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terly opposed to it. On a motion of want of con- from each of the lower houses. The Austrian fidence in the House of Representatives on July 6 and Hungarian Delegations meet and vote sepathe Government commanded a majority of only rately, and in case of a disagreement they decide 7 votes.

the question by a joint vote. The common minFiji.—The Governor of Fiji is Sir G. T. M. isters are responsible to the Delegations, and O'Brien. The island is divided into 16 provinces, may be impeached for any dereliction of duty. each under a roko tui, or native chief. Euro- The Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary pean commissioners reside in three of the prov- is Franz Josef I, born Aug. 18, 1830, proclaimed inces. The sugar, cocoanut, banana, and other Emperor of Austria on Dec. 2, 1848, when his plantations belong mostly to European settlers. uncle Ferdinand I abdicated in consequence of a

British New Guinea.-The British territory revolutionary uprising, and crowned King of of New Guinea, including the Louisiade and Hungary on June 8, 1867, when the ancient conD'Entrecasteaux islands, has an area of about stitutional rights of that monarchy were re90,540 square miles, with 350,000 native inhabit established. The heir presumptive is the Emants and 250 Europeans. The cost of adminis- peror-King's nephew, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, tration, calculated at £15,000 a year, is guar- born April 21, 1865, son of the late Archduke anteed by the Queensland Government, but the Karl Ludwig and Princess Annunciata, daughter governments of Victoria and New South Wales of the former King of Naples. contribute equal shares and have equal control The ministers for the whole monarchy at the with Queensland over the administration. The beginning of 1899 were as follow: Minister of territory is administered by the Lieutenant Gov. Foreign Affairs and of the Imperial House, Count ernor, George Ruthven Le Hunte. The policy of Agenor Maria Adam Goluchowski; Common withholding all lands for the use of the natives Minister of War, Gen. Edmund, Edler von Krieghas been followed hitherto, and regulations for hammer; Common Minister of Finance, Benjamin bidding the alienation of land were strictly en- de Kallay. forced. However, in March, 1898, the Lieutenant The Common Budget.—The cost of the adGovernor and his Council approved an ordinance ministration of common affairs is borne by the enabling a company called the British New two halves of the monarchy in a proportion setGuinea Syndicate to acquire and occupy an area tled by an agreement between the Austrian not to exceed 250,000 acres, paying 28. an acre, Reichsrath and the Hungarian Parliament. This with a view to the development of the territory agreement, called the Ausgleich, has been revised by exploring and opening up Crown lands, culti- and renewed every ten years, but when the last vating the rubber plant and other tropical prod- period expired in 1897 the two legislative bodies uce, and discovering and working mineral de were unable to reach an understanding. Negotiposits. There were 397 vessels, of 20,702 tons, ations were continued, and in the meantime the entered and 302, of 20.300 tons, cleared during provisions of the last Ausgleich were continued 1898. Gold is mined in the Louisiade and Wood- temporarily as a modus vivendi. By this, after lark islands and on the mainland by 300 whites, the proceeds of the common customs were dewho employ many natives. The value of the im- ducted from the sum required, Hungary first paid ports in 1898 was £ 46,971; exports, £49,859. 2 per cent. of the remainder, and then the balance The chief imports are foodstuffs, cloth, tobacco, was contributed by the two monarchies, the and hardware. The exports, besides gold and Austrian portion being 70 per cent. and the Hunpearls, are trepang, copra, pearl shells, and san- garian 30 per cent. In 1898 the total sanctioned dalwood.

expenditure was 162,625,000 florins—the revenue The British Government, having in 1898 agreed from customs, 46,673,000 florins; Austria’s conto convey to a land syndicate a tract of land tribution, 79,543,000 florins; Hungary's contriin New Guinea, rescinded the arrangement on bution, 36,409,000 florins. The budget estimates account of the remonstrances of the governments of revenue for 1899 were 132,000 florins from the of Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2,660,389 florins leaving these to settle with the syndicate the from the Ministry of War and Marine, 5.169 question of compensation. Another syndicate of- florins from the Ministry of Finance, and 164,378,fered to take 100,000 acres, but the colonial 382 florins from customs and matricular contristatesmen do not consider the time ripe for mak. butions—total. 167.175.940 florins. The estiing grants of land. Mr. Le Hunte, the new mated expenditures were 4.194.100 florins of ordiLieutenant Governor, has prepared a scheme for nary and 80,100 florins of extraordinary exthe development of New Guinea.

