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who had been secretary to James I.; but before the patent was completed, Lord Baltimore died, and the patent, dated June 20, 1632, was given to his eldest son Cecilius, who succeeded to his titles, and who, for upwards of forty years, directed, as proprietor, the affairs of the colony.

Leonard Calvert, brother to Cecilius, Lord Baltimore, was appointed the first governor; and he, together with about 200 persons, commenced the settlement of the town of St. Mary's in 1634. A free toleration of religion was established, and a system of equity and humanity was practised with regard to the Indian tribes.

GOVERNORS Under the Proprietary and Royal Government. Leonard Calvert, appointed 1637 | Thomas Tench, President, 1703 Thomas Green, do. 1647 John Seymour, appointed 1704 William Stone, do. 1649 Edward Lloyd, President, 1704 Parliament Commissioners, 1654 John Hart, appointed 1714 Josiah Fendall, appointed 1658 Charles Calvert, do. 1720 Philip Calvert, do. 1660 Benedict Calvert, do. 1727 Charles Calvert, do. 1662 Lord Baltimore,

1733 Lord Baltimore, Proprietor, 1675 Samuel Ogle,

do.

1737 Thomas Notley, appointed 1678 Thomas Bladen,

do.

1742 Lord Baltimore, 1681" | Samuel Ogle,

do. 1747 Lionel Copley, do. 1692 Benjamin Tasker, President, 1751 Francis Nicholson, do. 1694 Horatio Sharpe, appointed 1753 In the hands of the Crown, 1697 Robert Eden,

do. 1769 Nathaniel Blackstone, app’ted 1699 | Robert Eden,

do. 1773

Under the Constitution. Thomas Johnson, elected 1777 | Robert Wright, elected 1805 Thomas Sim Lee, do. 1779 Edward Lloyd,

do. 1809 William Pace, do. 1782 Robert Bowie,

do. 1811 William Smallwood, do. 1785 Levin Winder,

do. 1812 John Eager Howard, do. 1788 C. Ridgeley of Hampton, do. 1815 George Plater,

do.

1792 | C. W. Gouldsborough, do. 1818 Thomas Sim Lee, 1992 Samuel Sprigg,

do. 1819 John Haskins Stone, do. 1794 Samuel Stevens, Dec 16, do. 1822 John Henry, do, 1797 Joseph Kent,

Jan. 3, do. 1826 Benjamin Ogle, do. 1798 Daniel Martin,

do. 1829 John Francis Mercer, do. 1801 T. K. Caroll,

do. 1830 Robert Bowie,

do. 1803

do.

OUTLINES OF THE CONSTITUTION. The Constitution of this state was first formed in 1776 ; since which time many amendments have been made.

The legislative power is vested in a Senate, consisting of 15 members, and a House of Delegates, consisting of 80 members; and these two branches united are styled The General Assembly of Maryland.

The members of the House of Delegates, four from each county, are elected annually by the people, on the first Monday in October; and the members of the Senate are elected every fifth year on the third Monday in September, at Annapolis, by electors who are chosen by the people on the first Monday of the same month of September. These electors choose by ballot 9 senators from the Western Shore, and 6 from the Eastern, who hold their office five years.

The executive power is vested in a Governor, who is elected annually on the first Monday in January, by a joint ballot of both Houses of the General Assembly. No one can hold the office of governor more than three years successively, nor be eligible as governor until the expiration of four years after he has been out of that office. The governor is assisted by a Council of five members, who are chosen annually by a joint ballot of the Senate and House of Delegates.

The General Assembly meets annually (at Annapolis) on the last Monday in December. The Council of the Governor is elected on the first Tuesday in January; the governor nominates to office, and the council appoints.

The Constitution grants the right of suffrage to every free, white, male citizen, above 21 years of age, having resided twelve months within the state, and six months in the county, or in the city of Annapolis or Baltimore, next preceding the election at which he offers to vote.

