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lower rate; in some branches a man enters the service at as low a rate as $600 per annum and gradually works up.

Mr. Dies. Some of the assistant postmasters in third-class post offices get as low as $360 ?


Mr. Diss. Salaries outside of Washington are in fact very much lower than inside Washington ?

Mr. RUSSELL. I assume you mean the smaller towns ?
Mr. DIES. Yes.

Mr. RUSSELL. I think you will find they run about the same in all the larger cities, although Congress has never attempted to fix a definite zone where the cost of living is supposed to be higher, and, in fact, I presume it would be extremely difficult to do so. Yet at the same time they have paid some attention to the locality wherein the salaries are fixed. For instance, take the city of New York. Congress has always fixed a higher salary in that city for most positions, beginning with the higher offices. I assume the cost of living enters into it as well as the responsibility of the office.

I do not suppose, Mr. Chairman, it is necessary to present any figures here as to how much the cost of living has increased, nor that it is necessary to submit any argument on the fact that the general average of government salaries is not any higher to-day than it was years ago. Take the last reclassification, the last general reclassification, and you will find the average was higher than it is to-day. The Government requires these employees to present to the world a respectable appearance and

Mr. DIEs. How is that? Mr. RUSSELL. To present to the world a respectable appearance. We have, of course, no such thing as a station in life in this country, but, at the same time, a man, in order to serve his Government, must present a neat appearance in dress. He is supposed to maintain a certain standard; it is demanded, not only by the Government but by himself, and I think if this committee could go into the figures as to the real cost they would see that there has been no great extravagance on the part of these employees.

I should like to submit, briefly, the figures I have compiled here for the period of one year for a family of three. I may say that this man was one of the higher paid employees of the Government, and his household was run upon an economical basis. This man receives more than twice the avérage salary paid Government employees, yet I think if you examine these figures you will find there has been no great extravagance shown. This man, I may say, lives in New York City. He receives a salary of $1,830 per annum. His rent in that city is $32 per month for five rooms. It he could live outside of the city, he doubtless could reduce that rent by perhaps $6, $7, or $8 a month; could rent the same space, I mean, for $25 per month, but owing to the nature of his duties he is compelled to reside in the city. He is compelled to report for duty at 7 o'clock in the morning and frequently works until 10, 11, or 12 at night.

Mr. SCOTT. In what department is he?

Mr. RUSSELL. In the Customs Service. The men in this service are called on to meet the arrival of vessels at night; vessels which dock as late as 10, 11, or 12 o'clock. They are on duty continuously sometimes 20 hours a day. They receive no overtime for it. They

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must be present at their place of employment at 7 o'clock in the morning. I explain it to show the rent

Mr. Scott. Have you any statistics to show how much time in labor that class of men put in ?

Mr. RUSSELL. I have not the complete figures, Mr. Scott. I can give you the figures of one man for one month, the month of September. The 1st day of September he went on duty at 7 o'clock in the morning and worked until 12.15 a. m. the following morning; 171 hours this day. Of course, it took him an hour in transit each way in addition.

Mr. Dies. How many hours?
Mr. RUSSELL. Seventeen and one-quarter hours.
Mr. Dies. You do not mean to say that is his regular employment?
Mr. RUSSELL. No, sir; this is during the busy baggage season.

I will read the following days.

Mr. SCOTT. But what does that mean?

Mr. RUSSELL. It means he reported for duty at 7 o'clock in the morning and was assigned to examine the baggage of passengers arriving on vessels and was kept continuously at that employment until the last vessel had arrived in that port that night and the last pasenger's baggage had been cleared. He was excused from duty at 12.15 the following morning. On the second day he worked 16 hours; was excused from duty at 11 that night. The third day he was excused at 11.30 p. m., 161 hours. The following day he only put in his regular hours of duty, 7 to 6 o'clock. The regular hours of duty for these men are from 7 o'clock in the morning until 6 at night. They work 11 hours a day. That is due to the demands of the importing public in New York. That might seem excessive in Government circles, but in New York, and in fact all the big ports in the country, the merchants must have their goods delivered from the steamships. These inspectors are compelled to remain on the piers and deliver the goods to the merchants.

Mr. DIES. What class of service is that?
Mr. RUSSELL. The inspectors of customs.
Mr. MORGAN. That is the appraisers, or
Mr. RUSSELL (interposing). Surveyor's office.
Mr. MORGAN. There are two lines of inspectors ?
Mr. RUSSELL. Three grades of inspectors.
Mr. MORGAN. Those of baggage and those of merchandise?