penditure by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, a dual monarchy in 132,468,237 florins of ordinary and 11,217,014 central Europe, composed under the fundamental florins of extraordinary expenditure for the ariny, law, of Dec. 21, 1867, of the Empire of Austria 11,195,260 florins of ordinary and 5,746,000 and the Kingdom of Hungary, inseparable con- florins of extraordinary expenditure for the navy, stitutional monarchies, hereditary in the male 2.126,404 florins of ordinary and 10,780 florins line of the dynasty of Hapsburg-Lorraine or, in of extraordinary expenditure by the Minister of the event of the extinction of the male line, in Finance, and 138,045 florins for the Board of the female line. The legislative power for af- Control. fairs common to both monarchies—viz., foreign The dual monarchy contracts no loans, but relations, military and naval affairs with the the general debt existing in 1867, of which 2,757,exception of the national territorial armies, com- 449,395 florins were outstanding in June, 1898, mon finance, commercial and railroad affairs con- requires 126,284,691 florins annually for interest cerning both monarchies, the customs tariff', the and amortization, which is divided between the coinage, and the administration of the occupied two halves of the monarchy, Austria paying 95,Turkish provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina- 973,852 florins and Hungary 30,310,839 florins. is exercised by committees of the legislative The common floating debt on June 30, 1898, bodies of both monarchies. These committees, amounted to 182,672,730 florins, of which amount which are called the Delegations, meet alternate 120,892,780 florins consisted of the common paper ly in Vienna and Buda-Pesth, the two capitals. currency. They are composed of 20 members elected an- The revenue of Bosnia and Herzegovina for nually by each of the two upper houses and 40 1898 was estimated at 19,244,250 florins, more

than sufficient to cover the cost of administra- Commerce and Production. The total value tion, estimated at 19,185,820 florins.

of the special imports into the customs terriThe Army.-The period of service in the tory, including both monarchies and Bosnia and Austro-Hungarian army is three years in the Herzegovina, was 755,300,000 florins in 1897, and line and seven years in the reserve. Those not the total value of exports was 766,200,000 florins. drawn for active service are enrolled in the sup- The values of the chief imports in the special plementary reserve, the Ersatztruppen, or in the commerce were 50,769,000 florins for raw cotton, Landwehr. After completing the whole term in 40,186,000 florins for cereals, 38,503,000 florins the common army, the discharged soldiers are for wool, 31,382,000 florins for coal and fuel, enrolled for two years in the Landwehr or na- 26,238,000 florins for coffee, 25,971,000 florins for tional army, called the Honved in Hungary, and tobacco, 22,110,000 florins for hides and skins, after that they can be called out for the defense 21,427,000 florins for leather, 19,662,000 florins of the nation as members of the Landsturm until for machinery, 19,374,000 florins for metals other they are forty-two years old. For those enrolled than iron, 18,932,000 florins for woolen yarn, 17,at once in the Landwehr at the age of twenty- 978,000 florins for wine, 14,218,000 florins for one the period of service is twelve years. The silk goods, 13,359,000 florins for eggs, 11,292,000 Landwehr in time of peace is only called out florins for silk manufactures, 11,240,000 florins periodically for instruction and exercise. The for live animals, and 10,317,000 florins for cotannual contingent for the common army is 59,211 ton yarn. The values for the principal exports in Austria and 43,899 in Hungary; total, 103,100. were 61,382,000 florins for sugar, 43,921,000 The annual contingent for the Landwehr is about florins for eggs, 39,975,000 florins for cereals, 37,10,000 in Austria and 12,500 in Hungary.

