirit, amounts, on the lowest estimate, to more than $2,000,000 a year.
Some may suppose that the consumption of the domestic article has increased. That such is not the fact might be inferred from the diminished number of distilleries and retailers of spirits, and from the known fact that a large number of retailers, especially in New England, continue the sale of foreign who have abandoned that of domestic liquors. We are able, however, to refer here also to the more satisfactory authority of official documents.
The quantity of whiskey brought into Fredericksburg, by water, in the year 1826, was 114,277 galls., and in the year ending July 1, 1830, 52,621 galls.
From Aug. 1, to Dec. 1, 1828, the quantity of whiskey that passed Utica on the canal was 1,053,305 galls. ; - during the same months of the year 1829, only 345,159 galls.,---although the quantity of wheat, flour, ashes, &c. was far greater during the latter than during the former period.
Most of the whiskey brought to Philadelphia comes from the West and is inspected in what is called the Western District. The quantity inspected there in 1828, was 2,714,204 gallons, and in 1829, 1,822,400 galls.
The quantity of domestic spirits inspected in the city of New York in 1827, was 98,310 casks; in 1828, 111,504 casks; and in 1829, 79,913 casks.
These statements warrant the conclusion that the consumption of whiskey, in the Middle States, has decreased at least one third.
Of the saving in expense, suffering, and crime, effected by this diminution of the consumption of ardent spirit, the followiog estimates will serve to form some conception.
Iu 1810, the quantity of distilled spirituous liquors consumed in the United States amounted to about t1 galls. to each inhabitant. Did our present population drink at the same rate, the consumption (supposing our population to be 13,000,000) would amount to 58,500,000 galls. a year. Supposing the consumption to be only one third less in proportion to the number of inhabitants, and the average expense per gall. to the consumer to be 40 cents, there is a saving of $7,500,000 a year in the cost of the liquor.
In the 4th section of his Treatise on State Prison Punishments, &c. (published in the Journal of Humanity, Nov. 25, 1829), Samuel M. Hopkins, Esq. who has paid great attention to the subject and enjoyed uncommon advantages for investigating it, for a series of years, gives a variety of facts and estimates, from which he infers that the annual pecuniary loss to the people of the United States by crime, is $8,700,000,-occasioned by 15,000 criminals, 11,000 of whom are at large. In another paper, furnished by the same gentleman to the Executive Committee of the New York State Temperance Society, facts are stated from which it is inferred that at least 37 parts out of 54 of the above sum-or $5,911,168—must be charged to the account of intemperance. And from a similar investigation respecting pauperism, in the same paper, Mr. Hopkins concludes that intemperance must be charged with at least $2,534,000 a year on that account. These estimates, it should be noticed, show only the annual expense of criminals and paupers after they have become such in consequence of the use of ardent spirit. The commencement of the reformation is too recent to furnish any statistics of the actual decrease of pauperism and crime.
IV. It has caused the reformation of a large number of intemperate persons. This was not a prominent object with those who first adopted and recommended the measures at present pursued, and it must now be regarded as an incidental benefit of efforts intended for the good of others. It is however great,-very much surpassing expectation. Instances of the reformation of intemperate persons, through the influence of Temperance Societies, are frequent in all parts of the country. The Third Annual Report of the A. T. S. mentions more than 700 such cases. The Secretary of the New Hampshire Society states the ascertained number in that stale at about 100. In Windham County, Conn. there are 50 cases ; in Washington County, Md., 30; in Orange County, N. C., 20.