The chancellor and judges are nominated by the governor, and appointed by the council; and they hold their offices during good behavior.

[The Legislature formerly met on the first Monday in Dec., and the governor was elected on the 2d Monday of Dec. ; but the Constitution was altered at the session of 1823, and confirmed in 1824.]

Government. Thomas King Caroll, Governor; term of office expires on the first Tuesday in January, 1831; salary $2,666.7.

The members of the General Assembly receive $4 a day : the Speakers of each House, $5. JUDICIARY.

Salary. Theodore Bland, Chancellor,

$3,600 Court of Appeals. John Buchanan, Chief Judge,

2,200 Richard T. Earle, Associate Judge,

2,200 William B. Martin, do.

2,200 Stevenson Archer, do.

3,000 Thomas B. Dorsey, do

2,200 John Stephen, do.

2,200

(Baltimore)

County Courts. The state is divided into six judicial districts, for each of which there are three judges. Each court is constituted of one of the judges of the Court of Appeals, and two associates. The salary of these county associate judges is $1,400, except in the Baltimore district, where the associates are paid $2,200 each.

Nicholas Brice,
William McMechen,
Alexander Nesbit,

Baltimore City Court.
Chief Judge,
Associate Judge,

do.

Salary. $2,400

1,500 1,500

BANKS.
Name.
Capital. Name.

Capital
Union Bank of Md. Baltimore, $3,000,000 Farmers' Bank of Maryland, at
Bank of Baltimore, do. 1,200,000 Annapolis, with branches at
Mechanics' Bank, do. 1,000,000 Frederick and Easton, $1,000,000
Commer. & Farmers' Bk, do. 1,000,000 Frederick County Bk, Frederick, 500,000
Franklin Bank,

do. 600,000 Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank of Marine Bank,

do. 600,000 Frederick County, at Frederick, Farm. & Merchants' Bk, do. 500,000 with a branch at Westminster,

500,000 Bank of Maryland, do. 300,000 | Hagerstown Bank,

250,000 Bank of Port Deposit, do.

Planters' & Farmers' Bk, Upper Marlboro'.

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The city of Baltimore ranks as one of the first flour markets in the world. The following table shows the inspections of wheat and rye flour and corn meal, in the principal flour markets in the United States, for the year 1829.

New York .
Baltimore
Philadelphia
Richmond
New Orleans
Alexandria
Georgetown, D. c.
Fredericksburg and Falmouth
Petersburg
Albany

Wheat Flour. Rye Flour. Corn Meal.

Barrels. Barrels. Hhds. Barrels.
670,262 24,522 8,572 19,446
473,604 12,801 1,609 6,483
297,206 39,523 7,710 18,888
204,488
157,323 368 6,849
156,849
104,077 731
96,060
60,350
34,913

EDUCATION.

The principal literary seminaries in this state are the University of Maryland, St. Mary's College, and Ba more College, in Baltimore; and St. John's College, at Annapolis. There are several academies in the state, which receive $800 a year from the state treasury.

A law in favor of primary schools was passed in 1825, and has been partially carried into effect in two or three of the counties. The state has a

School Fund consisting of a sum advanced by Maryland during the late war and paid by the national government, amounting to $75,000, together with a tax on bank capital of 20 cents on $100. The fund is at interest, and the amount received from the banks has also generally been placed at interest, to the credit of the several counties; but in some instances it has been expended for its proper object. The intention of the state was, that it should be used to pay teachers only; and that the expense of building school-houses, and also other expenses, should be paid by a tax on property within the several school districts.

XII. VIRGINIA.

THE first permanent English settlement formed in America was made, in 1607, by 105 adventurers, on James river, in this state, at a place named Jamestown in honor of James I. of England.

Several unsuccessful attempts had been made in the latter part of the preceding century, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, in honor of whom the country was named Virginia ; which name, though now limited to a single state, at the time of the settlement, was applied to all the country in America lying between Lat. 34o and 45° N.