770,000 florins for lumber, 27,289,000 florins for The common army on the peace footing in 1898 timber, 26,857,000 florins for lignite, 25,174,000 had 3,738 officers and 3,843 men in the staff, 1,536 florins for horses, 24,453,000 forins for malt, officers and 7,680 men in the military establish- 22,428,000 florins for glassware, 20,335,000 florins ments, 9,454 officers and 177,109 men in the in- for live animals, 18,464,000 florins for woolen fantry, 1,874 officers and 45,506 men in the cav- goods, 17,033,000 florins for hides and skins, 16,alry, 1,636 officers and 28,152 men in the field 208,000 florins for leather gloves, 9,787,000 florins artillery, 412 officers and 7,760 men in the fortress for staves, 9,463,000 florins for feathers, 8,334,000 artillery, 575 officers and 9,918 men in the pio- florins for shoes, 7,296,000 florins for beer, and neers, 79 officers and 2,854 men in the sanitary 4,436,000 florins for wine. corps, and 393 officers and 3,253 men in the train. The value of the gold and silver coin and The Austrian Landwehr had 2,168 officers and bullion imported during 1897 was 99,867,928 20,657 men in the infantry and 196 officers and florins; exports, 51,651,584 florins. 1,899 men in the cavalry; the Honved, 2,132 of The amount of the trade in 1897 with the ficers and 20,797 men in the infantry and 390 principal countries is shown in the following officers and 4,200 men in the cavalry. The total table, giving the values of the imports from and peace strength was 24,583 officers and 333,628 the exports to each country in florins: men, or 358,211 of all ranks, with 47,757 horses and 1,048 guns. The war strength is 45,238 offi

COUNTRIES.

Imports.

Exports. cers and 1,826,940 men, with 281,886 horses and

Germany..

270,889,000 399,023,000 1,864 field guns. The infantry is armed with the

Great Britain.

69,168,000 70,522,000 Mannlicher rifle, having a caliber of 8 millimetres Italy

55,040.000 59,441,000 and 5 cartridges in the magazine, the cavalry Russia ..

56,029,000 25,893,000 United States.....

55.755,000 16.804,000 with the saber and a repeating carbine, and the

Switzerland.....

22,775,000 31,943,000 artillery with 9- and 7-centimetre bronze guns. British India..

41,596,000 12,049,000 The Navy.-The fleet in 1899 consisted of 1 France .......

24,103,000 27,530,000 Roumania.

18,680,000 26,363,000 second-class and 7 third-class battle ships, 8 ves

Turkey ...

17,837,000 26,275,000 sels for port defense, I first-class, 3 second-class, Servia.

18,296,000 12,030.000 and 8 third-class cruisers, 12 gunboats, and 32 Brazil.

20.665,000 1,822,000

Netherlands first-class, 31 second-class, and 8 third-class tor

9,598,000 11,461,000 Belgium ..

13.486.000 6,611,000 pedo boats. Of the newer constructions, the most Egypt

6,516,000 10,029,000 notable are the barbette ships Monarch, Wien, Greece.....

