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“A great calamity visited the city of New ency. It has even been opposed to proper preceWestminster in the disastrous conflagration in dent to affect pending litigation, and therefore September last. But the energies and courage be it resolved that interference with the trial of of her citizens rose to the emergency, and, en- an election petition, and the staying of the trial couraged by the sympathy and material assist- thereof, is wrong in principle and unwarrantedly ance of the people of all parts of Canada, they trespasses upon the functions of the court, and put forth such efforts as have already caused the is a matter that ought not to be dealt with by city to rise from its ashes. You will be asked to any bill." pass legislation to put the civic finances on such T he amendment was, however, defeated on a a stable basis as will maintain the high reputa party division of 19 to 13. The election-petition tion of the royal city.

bill was eventually passed, and then one of the “ With a view to remove existing inequalities most important measures of the session was dealt in the present system of taxation, measures will with-the alien mining law. The terms of the be submitted to you for the remission of that bill were as follow: part of the tax on personal property commonly “l. The act may be cited as the placer minknown as the mortgage tax, and for the repeal ing act amendment act, 1899.' of the law requiring men working in mines for * 2. Section 3 of chapter 136 of the Revised Statwages to hold a free miner's certificate.

utes is hereby repealed, and the following sub"Realizing the advantages to be derived from stituted therefor: an absolute security in the titles to land and “3. (1) Every person who is not less than from an easy and inexpensive system of trans eighteen years of age and is a British subject fers of real-estate titles, my Government will lay shall be entitled to all the rights and privileges before you a bill to introduce into this province of a free miner under this act, and shall be conwhat is known as the Torrens system of regis- sidered a free miner under this act upon taking tration, under such arrangements as will make out a free miner's certificate, as long as such cerits adoption both convenient and advantageous tificate remains in force. A free miner's certifito the owners of the property.

cate shall not be transferable. (2) No joint-stock “In order to open up the public domain for company or corporation shall be entitled to take settlement, while securing to the province the out a free miner's certificate under this act unfull benefit which it should derive from such a less the same has been incorporated, and not valuable asset, you will be asked to sanction cer- simply licensed or registered under the laws of tain changes in the land act.

this province; and unless such company or cor." For the better protection of miners in coal poration is authorized to take out a miner's cermines, a bill will be laid before you prohibiting tificate by the Lieutenant Governor in Council, the employment underground of Japanese in these such authorization may at any time be canmines.

celed, and in case of such cancelation such com“ You will also be asked to consider a meas- pany or corporation shall not be entitled to take ure designed to afford to prospectors on lands out a free miner's certificate under this act, but within the boundaries of the grants to railway any free miner's certificate now in force shall companies the same freedom to prospect for the remain in force until its expiry. The word 'perprecious metals as is accorded to them on Crown son’ in this section shall include only such comlands.

panies or corporations aforesaid. (3) A miner's “My Government has given much considera- certificate taken out by any person not authortion to the present financial position of the prov- ized so to do by this section shall be null and ince, and to the means by which important public void. (4) This section shall not affect free miners' works can be carried out without imposing undue certificates issued before the coming into force burdens on the taxpayers; and you will be asked of this section; and in case any person or corto pass legislation to provide for the deficit in poration not allowed under this section to take the revenue for the last two years, and for obliga- out a miner's certificate has, prior to the coming tions incurred under the authority of acts als into force of this section, acquired any interest ready on the statute books. Also to authorize in any claim under the provisions of the 'placer certain changes in the methods of dealing with mining act,' such license may be renewed from the provincial debt and in the management of time to time, but such renewed certificate shall the finances, whereby it is anticipated that both not entitle the holder thereof to hold or acquire the credit of the province will be enhanced and any interesi in any claim under the said . placer important economies be effected."

