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He has refused his assent to laws the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation, till his assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them. He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of representation in the legislature ; a right inestimable to them, and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomforta ble, and distant from the depository of their public records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly, for opposing, with manly firmness, his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused, for a long time after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the legislative powers, incapable of annihilation, have returned to the people at large, for their exercise; the state remaining, in the mean time, exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the laws for naturalization of foreigners ; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new appropriations of lands.

He has obstructed the administration of justice, by refusing his assent to laws for establishing judiciary powers.

He has made judges dependent on his will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither swarms of offcers, to harass our people, and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies, without the consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the military independent of, and superior to, the civil power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitutions, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his assent to their acts of pretended legislation ;

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us :

For protecting them, by a mock trial, from punishment for any murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these states :

For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world :
For imposing taxes on us without our consent:
For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jury :
For transporting us beyond seas to be tried for pretended offences :
For abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighboring prov.

ince, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarging its boundaries, so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these colonies :

For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering, fundamentally, the forms of our governments :

For suspending our own legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection, and waging war against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is, at this time, transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to complete the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy, scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow-citizens, taken captive on the high seas, to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions.

In every stage of these oppressions we have petitioned for redress in the most humble terms: our repeated petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have we been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them, from time to time, of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and inagnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war, in peace friends.

We therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world, for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name and by the authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, FREE and INDEPENDENT STATES ; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown, and that all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved; and that, as free and independent states,

they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which independent states may of right do. And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor.

JOHN HANCOCK, &c.

SIGNERS OF THE ABOVE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.

Names.
Where and when born. Age in

Died.
1776.

age. Josiah Bartlett, N. Hampshire, 1729 47 May 19, 1795

66 William Whipple, N. H. Maine,

1730) 40 Nov. 28, 1785

55 Matthew Thornton, Ireland 1714 62 June 24, 1803

89 John Hancock, Massachusetts, 1737 39 Oct. 8, 1793

56 Samuel Adams,

Massachusetts,

Sept. 22, 1722 54 Oct. 2, 1803 81 John Adams, Ms. Massachusetts, Oct. 19, 1735 41 July 4, 1826

91 Robert Treat Paine, Massachusetts,

1731 45 May 11, 1814 83 Elbridge Gerry,

32 Massachusetts, July 17, 1744

70

Nov. 22, 1814
Stephen Hopkins, R. I.
Rhode Island, March 7, 1707 69

78

July 13, 1785
William Ellery,
Rhode Island, Dec. 22, 1727 49 Feb. 15, 1820

93 Roger Sherman,

Massachusetts, April 19, 1721 55 July 23, 1793
Samuel Huntington, Connecticut,

July 2, 1732 44 Jan. 5, 1796
Ct.
William Williams,

Connecticut,
April 8, 1731 45

81

Aug. 2, 1811
Oliver Wolcott,
Connecticut,

1726

50 Dec. 1, 1797 71 William Floyd,

Long Island, Dec. 17, 1734 42 Aug. 4, 1821 87 Philip Livingston, N. Y. New York,

60 Jan. 15, 1716

62

June 12, 1778
Francis Lewis,
South Wales,

90

1713 63 Dec. 30, 1803 Lewis Morris, New York, 1726 50 Jan.

72

1798 Richard Stockton,

New Jersey,
Oct.

51

1, 1730 46 Feb. 28, 1781 John Witherspoon,

72 Scotland,

Feb. 5, 1722 54 Nov. 15, 1794 Francis Hopkinson, N. J. Pennsylvania,

1737 39

54

May 8, 1791
John Hart,
New Jersey,

1780 Abraham Clark,

New Jersey,
Feb. 5, 1726

50

1794

68 Robert Morris,

England,

Jan.

1733 43 May 8, 1806 73 Benjamin Rush, Pennsylvania,

67 Dec. 24, 1745 31

April 19, 1812 Benjamin Franklin, Massachusetts, Jan. 17, 1706 70

84

April 17, 1790
John Morton,
Delaware,
1724 52

53

1777 George Clymer, Pa. Pennsylvania,

1739 37

74

Jan. 23, 1813
James Smith,
Ireland,

1806
George Taylor,
Ireland,
1716 60 Feb. 23, 1781

65 James Wilson, Scotland, 1742 34

56

Aug. 28, 1798
George Ross,
Delaware,
1730 46 July,

49

1779
Cæsar Rodney,
Delaware,

1730
46

1783

53 George Read, Del.

64 Maryland,

1734
42

1798
Thomas M‘Kean,
Pennsylvania,

83 Mar. 19, 1734

42 June 24, 1817 Samuel Chase, Maryland,

70 35

April 17, 1741 June 19, 1811 William Paca,

59 Maryland,

36

Oct. 31, 1740
Md.