9,153,000 5,414,000 and Buda-Pesth, displacing 5,550 tons, with 10.6inch Harveyized armor over the vital parts, The special imports of Hungary from all counarmed with 4 9.4-inch, 6 5.9-inch quick-firing, and tries, including Austria, in 1897 were 554,814,000 14 47-millimetre quick-firing guns, with 4 torpedo florins in value; exports, 540,980,000 florins. The tubes, and having engines of 8,500 horse power, chief imports were cotton goods for 62,170,000 capable of speeding 17 knots. A similar battle florins, woolen goods for 38,797,000 florins, clothship of 7,800 tons displacement is under construc- ing for 16,901,000 florins, wine in casks for 15,tion, and one of 8,000 tons displacement has been 219,000 florins, silk goods for 12,295,000 florins, begun. Built on the model of the cruiser Maria refined sugar for 10,742,000 florins, and coffee Theresa, launched in 1893, the larger Kaiser for 9,632,000 florins. The chief exports were Karl VI, of 6.250 tons displacement, was launched wheat, barley, and maize for 84,379,000 florins, in 1898, having 10.6-inch armor, engines of 12,300 flour for 84,007,000 florins, cattle, pigs, and horse power, giving a speed of 20 knots, and an horses for 70,403,000 florins, wine in casks for 17,armament of 2 9.4-inch, 8 5.9-inch quick-firing, 040,000 florins, cask staves for 10,456,000 florins, and 18 other machine guns. The torpedo cruiser eggs for 8,125,000 florins, and wool for 7,150,000 Zenta, lately launched, will be followed by an- florins. The imports from Austria were 428,other. The programme of construction, which 756,000 florins, and exports to Austria 412,113,000 follows out the original plan of a purely de- florins in value; imports from Germany were fensive fleet of the highest efficiency, provides for 27,565,000 florins, and exports to Germany 50,a total force of 15 armor clads between 6,000 956,000 florins; imports from Great Britain were and 9.000 tons, 7 second-class cruisers ranging 5,025,000 florins, and exports to Great Britain between 4.000 and 7,000 tons, 7 cruisers between 11,115,000 florins. 1.500 and 2.500 tons, 15 torpedo gunboats, and The export trade of Austria has been lan90 torpedo boats of the various classes.

guishing for some time as the result of the active

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competition of Germany and other countries. The Austrian post office in 1897 carried 809,The merchants called upon the Government to 770,210 letters and postal cards, 113,036,520 samadopt a vigorous commercial policy that would ples and books, and 95,533,400 newspapers. The help them to secure fresh markets, especially in receipts were 44,650,851 florins; expenses, 40,705,China, where other governments have actively 717 florins. supported the enterprise of their citizens. The T he Hungarian post office carried in 1897 letMinister of Commerce responded by establish- ters and postal cards to the number of 236,825,ing subsidized commercial agencies abroad, work- 000, 92,635,000 newspapers, 43,253,000 samples ing in connection with export syndicates at home. and book packets, 18,015,000 money and postal An industrial council, recently created to keep orders of the total value of 502,604,000 forins, the Government in touch with the views and and 18,114,000 parcels and money letters. needs of the manufacturers, had failed to realize The telegraph lines of the Austrian Governexpectations. The Government in the naval esti- ment had in 1897 a total length of 31,484 miles, mates provided for the construction of new ves- with 92,052 miles of wire. The number of mes. sels in deference to the demands of the mercan: sages dispatched was 13,771,084. tile community for an increase in the navy. The The Hungarian telegraph lines had in 1897 a chambers of commerce and industry bespeak total length of 13,375 miles, with 64,515 miles of more radical and wide-reaching reforms, such as wire. The number of dispatches sent during the the reduction of taxes on trade, the remission year was 13,396,578. of duties on raw materials, discriminating rail- The New Ausgleich.—The commercial treaty road rates in favor of manufacturers and ex- between Austria and Hungary, which expired porters, subventions and bounties, relaxed state by limitation of time in 1897, has been contincontrol and supervision, the repeal of laws for ued provisionally pending the conclusion of a the protection of labor, etc. One of the chief new treaty, or Ausgleich, which the Hungarians grievances of Austrian industrialists is the active insisted should be made with the co-operation interposition of the Hungarian Government for of the Austrian Reichstag, because the Hunthe purpose of building up industries at their garian Constitution makes the continuance of expense. There are no such labor laws in Hun constitutional, parliamentary conditions in Ausgary as in Austria, no hampering legislation or tria a requisite for all treaty arrangements beheavy taxation affecting capital, and the Gov. tween the two halves of the dual monarchy. ernment, by offering special privileges and im- Aside from that, it was feared that any compromunities, has endeavored to induce Austrian mise reached with the Austrian Government actmanufacturers to establish plants in Hungary. ing under Article XIV of the Austrian ConstituTo attract the Vienna silk industry and the tex- tion-the emergency paragraph which empowers tile industries of Bohemia the Hungarian authori. the Government to provide for the conduct of ties have even offered subventions.