mining act,' except such interest so acquired prior · Mr. Thomas Forster, who had been for eight to the coming into force of this section. (5) No years a member of the Assembly, was elected free miner, after the coming into force of this Speaker. In view of the closeness of the vote, section, shall hold any claim under said 'placer as between the Semlin ministry and possible Op- mining act,' or any interest therein, as trustee position combinations, interest centered early in or otherwise, for any person who is not a British the session upon the vacating of certain seats subject or for any corporation not authorized to through the trial of election petitions. The Gov- take out a free miner's certificate as above proernment met the difficulty by introducing a bill vided.” to the effect that no petition should be tried The measure was duly passed, and it created during the current session, and that one member consternation among the American miners in the in particular should be free to sit in the House province, and was the cause of vigorous protests for a defined period. There could be no doubt addressed to the governments at Ottawa, Washas to its unprecedented nature, and the Opposi- ington, and London. tion at once proposed the following amendment: The House sat for thirty-seven working days

“ That legislation in the direction of staying altogether, and on the thirty-eighth day the the course of the administration of justice is Lieutenant Governor came down to the House vicious in principle and is subversive of law and and assented to 101 bills, which, including the order and good government, and is calculated to four previously so dealt with, made 105 bills in bring the administration of justice into disrepute thirty-seven days. and make the courts of law mere mandatories One of the important measures was the act to of the political power that may be in the ascend- provide for the settlement of disputes as to mining claims in the Bennett lake and Atlin lake The clause of the old act referring to reserves mining divisions. On account of uncertainty as was amended so that the Lieutenant Governor in to the boundary between British Columbia and Council may at any time, by published notice the Northwest Territories, and on account of the signed by the Chief Commissioner of Lands and manner in which the recorder's office in the Ben Works, reserve any lands not lawfully held by nett lake and Atlin lake mining division was pre-emption, purchase, lease, or Crown grant for conducted under the late Government, disputes the purpose of conveying them to the Dominion had arisen as to the ownership of placer mining Government in trust, for the use and benefit of claims in those mining divisions. It was desir- the Indians, and may also similarly reserve any able that such disputes should be settled in a such lands for railway purposes or for such other summary and inexpensive manner, and therefore purposes as may be deemed advisable. the Government introduced the “ Bennett-Atlin. The first session of the Eighth Parliament adcommission act, 1899."

journed on March 2, after the following bills, Another important act, introduced by the Chief among others, had been assented to in the Queen's Commissioner of Lands and Works, provided for name: construction of roads and imposing tolls for the To amend the police and prisons regulation act. use of them. It is cited as the " development To reduce the number of grand jurors. toll roads act, 1899," and under it the Lieuten To incorporate several railway companies. ant Governor in Council may, out of moneys bor Respecting the registration of real property. rowed for that purpose, construct public roads To amend the small debts act. in any part of the province, to be known as de To amend the master and servant act. velopment toll roads.

To amend the provincial elections act. Another, and a very much needed change, was To incorporate the Chartered Commercial Comthe amendment to the land act, which sought to pany of Vancouver. prevent speculators from getting hold of valu. To incorporate the Big Bend Transportation able portions of the province. The “land act Company, Limited. amendment act, 1899," provides among other To amend the escheats act, 1898. things that every person desiring to purchase un To amend the Constitution act. surveyed, unoccupied, and unpreserved Crown Respecting the Department of Mines. lands shall place at one angle or corner of the Respecting the Department of Lands and land to be applied for a stake or post, to be Works. known as the initial post, and upon such initial To extend the rights of the Crown to prospect post he shall inscribe his name and the angle for minerals on railway lands to all free miners. represented thereby. The applicant shall give Respecting liquor licenses. one month's notice of his intended application To amend the succession-duty act. to purchase by a notice inserted, at the expense To amend the assessment act. of the applicant, in the British Columbia Ga- To amend the revenue-tax act. zette and in any newspaper circulating in the dis To amend the inspection of metalliferous mines trict wherein such land lies. Such notice shall act. not include a greater area than 640 acres, and To amend the mineral act. shall be dated, and state the name of the appli- An act to provide for the settlement of disputes cant, the locality, boundaries, and extent of the as to mining claims in the Bennett lake and Atlin land applied for, and shall be posted in a con lake mining divisions. spicuous place on the land sought to be acquired To amend the liquor traffic regulation act. and in the Government office, if any, in the dis To amend further the placer-mining act. trict. The applicant shall also forthwith make To borrow $2,800,000 for certain purposes. an application (in duplicate) to the Chief Com To amend the farmers'-institutes and co-operamissioner of Lands and Works to purchase the tion act. said land, and in such application shall describe, In February a most complicated controversy as accurately as possible, the location of the land, took place as to jurisdiction between the proespecially with reference to any rivers, streams, vincial Government and the city of Vancouver, in lakes, or other waters, and the applicant shall connection with the leasing by the first named of also state the purpose for which he requires the Deadman's island, in Vancouver harbor, to an land.