1799
Thomas Stone,
Maryland,
1740

47 36

Oct. 5, 1787
Charles Carroll,
Maryland,

93 Sept. 8, 1737 39

Now living,
George Wythe,
Virginia,
1726 50

80

June 6, 1806
Richard H. Lee,

Virginia,
Jan. 20, 1732

44

June 19, 1794 Thomas Jefferson, Virginia,

83

April 2, 1743 33 July 4, 1826
Benjamin Harrison, } Va.
Virginia,

April,

1791 Thomas Nelson, Virginia, Dec. 26, 1738 38 Jan. 4, 1789

51 Francis L. Lee, Virginia,

63 Oct. 14, 1734

42 April,

1797 Carter Braxton, Virginia,

61

Sept. 10, 1736 40 Oct. 10, 1797
William Hooper,
Massachusetts, June 17, 1742 34

Oct.,

48

1790
Joseph Hewes,
N. C. New Jersey,

1730 46
Nov. 10, 1779

49 John Pean, Virginia, May 17, 1741 35

Sept.,

47

17881 Edward Rutledge, South Carolina, Nov. 1749

27

51

Jan. 23, 1800
Thomas Heyward, Ss. c.
South Carolina,
1746 30 March, 1809

63 Thomas Lynch, South Carolina, Aug. 5, 1749 27

About

31

1780 Arthur Middleton, South Carolina,

1743 33 Jan. 1, 1787 44 Button Gwinnett, England,

1732 44

45

May 27, 1777
Lyman Hall,
Geo. Connecticut,

1731 45
About 1790

69 George Walton, Virginia,

1740
36

64 Feb. 2, 1804

II. REVOLUTIONARY REGISTER.

FIRST CONTINENTAL ARMY, 1775.
Commander in chief.

State.

Date of Commission. GEORGE WASHINGTON,

Virginia,

June 15, 1775. Major Generals. State. Date of Comm. Major Generals. State. Date of Comm. Artemas Ward, Ms. June 17, 1775. Philip Schuyler, N. Y. June 19, 1775. Charles Lee,

Va. do. 17, 1775. Israel Putnam, Con. do. 19, 1775. Adjutant General.

State.

Date of Commission. Horatio Gates,

Virginia.

June 17, 1775. Brigadier Generals. State. Date of Comm. Brigadier Generals. State. Date of Comm. Seth Pomeroy,

Ms. June 22, 1775. Joseph Spencer, Con. June 22, 1775. Rich. Montgomery, N. Y. do. 22, 1775. John Thomas,

Ms.

do. 22, 1775. David Wooster, Con. do. 22. 1775. John Sullivan, N. H. do. 22, 1775. William Heath, Ms. do. 22, 1775. Nathaniel Greene, R. I. do. 22, 1775.

CONTINENTAL ARMY IN 1783.
Commander in Chief.

State.

Date of Commission. GEORGE WASHINGTON.

Virginia.

June 15, 1775. Major Generals. State. Date of Comm. | Major Generals. State. Date of Comm. Israel Putnam, Con. June 19, 1775. Robert Howe, N. C. Oct. 20, 1777. Horatio Gates, Va. May 16, 1776. Alex. McDougall, N. Y. do. 20, 1777. William Heath, Ms. Aug. 9, 1776. Baron Steuben, Pruss. May 5, 1773. Nathaniel Greene, R. I. do. 9, 1776. Wm. Smallwood, Md. Sept.15, 1780. Wm. Lord Stirling, N. J. Feb. 19, 1777. William Moultrie, S. C. Nov. 14, 1780. Arthur St. Clair, Penn. do. 19, 1777. Henry Knox, Ms. do. 15, 1780. Benjamin Lincoln, Ms. do. 19, 1777. Le Chev. du Portail, Fran. do. 16, 1780. M. de Lafayette, Fran. July 31, 1777.