affairs by legislative decrees in case of a temNavigation.-The number of vessels entered porary interruption of parliamentary ruleat ports of Austria during 1896 was 100,873, of might be upset afterward by the Reichstag when 11,771,345 tons, and the number cleared was 100,- regular parliamentary government should be re856, of 11,774,758 tons. The Austrian merchant sumed. The dismissal of the Reichsrath on Feb. navy on Jan. 1, 1897, comprised 12,115 vessels, ], 1899, when it was found that the deadlock of 215,258 tons, of which 181, of 145,154 tons, could not be broken, almost put an end to hopes were steam vessels and 11,934, of 70,104 tons, of making a new Ausgleich between the two Parwere sailing vessels. Of the total number 253, liaments. Koloman Szell took the premiership of 174,507 tons, were engaged in foreign com- in Hungary in May, with the mission of negotimerce, 1,526, of 22,345 tons, were coasting ves ating a temporary Ausgleich with the Austrian sels, and 10,336, of 18,406 tons, were fishing and Government, to be confirmed by executive decree other small craft.

under the emergency paragraph if the consent The number of vessels entered at Hungarian of the Austrian Parliament could not be obports during 1897 was 18,700, of 1,844,385 tons; tained. Naturally the Hungarian legislators decleared, 18,679, of 1,848,586 tons. The Hun- manded that under these conditions the financial garian commercial marine on Jan. 1, 1898, num- and economic interests of Hungary should be bered 502 vessels, of 67,879 tons, and of these protected to the utmost extent. Many of the 70, of 45,630 tons, were steamers, while 432, of provisions had already been arranged in pre22,249 tons, were sailing vessels. Of the total vious negotiations. On the demand of Hungary number 76, of 62,224 tons, were engaged in ocean it had been agreed that when the commercial commerce, 153, of 5,228 tons, in the coasting treaties with Germany and other countries extrade, and 273, of 427 tons, were fishing craft. pire in 1903 new ones should only be concluded

Railroads, Posts, and Telegraphs.—The till 1907, when the Ausgleich would also expire, state railroads in Austria had a length in 1897 leaving Hungary then free to resume her comof 4,594 miles; lines belonging to companies but mercial independence, if desirable, and make sepaoperated by the Government, 933 miles; lines rate treaties with foreign countries in consonance owned and operated by companies, 5,844 miles; with her individual interests. The sugar-bounty total length, 10,438 miles. The total cost was system was continued. The Hungarian Govern2,662,716,000 florins. The number of passengers ment now refused to continue the customs union transported in 1896 was 105,201,000; tons of with Austria longer than 1903, unless in the freight, 100,000,000; receipts, 263,955,000 florins; meantime the normal activity of the Austrian operating expenses, 153,896,000 florins.

Reichsrath should be resumed and it should beThe state lines of railroad in Hungary on Jan. come possible to complete the arrangements be1, 1898, had a length of 4,758 miles; companies' tween the two Legislatures, as provided for by lines worked by the state, 3,268 miles; lines the Constitution. The Austrian Government in owned and worked by companies, 1,763 miles; accepting this hard condition argued that the total length, 9,784 miles. The total capital ex charter of the Austro-Hungarian Bank should penditure was 1,241,804,000 florins; number of also be made to terminate in 1903. The Hunpassengers in 1897, 56,982,000; freight carried, garian Government desired, on the contrary, to 35,724,000 tons; receipts, 121,236,000 florins; ex- continue the arrangement with the common bank penses, 66,060,000 florins.

for ten years, and the Austrian ministry, after carrying on prolonged negotiations, gave way on Ministry of Education and Worship, 549,664,788 this point also.