American manufacturer for sawmill purposes. It shall be the duty of the surveyor to classify The policy of the matter was also bitterly dethe lands so surveyed as timber lands, first-class, nounced in the city. During the same month second-class, or third-class lands, and he shall the hottest by-election contest ever held in Vicmake full and accurate field notes of his survey, toria resulted in the return of the late Premier, and upon completion of the survey shall file the J. II. Turner, and two supporters. About the notes and a report of his survey in the office of same time the correspondence between the Govthe Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works, ac- ernment and Messrs. Mackenzie and Mann, recompanied by a statutory declaration verifying fusing to carry out a contract authorized by the the notes, and showing the area of first-class, late Government for the construction of the Pensecond-class, or third-class lands embraced in ticton Railway, caused much angry comment and such survey; and such declaration shall also state controversy. whether in his opinion any of said land, and if Late in June Joseph Martin, the Attorney-Genso what, is likely to be required for the purpose eral, spoke at a banquet in Rossland, and used of a town site or fishing station, and whether language so gross as to be only excusable from the granting of such land, or any of it, would a cause which he did not advance. It appears prevent or hamper the development of any ad. to have been the culmination of a series of cirjoining natural resources. The minimum price cumstances which made it impossible for him to for the first-class lands shall be $5 an acre; that remain longer in the ministry, and on July 3 Mr. of second-class lands $2.50 an acre; and that of Semlin requested his resignation, which, after prothe third-class lands $1 an acre. Provided, how- test and a sustained effort to hold his place, even ever, that the Chief Commissioner may for any by upsetting the Government and trying to form reason increase the price of any lands above these a new one, was finally given, and he was replaced prices.

as Attorney-General by Alexander Henderson. Mr. Martin's influence was dependent upon the sudden growth peculiar to mining regions has labor vote, and this he continued to hold. From assumed a more permanent and substantial as. the time of his retirement he devoted himself to pect. With the best modern appliances for conforining new combinations against the ministry, struction work, the cost of the Crow's Nest Pass and at the end of the year Mr. Semlin was hold. Railway has reached, according to reliable stateing office by a very slight thread.

ments, $28,000 a mile. In addition to these outRevenue and Expenditure.—The income of lays, the Canadian Pacific Railway Company has the province for the year ending June 30, 1899, built wharves at Nelson and at the railway termiwas $1,434,525. The principal items were: Do- nus at the foot of Kootenay Lake. They have minion of Canada, railway lands, $100,000; land also established a steamer and barge service besales, $104,180; free miners' certificates, $139,756; tween these points, thus filling in the gap in the mining receipts general, $159,432; real-property new route from the east into the mining districts tax, $109,367; personal-property tax, $112,160; of southern British Columbia. revenue tax, $84,555; mineral tax, $36,061; regis. Provincial Timber.—Mr. R. J. Skinner, Timtry fees, $63,093; “ Chinese restriction act, 1884," ber Inspector, in his annual report shows that $29,900. The expenditures amounted to $1,764, the timber and cord wood cut on Crown lands 873.81, the principal items being: Public debt, during the eleven months ending Nov. 30, 1898, $362,330.31; "civil government (salaries), $176, and not including that from Dominion lands and 662, administration of justice (salaries), $134, Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway lands, was 70,838; legislation, $34,525; public institutions 755,866 feet; on timber leaseholds, 42,192,178; (maintenance), $111,610; hospitals and charities, total, 112,948,044 feet, on which $56,473.83 was $50,700; administration of justice (other than paid in royalty. On private property, not subsalaries), $112,600; education, $304,560; public ject to royalty, the cut was 11,598,614 feet, makworks, $335,698.50.