Brigadier Generals. State. Date of Comm. Brigadier Generals. State. Date of Comm.
James Clinton, N. Y. Aug. 9, 1776. Jethro Sumner, N. C. Ján. 9, 1779.
Lachlan McIntosh, Geo. Sept.16, 1776. Isaac Huger, S. C. do. 9, 1779.
John Patterson, Ms. Feb. 21, 1777. Mordecai Gist, Md. do. 9, 1779.
Anthony Wayne, Penn.do. 1777. William Irvine, Penn. do. 9, 1779.
George Weeden, Va. do. 1777. Daniel Morgan, Va. Oct. 13, 1780.
P. Mublenburg,
do. do. 1777. Moses Hazen,

June 29, 1781. George Clinton, N. Y. Mar. 25,1777. C. H. Williams, Md. May 9, 1782. Edward Hand, Penn. April 1, 1777. John Greaton, Ms. Jan. 7, 1783. Charles Scott, Va. do. 2, 1777. Rufus Putnam, do. do. 7, 1783. Jed. Huntington, Con. May 12, 1777. Elias Dayton, N. J. do. 7, 1783. John Stark,

N. H. Oct. 4, 1777.
Major General Le Chevalier du Portail, Chief Engineer.
Major General Baron Steuben, Inspector General.
Colonel Walter Stewart, Inspector of the Northern Department.
Brigadier General Hand, Adjutant General.
Colonel Timothy Pickering, Quarter Master General.
John Cockran, Esq. Director General of Hospitals.
Thomas Edwards, Judge Advocate General
John Pierce, Esq. Paymaster General.

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A TABLE showing the Force that Each of the Thirteen States supplied

for the Regular Army from 1775 to 1783, inclusive. [From Niles's Register, July 31, 1330.] Regulars.

Regulars. New Hampshire, 12,497. Delaware,

2,396. Massachusetts, 67,907. Maryland,

13,912 Rhode Island, 5,908. | Virginia,

26,678. Connecticut, 31,939. | North Carolina,

7,263. New York, 17,781. South Carolina,

6,417. New Jersey, 10,726. Georgia,

2,679. Pennsylvania,

25,678.

Total 231,791. The total number of Continental Troops, according to the statement in the “ Collections of the New Hampshire Historical Society,” published in the first volume of this Almanac, was 231,971; Militia, 56,163.

Abstract of the Accounts of the respective States, for Expenses incurred

during the Revolutionary War, as allowed by the Commissioners who finally settled said Accounts.—[From Pitkin’s History of the U. States.]

Sums charged
Sums allowed

for advances by Expendi- Balances Balances

United States, tures ex- found due found due STATES. for Expendi

including the cluding all from the to the U. tures.

assumption of advances. U.States. States.

State debts.
New Hampshire, $4,279,015 02 $1,082,954 02 $3,195,061 $ 75,055
Massachusetts, 17,964,613 03 6,258,880 03 11,705,733 1,248,801
Rhode Island,

3,782,974 46 1,977,609 46 1,805,366 299,611 Connecticut,

9,285,737 92 3,436,244 92 5,829,493 619,121 New York, 7,179,982 78 1,960,031 78 5,219,951

2,074,846 New Jersey,

5,342,770 52 1,343,321 52 3,999,449 49,030 Pennsylvania, 14,137,076 22 4,690,686 22 9,446,390

76,709 Delaware, 839,319 99 229,898 98 609,421

612,428 Maryland, 7,568,145 38 1,592,631 38 5,975,514

151,640 Virginia, 19,085,981 51 416 51 15,282,865

100,879 North Carolina, 10,427,586 13 3,151,358 13 7,276,228

501,082 South Carolina, 11,523,299 29 5,780,264 29 5,743,035 1,205,978 Georgia,

2,993,800 861 1,415,329 56 1,578,472 19,988

Peyton Randolph,
Henry Middleton,*
Peyton Randolph,
John Hancock,
Henry Laurens,

III. PRESIDENTS OF CONGRESS

from 1774 to 1788.
From

Elected
Virginia,

September 5, 1774.
South Carolina, October 22, 1774.
Virginia,

10, 1775. Massachusetts, May 24, 1775. South Carolina, November 1, 1777.

May

* Mr. Randolph, five or six days before the adjournment of Congress, was prevented from attending by ill health, and Mr. Middleton was chosen to supply his place. When the next Congress met, May 10th, 1775, Peyton Randolph was again chosen president, but' being, on the 24th of the same month, obliged to return home, John Hancock was chosen to fill the vacancy.

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