florins by the Ministry of Finance, 52,721,270 Austria.-The legislative body is the Reichs- florins by the Ministry of Commerce, 129,828,620 rath, consisting of the Herrenhaus, or House of florins by the Ministry of Railroads, 15,293,050 Lords, in which 19 princes of the imperial family, florins by the Ministry of Agriculture, 1,135,111 9 archbishops, 8 prince bishops, 66 territorial florins by the Ministry of Justice, 489,602 florins nobles, and 153 life members have seats, and the from pensions, subventions, etc., 1,057,080 florins House of Deputies, composed of 425 members, from the state debt, and 851,000 florins from variwho are elected for six years, 85 by the territorial ous sources. The total expenditure is estimated aristocracy, 118 indirectly by the towns, 21 by at 760,286,793 florins, of which 4,650,000 florins the chambers of trade and commerce, and 129 are for the imperial household, 78,307 florins for indirectly by the rural districts, and 72 directly the imperial Cabinet, 2,568,231 florins for the by all male citizens of towns and rural com- Reichsrath and Council of Ministers, 23,300 munes who pay 4 florins a year in direct taxes florins for the Supreme Court, 126,162,876 florins or possess educational or other qualifications for contributions to common expenditure, 28,The representation of the provinces is unequal, 142,972 florins for the Ministry of the Interior, varying from 1 member to 29,694 inhabitants in 25,196,170 florins for the Ministry of Defense, Salzburg to 1 to 89,188 in Galicia. Lower Aus- 31,473,776 forins for the Ministry of Worship tria sends 46 members; Upper Austria, 20; Salz- and Instruction, 131,681,228 florins for the Minburg, 6; Styria, 27; Carinthia, 10; Carniola, 11; istry of Finance, 49,783,310 florins for the MinisTriest, 5; Goricia and Gradisca, 5; Istria, 5; try of Commerce, 107,526,190 florins for the MinTyrol, 21; Vorarlberg, 4; Bohemia, 110; Moravia, istry of Railroads, 19,357,914 florins for the 43; Silesia, 12; Galicia, 78; Bukowina, 11; Dal Ministry of Agriculture, 29,210,791 florins for the matia, 11.

Ministry of Justice, 175,500 florins for the Board The Austrian ministry formed on March 7, of Control, 31,693,465 florins for pensions, sub1898, was composed as follows: President of the ventions, etc., 171,929,683 florins for the state Council and Minister of the Interior, Graf Franz debt, and 633,080 florins for management of the von Thun-Hohenstein; Minister of Public Instruc- debt. tion and Ecclesiastical Affairs, Graf Bylandt- Austria's special debt amounted on July 1, Reydt; Minister of Finance, Dr. J. Kaizl; Minis- 1898, to 1,470,788,879 florins, of which 1,466,528,ter of Agriculture, Baron von Kast; Minister of 424 florins represent consolidated debt and 4,260,National Defense, Field-Marshal Graf Zeno von 555 florins floating debt. The annual charge for Welsersheimb; Minister of Justice, Dr. J. von interest and amortization of the special debt is Ruber; Minister of Railways, Dr. H. Ritter von 74,580,058 florins. Wittek; Minister of Commerce, J. di Pauli, Baron Political Affairs.—The conflict between the von Treuheim; without portfolio, Ritter von Germans and the Czechs made the parliamentary Jedrzejoviez.

session at the beginning of 1899 a constant sucArea and Population. The Austrian domin- cession of broils and tumults. The German Opions have a total area of 115,903 square miles, position obstructed legislative business comwith a population estimated at the end of 1896 pletely from the time that the Reichsrath met on at 25,249,203, comprising 12,467,738 males and Jan. 17. Motions were made to impeach the en12,781,465 females. The number of marriages tire Cabinet. Interpellations regarding the treatin 1897 was 202,936; of births, 968,280; of deaths, ment of German students at the University of 646,620; excess of births, 294,952. The number Prague were made in an interminable succesof emigrants in 1897 was 37,215. Vienna, the sion and discussed at great length. When tired Austrian capital, had 1,364,548 inhabitants at the of talking the obstructionists demanded a roll last decennial census.