ing the grand total cut 124,546,658. The estiThe Speaker's salary was reduced from $1,500 mated amount of royalty to be allowed for reand sessional allowance to $1,000. The hospitals bate on exportation was $18,775.54. The net roy. were placed on a different basis. Each will re- alty on timber then would be $37,698.29; to which ceive $500 a year and 50 cents a day for each must be added $11,883.6l, royalty collected on patient treated. For the protection of works on cord wood, making the total net royalty $19,Columbia river at Revelstoke $40,000 was put 581.90. Add to this rental accruing from timber down; for the courthouse at New Westminster, leases in 1898, $46,012.29; special licenses (86 at $30,000; for the courthouse at Victoria (altera- $50), $4,300; and general licenses, $6,210, and the tions), $12,000; for Government buildings at total net revenue from timber sources is seen Atlin and other places in North Cassiar, $10,000. to be $106,104.29. The Superintendent of Education, who formerlyLand Returns.—The total number of prereceived $2,400 per annum, was cut down to emption records issued in 1898 was 467, against $1,800 this year, and instead of four inspectors 462 in 1897; certificates of improvement, 144, three only were provided for. Provision was against 204; certificates of purchase, 765, against made for the salary of a minister of mines at 977: Crown grants, 951, against 766; the total $4,000, and of the deputy minister of mines at acreage deeded was 371,394, against 609,597 in $150 a month. These were new officers. For a 1897; while 9,126 letters were received by the provincial exhibit at the Paris Exposition $15,000 department, against 8,034 in the previous year. was set apart. On the Cariboo trunk road $24,000 Conservative Platform.–For the first time is to be expended. The capitation grant to the in the history of the province it has been decided cities of the province for education was as fol. to conduct elections on straight party lines, and lows: Victoria, $21,500; Vancouver, $23,500; New the following is a summary of the Conservative Westminster, $7,000; and Nanaimo, $8,000. platform as adopted at a large convention in New

Railways.-Large sums were spent in railway Westminster, Oct. 6, 1899: Approval of the princonstruction in 1898_'99. It is understood that ciple of the eight-hour law; state ownership of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company has spent railways; revision of voters lists; aid in the more than $9,000,000 in building the Crow's Nest construction of trails; official inspection of hoistPass Railway from Fort MacLeod to Kootenay ing gear; to improve the administration of juslake. This outlay, $6,000,000 in excess of the tice; to provide an effective system for settlement Government subsidy, has been in a great measure of disputes between capital and labor; to aid in local. The procuring of ties, piles, and timber agricultural development; to have the fisheries and the cutting of rock and other extensive controlled by the province; to make the London works inseparable from railway construction in agency of British Columbia effective; that indimountainous districts have caused expenditures gent laborers be discouraged from seeking work materially beneficial to the entire province and in British Columbia ; that servant girls be enwestern territories. The settlers in Alberta and couraged to immigrate to British Columbia; that adjacent territories found for the first time a mining be actively aided; that medical men and continuous demand for all the garden and dairy hospitals be aided in the interior; that the sysproduce they could bring to market, and the tem of education be improved. ranchers found local sale for a large quantity of Salmon Canning.-There was a large falling cattle for slaughter. The demand for supplies off in the salmon pack in 1898. Irksome and frewas felt as far as the coast cities, and added quently changing fishery regulations, coupled materially to the boom that came with the Klon- with the enforcement of the collection of duty dike migration,

on fish from United States waters, were detriThe Boundary Creek Railway is another ex- mental to the fisheries in British Columbia, while tensive work now under way, and it is estimated these difficulties acted as a stimulus to the inthat the cost of the main line and its branches to dustry on Puget Sound, where last year the pack the mines will exceed $4,500,000. The building of was double that of Fraser river. Still keener this line along the Boundary creek and Kettle competition is feared from this quarter in future, river valley has been undertaken without sub- owing to the easier conditions prevailing, the sidy or other public aid. Along the line of con- large amount of fresh capital recently invested, struction the mining towns have felt the stimu- and the activity and forethought of the state fishlating effect of these large expenditures, and the eries authorities in propagating salmon. During the season of 1898 only 443,085 cases of salmon these nationalities. The Imperial Government re(approximately) were put up, against 1,015,477 quested the Dominion Government to veto these cases during 1897, by the British Columbia can- measures out of consideration for the friendly neries. The duty on fish caught on the Ameri- relations which it was desired to have with can side in traps (one half cent a pound) was Japan, though it was intimated that no objecenforced during the season, and led to large busi- tion would be offered to similar legislation affectness being done in salmon canning on Pugeting the Chinese alone. Of course there was a Sound, where the catch was 244,700 cases.