Mr. RUSSELL. No; I shall have to correct that impression. The same men examine the baggage who deliver the merchandise.

Mr. MORGAN. Off of vessels?

Mr. RUSSELL. Off of vessels. It is handled in this way, sir: Two men are assigned to a vessel to deliver the freight, see that the duty is secured upon that freight, and to obtain receipts from the merchants for the various articles delivered. When the cargo is principally delivered, one of those men is turned over to baggage duty, and he will be used on baggage until his partner finishes the freight delivery; so they are used interchangeably.

Mr. MORGAN. Do you mean to say that the men who inspect the baggage are the same class of inspectors that are on appraisement?

Mr. RUSSELL. Not the appraisers; they are the

Mr. MORGAN (interposing). I mean the inspectors; I am talking about one of them.

Mr. RUSSELL. I do, sir. They are merchandise inspectors.
The CHAIRMAN. Men who labor from 7 to 6, 11 hours ?
Mr. RUSSELL. That is correct.
The CHAIRMAN. It is an outrage, if true.

Mr. MORGAN. Why do the men that are inspecting baggage want to be transferred to the appraiser's inspectors ?

Mr. RUSSELL. I do not think you have the distinction quite clear, unless I misunderstand the nature of your question. The appraiser has men upon the dock known as examiners. These men are divided into two classes--merchandise examiners and baggage examiners. The baggage examiners of the appraiser do nothing but baggage, but when you get into the inspector's force they are interchangeable. The inspectors of merchandise are the inspectors of baggage. There is no such distinction made in the inspector's force as is made in the appraiser's.

Mr. MORGAN. The men who inspect the baggage continually want to get over into the merchandise force ?

Mr. RUSSELL. It gives them shorter hours of labor, if they get into the appraiser's force.

Mr. MORGAN. And more pay?
Mr. RUSSELL. And more pay.
Mr. MORGAN. But they are not the same class of inspectors?

Mr. RUSSELL. I don't think that you quite understand the distinction between inspectors and examiners.

Mr. MORGAN. I think that you have been misinformed as to the duties of the appraiser's inspectors?

Mr. RUSSELL. I served on that force three or four years; that is, the inspector's force.

Mr. MORGAN. All I know is what I was told.

Mr. RUSSELL. I was president of an association of that sort (of inspectors) about three years, and I served my apprenticeship as an inspector. I have been compelled to work one day on baggage and the next day on merchandise. These men want to get inside so that they may get the shorter hours—74 or 8 hours a day, instead of, as in the case of the man I refer to, 174 total hours, 16 hours, 161, 11, 161, 11, 151, 111, 131, 121, 151, 153, 111, 13, 151, 11, 13, 141, 11, and 124. Those were his hours of labor for a period of 20 days without extra compensation.

Mr. LOBECK. What is his salary?
Mr. RUSSELL. His salary was $1,460 per annum. Out of that

. $1,460 he paid car fare. When they sent him back and forth across the river from New York to Hoboken or to Jersey City to examine baggage he paid his own car fare. When they held him there at night to examine baggage he bought his own meal. There are three grades—one getting $1,460, another $1,825, and another $2,190, the lower grades predominating:

Mr. Diss. Is there any difference in the length of service ?

Mr. RUSSELL. Yes; the salaries were fixed with reference to the length of service in theory at least). The case I am citing is that

( of a man in the middle grade, viz, $1,825.

Mr. RUSSELL. His rent was $393.15 per annum; his meat bill was $99.

Mr. DIEs. His meat bill was how much?

Mr. RUSSELL. It was $99.33, a little over $8 per month, or $2 per week; his grocery bill was $110.44 per annum; his baker's bill was $20.91; his butter bill was $27.94, $2 and something per month; his egg bill was $44.59, almost $4 per month; his milk bill was $33.83 per annum. This is for a family of three.

Mr. Dies. He paid how much for those eggs per dozen ?
Mr. RUSSELL. If you have ever bought eggs in New York

New York you know how expensive they are.

Mr. Dies. I have bought and sold them, too.

Mr. RUSSELL. You know, then, what you have to pay for eggs50 and 60 cents per dozen in the winter months, though they run down•to 33, 35, and 37 cents.

Mr. Dies. You say $40 for eggs?

Mr. RUSSELL. $40 for eggs; that amounts to $3 and something, $3.50 per month, we will say, for eggs; that appears at first glance to be somewhat excessive, but let us examine into the matter a little more closely. It amounts to 80 and some odd cents a week for about a dozen and a half eggs for a family of three.

I submit these figures to show you the actual cost of living, and I think you will agree this is not particularly extravagant.