call on every motion that they or the MinisThe emigration from Austria-Hungary in 1896 terialists offered. The ministry withdrew all conwas 67.456 persons, of whom 45,327 went to troversial projects of legislation, including the North America, 11,389 to Brazil, and 220 to the most important bills, in the hope of accomplishArgentine Republic. In 1897 the total number ing some slight part of its programme, but the of emigrants was 37,215. According to United Opposition prevented anything from going States immigration statistics, 34,196 Austrians through, and the German constituencies gave and 30,898 Hungarians arrived in 1896, 18,006 their hearty approval to this course of action. Austrians and 15,025 Hungarians in 1897, and when the court at Prague decided that the lan23,118 Austrians and 16,662 Hungarians in 1898. guage ordinances were constitutional, the ModThe term of military service is still three years erate members of the German party lost all the in Austria-Hungary, and to avoid conscrip- restraining influence that they had possessed. tion about 30,000 young men escape over the On Jan. 27 members of the warring parties border every year according to estimates of the came to blows when the Czech leader Kramarz, military authorities. Most of them go to the who was vice-president of the house at the United States, where there are believed to be time of the suspension of a sitting by gendarmes over 100,000 men who should be in the army or during the Badeni administration, was interthe reserves. They pass the frontier by means rupted in his speech with shouts of “ Bring in of forged passports furnished by foreigners, who the police!” The German factions, with the make a business of aiding their escape.