storm in labor circles in British Columbia, and Shipping.-The Canadian Pacific Railway the Government at first threatened to pass the steamers to the Orient continued to carry full legislation again. But in July Sir Wilfrid Laucargoes, and the Australian outgoing traffic in- rier gave in Ottawa a fair explanation of the creased largely. Shipping on the coast during whole matter, which it was generally felt must the first part of 1898 was very lively, but after prevail. He described the difference between the ward became dull. This, of course, was due to two nationalities, and closed with the following the time that Klondikers selected for going into words: “ It will not do for us as British subjects that country. During the season steamers left only to sing 'God save the Queen,' and boast our almost every day for the Yukon ports. Deep-sea British connection at banquets and celebrations; ressels other than the regular mail steamers were we must also be prepared to make some sacri. few in 1898 compared with other years, owing fices. I know I do not in this Chamber utter largely to the smallness of the salmon catch. sentiments which are mine alone when I say all

Agriculture. --The importance of this interest should be prepared and ready to make every continued to advance with the larger home mar- sacrifice which our imperial connection may dekets growing up in the mining and coast towns mand at our hands. If we are to share the glory of the province. The area of land under culti- and participate in the advantages, we must also vation has increased considerably, and in hops, assume the duties, and be ready for them. These fruit growing, and general farming there has been are the reasons which have actuated the Governmaterial progress. The dairy industry, with the ment in relation to this question." improved methods recently introduced, has be- The Chinese labor question is one of the great come quite important, and a good market is problems of the province, and the feeling is very found for all the butter and cheese produced. Cat strong. The position may therefore be briefly tle raising, from the improved prices prevailing, defined. At the census of 1881, the year in which is increasing, and a ready market within the taxation was first imposed on Chinese landing in province readily absorbs all produce placed upon the province, the Chinese population amounted it, besides a large import of mutton from Aus- to 5,004 persons, which fell to 4,542 in 1886, and tralia. Tobacco has been grown with marked further to 4,444 in 1891. In April, 1896, the local success in Okanagan valley."

.census revealed a further fall to 3,711. During Mines and Minerals.-The Rossland Miner, the period 1881 to 1896 the poll tax was $50 a in a review of the local work in 1898, says that head; and this seemed sufficient for the purpose the year had seen the installation of the heaviest of preventing a large influx of the Chinese, except machinery ever operated in British Columbia: for the circumstance that in 1894 and 1895 the ** The period has passed when small temporary arrivals shown by the customs returns were plants would suffice in operating the mines here, found to have been somewhat more than the and immense works are being erected. In point departures. In 1896 the Chinese immigrants act of size, the new electrical hoist and gallows frame amendment act raised the poll tax to $500, and at the War Eagle is the largest. It will cost, limited the number of Chinese passengers that complete, $80,000. The Mascot has a new elec- may be carried by vessels to one for every 200 trical compressor of seven-drill capacity. The tons burden. This act was to remain in force Deer Park has put in a seven-drill compressor only until the Asiatic restriction act, 1896, which costing $10,000." The No. 1 has been equipped was reserved for her Majesty's assent, and was with a hoist and an outfit costing $5,000, while afterward vetoed, should come into operation. the Great Western has been similarly equipped. In 1896 the amount paid by the Chinese as poll The Nickel Plate has been provided with a com- tax was $6,350, and in 1897 the sum was $1,200. pressor costing $12,000. The Velvet is contract. Miscellaneous.—The burning of New Westing for a complete new power outfit that will cost minster evoked wide sympathy, and more than $5,000, and the Umatilla group on Sophia moun $50,000 came to the relief fund. The city was tain is putting in power. The Le Roi and the soon rebuilt, although the losses, after deducting Center Star have each put in complete new hoist. insurance, were nearly half a million dollars. In ing plants. The heavy machinery either erected May it seemed as if the Pacific cable scheme, in or contracted for in the past year amounts in which the province naturally took great interest, value to $150,000. Exactly 1,033 men are em- was in danger of falling through, and the minployed in 28 of the more important properties istry promptly made an offer in behalf of British over Rossland camp. Other properties will em: Columbia to bear one ninth of the entire cost. ploy about 200 men more, which will make the The arrangement was ultimately completed. mining pay roll of the camp 1,200 men. On the BULGARIA, a principality in eastern Euaverage of $100 a month, the mines disburse $120,- rope under the suzerainty of Turkey, formerly 000 every pay day, or $1,440,000 a year. The in a Turkish province. It was created an autonocrease in the pay roll in the past year has been mous tributary principality by the Treaty of nearly 100 per cent."