The early history of the colony is replete with interesting and affecting incidents, occasioned by dangers and calamities ; by sickness, want, and con tests with the Indians. The

government of the colony was at first administered by a Council of seven persons, with a President chosen from among their number; but afterwards it was administered by a Governor, appointed, except during the Commonwealth in England, by the crown.

GOVERNORS &c.

do.

Under the Colonial Government. Ed. M. Wingfield, Pres. Coun. 1607 | Sir Francis Wyatt, Governor, 1621 John Radcliffe,

1607 Sir Geo. Yeardley, acting Gov. 1626 John Smith,

do. 1608 Sir Geo. Yeardley, Governor, 1626 George Percy, do. 1610 | Francis West, do. 1627 Lord de la War, Governor, 1610 John Pott,

do.

1628 Sir Thomas Dale, do. 1611 Sir John Harvey, do.

1629 Sir Thomas Gates, do. 1611 John West,

do. 1636 Sir Thomas Dale, do. 1614 | Sir John Harvey, do. 1636 George Yeardley, do. 1616 Sir Francis Wyatt, do. 1639 Samuel Argall,

do. 1617 | Sir William Berkeley, do. 1641 Sir George Yeardley, do. 1618 | Richard Kempe, do. 1644

Sir William Berkeley, Goo. 1645 | Francis Nicholson, Governor, 1698 Richard Bennett, elected 1652 | Edward Nott,

do. 1705 Edward Digges,

do. 1655 Edmund Jennings, do. 1706 Samuel Mathews, do. 1656 | Alexander Spotswood, do. 1710 Sir William Berkeley, do. 1659 Hugh Drysdale, do. 1722 Fra. Morryson, appointed Gov. 1661 | Robert Carter, Pres. Council, 1726 Sir William Berkeley, do. 1662 | William Gouch, Governor, 1727 Herbert Jeffreys, Lieut. Gov. 1677 | Thomas Lee, Presidents

Sir
Henry Chicheley, Dep. Gov. 1673 | Lewis Burcell, Presidenci, } 1749

Lord Culpeper, Governor,

1680 Robert Dinwiddie, Governor, 1752 Nicholas Spencer, Pres. Coun. 1683 Francis Fauquier, do. 1758 Lord Howard, Governor,

1654 John Blair, Pres. Council, 1767 Nathaniel Bacon, Pres. Coun. 1688 Lord Botetoute, Governor, 1768 Francis Nicholson, Lieut. Gov. 1690 William Nelson, Pres. Council, 1770 Sir Edmund Andros, Governor, 1692 | Lord Dunmore, Governor, 1772

Provisional Government.
Peyton Randolph, President of Convention,
Edmund Pendleton,

do.

do.

1775
1775

Under the Constitution.

Patrick Henry, elected
Thomas Jefferson, do.
Thomas Nelson, do.
Benjamin Harrison, do.
Patrick Henry,

do.
Edmund Randolph, do.
Beverly Randolph, do.
Henry Lee,

do. Robert Brooke, do. James Wood, do. James Monroe,

do. John Page,

do,

1776 | William H. Cabell, elected
1779 John Tyler,

do.
1781 James Monroe, do.
1781 George W. Smith, do.
1784 James Barbour, do.
1786 Wilson C. Nicholas, do.
1788 James P. Preston, do.
1791 Thomas M. Randolph,do.
1794 James Pleasants, do.
1796 John Tyler,

do. 1799 William B. Giles, do. 1802 John Floyd,

do.

1805 1808 1811 1811 1812 1814 1816 1819 1822 1825 1826 1829

OUTLINES OF THE CONSTITUTION.

The Constitution of this state, which has hitherto, since its first adoption, been in operation, was formed in 1776; but on the first Monday in October, 1829, a convention met at Richmond “to consider, discuss, and propose a new Constitution, or alterations and amendments to the existing Constitution”; and on the 14th of January, 1830, the convention adopted an Amended Constitution, by a vote of 55 to 40.

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