exception of the Pan-Germanic group, met to Finances.-The revenue of the Austrian Goy- formulate their demands, and these were utterly ernment in 1896 amounted to 741,442,000 florins, irreconcilable with the minimum claims of the and the expenditure to 737,387,000 florins. For Czechs. The Government had hoped to renew 1898 the budget estimate of revenue was 723,- the Ausgleich with Hungary. The Hungarian 221,759 florins, and of expenditure 722,872,831 Diet till now had insisted that the new Ausgleich florins. The sanctioned estimates for 1899 make must be arranged between the two Parliaments, the revenue 760,754,838 florins, of which 767,600 and the provisional extension of the old one florins are receipts of the Reichsrath and Council could not be prolonged beyond the current year. of Ministers, 1.412,109 florins are taken in by The Government was compelled, however, to rethe Ministry of the Interior, 398,362 florins by sort once more to the application of Article XIV the Ministry of Defense, 7,136,242 florins by the of the Constitution, by which the government can be carried on by decrees. Not only was the wina, and Dalmatia, which would be erected into minority strong and aggressive, but the major autonomous provinces, thus relieving the finances ity divided and wavering, so that in a snap vote of the Austrian state, was suppressed by the the ministry found itself actually in a minority Statthalter of Gratz on the ground that it had of one the day before it closed the session. The enrolled German subjects as members. This chances of a truce between the rival nationali- league was founded to resist the absorption of ties did not improve after the return to the the small farms by the great landholders, who mild absolutism of Article XIV, although the in upper Styria convert them into game preSocial Democrats were the only ones who cried serves. The agitation, which was started by out against the reactionary and despotic charac. Baron Rokitansky, a member of the Styrian ter of this provisional method of government, Diet, spread through Styria, Salzburg, Upper now become chronic. The Poles and the German Austria, and the German districts of other provClericals, who formed part of the Government inces wherever the peasant proprietors, whose majority, were growing restive under the con- freeholds were already heavily mortgaged, were trol of the Czechs before the prorogation, and so reduced by the general agricultural depression yet these, although the members of the German that thousands of farms were sold under the party who a year or so before were in favor of hammer every year. The denunciation of the compromise were now united with the extremists league by the priests had created a prejudice against any concession, became more exorbitant against the clergy among the peasantry, and in their demands, exciting the resentment even gave occasion for the adoption of the Old Cathoof the lesser nationalities, such as the Slovenes lic creed by Catholics who had no other grounds, and the Italians. The Germans, as a matter of either religious or national, for abandoning the policy, were not willing to accept a compromise faith to which they were as deeply attached as favorable to themselves in the language ques- the priests themselves. The policy of making tion, even if such could be obtained from the concessions to the Slavs at the cost of the GerGovernment after prorogation, because the lan- mans in other parts of Austria caused profound guage ordinances were ordinary administrative mortification even in the Tyrol, the most loyal of decrees, but if new ones were issued while Article the Austrian provinces, where there is no Slav XIV was in force it would require an act of Par- element. The same policy produced a similar liament to repeal them. The Pan-Germanic effect among the Austro-Italian population of the party, headed by Herr Schönerer, began to ex- coast lands. Political radicalism also gained tend its influence among the hitherto loyal ground in all parts of the country, and the growCatholic peasantry, who were incensed against ing distress of the peasantry made them accessitheir Clerical leaders and the Catholic hierarchy ble to the Social Democratic propaganda, which on account of their political alliance with the was not a serious danger to political institutions Czechs. The movement took the form of whole- so long as it was confined to the industrial popusale conversions to the Protestant Evangelical lation. The Socialists had worked hand in hand and the Old Catholic faiths. Many of those that with the anti-Clerical element in the last elecrenounced the Roman Catholic faith for political tions in Styria. The Government intended to reasons under the lead and direction of the Pan issue a new decree regulating the language quesGermanic leaders, who kept a list of persons tion under paragraph 14, but the reception of an ready at the opportune moment to announce announcement to that effect discouraged such their conversion to Protestantism, were still an attempt. The Diet of Lower Austria passed loyal to the dynasty, and were not ready to fol- a resolution approving the language ordinances low these in their ultimate plans for the separa- as an absolute necessity in the interest of the tion of the German provinces from Austria and Germans and in that of Austria, but rejecting all their annexation to the German Empire. The attempts to settle the language question through German Government gave no countenance to the any channel but the laws of the empire. When Austrian separatists' designs, and prevented their the provincial Diet of Bohemia met on March finding an echo in Germany; but the conversions 14 the German members remained absent. The to Protestantism were openly aided and encour. Tyrolese Diet passed German Nationalist resoaged by the Evangelical community in Germany, lutions. In the first quarter of 1899 there were although the High Consistory of the Evangelical 2,600 renunciations of the Roman Catholic faith, Church in Austria adopted a hostile attitude and in succeeding months changes of religion toward the movement. There were numerous took place at an increasing rate, but by summer conversions in January in Linz, the chief town the movement seemed to have spent its force. of Upper Austria, and more in succeeding months. The religious movement was not a new maniIn northern Bohemia a large number of German festation in Bohemia, where religion and politics Catholics changed their religion on national have already been interwoven. When the Gergrounds. The cry of “ Away from Rome!” was mans controlled the Government in Austria under taken up in Gratz, the capital of Styria, where the Auersperg ministry many Czechs embraced not l per cent. of the population were Protes- the Russian Orthodox religion and built a Rustants. Although aristocratic ladies placed obsta- sian church in Prague. The Catholicism of the cles in the way of a meeting that was announced Czechs is of a very liberal stripe, and some of to be held in a public hall, a large assemblage the lower clergy, preserving the Hussite tradigathered eventually to hear Old Catholic orators tion. have habitually been in opposition to the preach emancipation from Rome, until the pro- higher episcopal authorities. The Thun minisceedings were stopped by the police, because one try has authorized the erection of a statue to of the speakers spoke of the Old Catholic move. John Huss in Prague to please a popular dement as an expression of the spirit of German mand among the Czechs, although the Taafe nationalism. The Peasant League of the Alpine and Badeni Cabinets and the previous Liberal provinces, which combined a general Agrarian Cabinets, out of consideration for the Catholic programme with certain German Nationalist fea- clergy, refused to sanction this glorification of tures, such as the adoption of German as the the Protestant national hero of the Czechs. The language of the state, a customs union with Ger- Germans of Bohemia have shown such indiffermany, a merely personal union with Hungary, ence in religious matters that a change of faith and the exclusion from Austria of Galicia, Buko- for political reasons is an easy process for them.

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