Berlin, signed July 13, 1878. Eastern Roumelia, In 1898 the value of British Columbia': pro- created an autonomous province under a govduction of coal was $3,407,595; of gold, $2,939,- ernor general nominated by the Sultan, rebelled 852; of silver, $3,272,289.

in 1885 and proclaimed its union with Bulgaria, Chinese-Japanese Legislation.-In 1897 the which was virtually sanctioned by the Sultan Turner Government passed a measure prohibiting when, after a conference of representatives of immigration of Japanese or Chinese into the the signatory powers, he issued a firman on province, and in February, 1899, the Semlin Gov. April 6, 1886, confiding the administration to the ernment passed 14 bills granting company char- Prince of Bulgaria, and appointing him Governor ters that expressly excluded laborers of either of General.

The legislative power is vested in the Sobranje, who are physically incapable of bearing arms a a single Chamber containing 157 members, i to military tax is levied. Out of 40,000 young men every 20,000 inhabitants, elected for five years called up annually about 16,000 are drawn by by manhood suffrage. A Great Sobranje of 300 lot for active service. The nominal strength of members, specially elected, is summoned when the army in 1898 was 2,500 officers and 40,555 an amendment of the Constitution, the succes- men, with 7,400 horses. The war effective is sion to the throne, the appointment of a regency, 126,970 men, with 23,432 horses and 312 guns. or the cession or annexation of territory is in The infantry weapon is the Mannlicher repeating question.

rifle of 8 millimetres bore. The artillery is armed The reigning Prince is Ferdinand, Duke of with Krupp and Creuzot guns. Saxony, the youngest son of Prince August of Commerce and Production.—The chief artiSaxe-Coburg-Gotha and of Princess Clementine cle of export is wheat. Other exports are live of Bourbon-Orleans, daughter of Louis Philippe, animals, woolen cloth,attar of roses, skins, cheese, King of the French. He was elected by the Great eggs, silk cocoons, timber, and tobacco. The Sobranje on July 7, 1887, after the deposition imports are textiles, metal goods, machinery, of Prince Alexander of Battenberg, and was final groceries, petroleum, paper, coal, salt, and fish. ly recognized by the signatory powers in March, The total value of the imports in 1897 was 83,1896. The heir to the throne is Boris, born Jan. 994,236 lei, or francs, against 76,530,278 lei in 30, 1894, son of Prince Ferdinand and Princess 1896; of the exports, 83,994,236 lei against 108,Marie Louise of Bourbon, daughter of Robert, 739,977 lei. The distribution of the commerce in Duke of Parma. Prince Boris was baptized a 1897 is shown in the following table, giving values Roman Catholic, but on Feb. 14, 1896, was re- in francs, or lei: ceived into the Greek Orthodox Church. The Cabinet of ministers in the beginning of 1899,



Exporta. first constituted on Sept. 7, 1897, was composed as follows: President of the Council and Min Great Britain ..

23,077,913 17,293,824 ister of Foreign Affairs and of Worship, Dr. C.

Austria .........

21,614,362 3,600,351 Turkey .....

9,488.518 10,935, 194 Stoiloff ; Minister of Finance, Theodor Theodo


10,623,657 7.784,811 roff; Minister of Justice, G. Zgureff; Minister of France......

4,117.603 8,505.413 the Interior, N. Beneff; Minister of Public In Belgium ..

2,367,679 5,128,891 Russia ....

4,209,018 struction, Ivan Vazoff; Minister of War, Col. N.