This man's vegetable bill was $26.61 per annum; that is $2 and something per month.

His fruit bill was $36.61 per annum, or about $3 per month, or 75 cents per week, or 101 cents per day. I may say that he used fruit in lieu of desserts.

His ice bill was $18.10 per annum, and that averages about a nickel a day. You can not buy a 5-cent block of ice in New York. You are compelled to buy a 10-cent piece, or you do not buy at all. For medicines his bill was $24.12 per annum, or $2 per month; his laundry bill was $59.79 per annum, or $5 per month or $1.25 per week. For household furnishing it was $16.90 per annum, or a little more than $1 per month-that is, for kitchen utensils and things of that sort. For fuel and light his bill was $35.44 or $3 per month; car fare $61.21 per annum or $5 per month, which is an average of something less than 20 cents per diem; extra meals $68.64. The doctor s bill in this instance was excessive, as there happened to be an operation for appendicitis in this man's family. Mr. Dies. How much was that?

Mr. RUSSELL. $298.50 that year, which was largely accounted for by the operation for appendicitis. That can not be figured as an average. * His clothing bill was $371.60 per annum, which is perhaps is a little excessive for employees getting a smaller rate or the average rate of pay. His insurance was $171.84 per annum. For amusements there was an expense of $30.92 or $2.50 per month; miscellaneous expenditures, that could not be analyzed, covering dues to associations, etc., and charity, amounting to $85.09 per annum; books $54.40 per annum.

Then there was an extra expenditure of $32.20 entailed by the operation for appendicitis-this was expended for servant hire, as the operation was performed at home.

These figures total an amount in excess of that man's salary. Of course, he was in this position because of the unusual doctor bill that was paid. This is the case of a man getting $1,825 per annum.

Mr. Dies. What is the total expenditure ?

Mr. RUSSELL. $2,124.12.
Mr. DIES. And his salary is how much?
Mr. RUSSELL. $1,825.
Mr. DIES. Where did he get the other $300 ?

Mr. RUSSELL. He went into debt. I give you these figures of a high-salaried man. How those employees at $1,100 and $1,200 per annum in the big cities, who have been getting this salary for a long time, make both ends meet is a problem.

Mr. DIES. A man may sit down and figure out what a man will spend, and the result will be that some will spend more and some will spend less. It would hardly be fair to state that every man pays $171.84 for insurance.

Mr. RUSSELL. That represents savings during the course of the year.

. Mr. Dies. Nor that every man buys $50 worth of books when he is located in a city which has public libraries.

Mr. Scott. Did you not notice that there were in that enumeration none of those items for which men usually spend money? There is no tobacco, and there are no moving-picture shows.

Mr. DIES. How much for education ?

Mr. RUSSELL. That was included in the item of books. Education is in the public schools, and you could not figure in that charge.

The CHAIRMAN. And there was an item of $300 for clothing ?

Mr. RUSSELL. An expenditure of more than $300 for clothing, and that is excessive, perhaps.

The CHAIRMAN. Is it not possible to arrange uniform hours in the work of those customs inspectors?

Mr. RUSSELL. It is impossible to arrange it, Mr. Chairman. Those vessels begin arriving at 7 o'clock in the morning, and discharge all the way from 100 to 1,000, yes, 1,200 and 1,400 cabin passengers, and these inspectors must meet those vessels when they come in. The vessels may be delayed by a fog or delayed by breakdowns, and may arrive as late as 8 or 9 or 10 or 11 o'clock at night.

The CHAIRMAN. Why do they not work in relays?
Mr. RUSSELL. They could not arrange it that way.

You may get 2,000 or 3,000 passengers at 8 o'clock at night, and if you divide your force into relays they would not be able to meet the emergency.

Mr. Dies. Heretofore you have worked the pension out on the basis for the employees in the city of Washington, but do I understand that this bill takes in the entire civil-service employees of the Government?

Mr. RUSSELL. It takes in the entire number of civil-service employees in all branches of the Government.

Mr. Dies. Does it take in rural letter carriers and city carriers ?
Mr. RUSSELL. It does, sir.
Mr. Dies. In all, 300,000 or 400,000 civil-service employees?
Mr. RUSSELL. It takes them all in.
Mr. Dies. What did you say the expense under this bill would be?

Mr. RUSSELL. The bill you have in your hand is the bill we caused to be introduced in behalf of the New York association, a copy of which I will leave for the committee-this is a bill to be introduced by Mr. George, of New York. The CHAIRMAN. Do you want to print that in the record ? Mr. RUSSELL. I would like to.

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