74.684 Italy ......

3,158,751 753.691 Ivanoff'; Minister of Public Works and Ways Roumania ...


365,898 and Communications, J. Madjaroff; Minister of Greece.......

468,086 1,042.851 Servia .......


256,351 Commerce and Agriculture, C. Velitchoff.



7.000 Area and Population.-The area of Bulgaria United States.....


17,854 proper is 24,380 square miles, and that of East. Other countries.....

281,274 4,024,198 ern Roumelia, or South Bulgaria, is 13,700 square miles. The population of South Bulgaria at the

Total ...............

..... 83,994,236 | 59,790,511 census of Jan. 1, 1893, was 998,431; that of the whole of Bulgaria was 3,310,713, comprising N avigation.-During 1897 there were 8,306 2,504,336 Bulgars, 569,728 Turks, 62,628 Rou- vessels entered at Bulgarian ports, of 2,432,282 manians, 58,58 Greeks, 52,132 gypsies, 27,531 tons, and 8,298 cleared, of 2,434,875 tons. Spanish-speaking Jews, 16,290 Tartars, 6,445 Ar- Railroads, Posts, and Telegraphs. The menians, 3,620 Austrians and Germans, 1,221 length of railroads open for traffic in 1898 was Albanians, 928 Russians, 905 Bohemians, 818 612 miles, and 457 miles were building. Serbs, 803 Italians, and 3,820 of other nationali. The post office forwarded 18,783,017 pieces of ties. Sofia, the capital city, has 46,593 inhabit- mail matter during 1897. The state telegraph ants; Philippopolis, the capital of Eastern Rou- lines had a total length of 3,250 miles, with 6,910 melia, 41,068. The number of marriages in 1895 miles of wire. The length of telephone wire was was 31,230; of births, 138,338; of deaths, 90,210; 1,028 miles. The number of telegraphic disexcess of births, 48,128.

patches sent during 1897 was 2,316,826. The Finances.-The revenue was estimated for receipts from the post office and telegraphs were 1898 at 84,445,713 francs, and expenditure at 3,013,003 francs; expenses, 3,352,259 francs. 84,487,975 francs. For 1899 the direct taxes were Political Events.-Differences between Prince expected to yield 33,836,000 francs, and indirect Ferdinand and his ministers concerning the railtaxes 32,451,000 francs. The estimated require- road and financial policy of the Government led ments for the public debt were 20,934,146 francs; to the resignation of M. Stoiloff and his colfor the army, 22,623,224 francs; for the interior, leagues on Jan. 28, 1899. M. Grekoff was in7,860,501 francs; for instruction, 7,548,555 francs; trusted with the formation of a coalition minisfor public works, 6,731,693 francs.

try, which he accomplished on Jan. 31, after his The public debt consists of a loan of 41,290,000 first negotiations with M. Radoslavoff led to francs for the purchase of the Varna and Rust nothing, and M. Stoiloff had declined to underchuk Railroad effected in 1888, 26,975,000 francs take to reconstitute the Cabinet, and M. Radoof the loan of 1889, and 98,825,000 francs bor- slavoff had failed to get one together independrowed under the loan act of 1892, besides 9,699,- ently. Finally, M. Radoslavoff consented to take 256 francs of the Russian occupation debt and office under M. Grekoff with three of his follow5,826,875 francs due to the Turkish Government. ers and four members belonging to no special The Eastern Roumelian tribute was assumed by groups. The arrangement was completed on the Bulgaria, but the Bulgarian tribute to the Porte day of the death of the Princess of Bulgaria, and Bulgaria's share of the Turkish debt have Marie Louise of Bourbon, Princess of Parma, never been fixed. In December, 1898, the So- who had been a conspicuous figure in Bulgarian branje authorized a 5-per-cent. loan of 290,000,000 politics at the time when, against her desire, francs for the purpose of converting all cate her son was baptized into the Greek faith, but gories of the national debt into a uniform debt. who had since won the respect and admiration "The Army.-Military service is obligatory on of the Bulgarians by her quiet and affable deall Bulgarians from the age of twenty. Moham- meanor and her multitudinous charities. The medans may pay for exemption, and on those new Cabinet was composed as follows: Premier

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