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8,111 miles. The number of dispatches in 1897 within the boundaries of New South Wales, at was 1,306,003. The net receipts were £98,696. least 100 miles removed from Sydney. Pending

The Tasmanian telegraphs had 1,884 miles of the erection of the federal buildings the Parlialine, with 3,313 miles of wire, besides 427 miles of ment will meet in Melbourne, Victoria. No alsubmarine cable. The number of messages in teration was made in the original proposals re1897 was 229,710. The Government owns in addi. garding rivers, which will be under the control tion 570 miles of telephone lines. The revenue of the Federal Parliament if they flow through from telegraphs and telephones was £19,308 in the territory of more than one colony; money 1897.

bills, which must originate in the House of RepNew Zealand telegraphs had on March 31, 1898, resentatives, and may be rejected but not amenda length of 6,484 miles, with 18,024 miles of wire. ed by the Senate; judicial appeals; or the number The number of dispatches for the year was 2,696,- of Senators, which will in the beginning be six 233. The revenue from telegraphs and telephones for each colony, and may be increased when the was £136,221.

Federal Parliament deems it expedient. The Australian Federation.—The Australian Pre- number of Representatives will be twice the nummiers met at Melbourne on Jan. 28, 1899, in a ber of Senators, and if these are increased they new Federal Council to recast the commonwealth will be increased proportionally. They will be bill which had been ratified by the popular refer- elected by the popular vote of each colony in endum in 1898 in Victoria, Tasmania, and South separate districts. "The Senators will be elected Australia, but had failed to secure the required also by direct popular vote, but by the whole majority in New South Wales, and in Western colony voting as one electorate. To Queensland, Australia had not been accepted by the Legisla- however, was accorded the desired privilege of ture, while Queensland also stood aloof, waiting choosing its Senators separately in the three difor the action of New South Wales. In New visions of the colony. South Wales the movement for Australian union Premier Reid pledged himself to secure the had found some of its earliest and strongest ad passage of the amended federation bill through vocates, but the project that was adopted at the the Parliament of New South Wales and of a convention encountered the uncompromising op- new enabling bill for taking a referendum by position of a large and determined minority of which a simple majority of the electors would be the politicians and people of this, the most popu- sufficient to secure the adoption of the Federal lous and progressive of the colonies, who, before Constitution. Sir John Forrest, the West Ausyielding up the free-trade policy by which they tralian Premier, would not promise to support had prospered and endangering their preponder- the amended bill before consulting his colleagues. ant economic position among the colonies, wanted The other Premiers promised to have the new bill to be sure of a federal constitution in which New referred to the electors of their respective coloSouth Wales and Victoria, which must bear the nies in accordance with the original provisions principal part of the financial cost, would not be of the enabling acts of 1896. South Australia swamped by the votes of the three or four other was to take the referendum in connection with the members of the confederation. The Constitution general election without waiting for New South as worked out by the convention of 1898 followed Wales. The agreement was signed on Feb. 3. the democratic model of the United States, and On his return to Sydney Mr. Reid was confronted amply protected the state rights of the minor with difficulties in the way of keeping the agreecolonies, whereas the statesmen of New South ment on which he had not reckoned. The session Wales endeavored to carry through a closer na- of the Parliament of New South Wales opened tional union, patterned after the Constitution of on Feb. 21. The amended bill, to which Mr. Reid the Dominion of Canada. They objected to the had pledged his credit as Premier, was passed by financial provisions of the commonwealth bill as the lower house on March 2. It was sent to the imposing unequal burdens on the citizens of dif- upper house, where further amendments were inferent colonies, and to the Constitution of the troduced. One of these required that one fourth Federal Parliament as conducive to deadlocks. of the electors on the register should vote for The Braddon clause of the original bill provided the bill in order to secure its approval, or, in that the surplus revenues should be paid back other words, that, instead of the majority reto the colonies in proportion to their population. quired by the Melbourne agreement, at least At the new conference the Premiers came to a 80,000 votes should be given in its favor. The satisfactory settlement of all disputed questions. amended bill passed the Legislative Council on It was agreed that an absolute majority of both March 21. The New South Wales Government houses of the Federal Parliament should decide all was pledged to secure the passage of the bill differences between the two branches of the without amendments. On Feb. 22 the lower Legislature, instead of a majority of three fifths; house rejected the amended bill as sent down to but, to safeguard the interests of the lesser states them by the Council. The upper house refused as protected by the Senate, the protracted method to give way. A conference of the two houses of procedure is retained, whereby a measure re- was called to discuss the question, and met withjected by the Senate can not be reintroduced until out result on March 28. Mr. Reid, in accordance three months have elapsed, which means shelv- with his previously declared intention, exercised ing it to another session, and, if it is again re- the power which constitutionally belonged to jected, both houses must be dissolved and a new him, prorogued Parliament for a few days in Parliament elected, which, if the bill is again order to give himself the power of reintroducing passed in one house and rejected in the other, will the rejected bill, and increased the numbers of finally decide the question by a majority vote in the upper house by the nomination of 12 new joint sitting. The Braddon financial clause was members. The nominees selected took their seats adopted only provisionally for ten years, at the on April 11. The reintroduced bill was presented end of which the Federal Parliament may repeal to the lower house and passed on April 13. It or amend it, and in the meantime it is empow. was accepted by the reconstituted Council on ered to deal with any exceptional difficulties April 19, and on April 25 the announcement was arising out of the financial position of any of the made that the federal bill would be submitted to states. It was agreed that the capital of the a referendum of the electors on June 20. The federation should be a federal district located South Australian Parliament passed the en

VOL. XXXIX.-5 A

abling bill on March 3 without a division. The credit, and may, if desired, assume and consolienabling acts of the various colonies stipulated date the debts of all the federated colonies. that three of them could go on and form a con- Though the Senate may not originate nor amend federation, to which other colonies might be ad any financial measure, it may suggest amendmitted later. The Western Australian act con ments, and has power to reject money bills as tained the proviso that New South Wales must well as all other legislation. The powers of the be one of the three.

Crown will be exercised in the usual way by a The referendum in South Australia, taken on governor general, assisted by an executive counApril 29, resulted in a vote of 65,990 votes for the cil, which will be composed of not less than seven commonwealth bill to 17,000 against the measure. members, responsible, individually and collectiveIn New South Wales the popular vote was cast ly, to Parliament. All the revenues of the comon June 20. Both parties put forth their utmost monwealth will be paid into a consolidated revstrength, and the federationists won by a vote enue fund, which can only be drawn upon by of 101,000 to less that 80,000. The parliaments parliamentary appropriations. An elaborate of the other colonies thereupon passed the new system of bookkeeping and control has been deenabling bills without opposition. The referen vised to insure the collection of the customs dum in Victoria, taken toward the end of July, revenue and the return of the surplus in due proresulted in a vote of 140,000 in favor of federa portion to the contributing colonies. The adtion to 9,000 negative votes. In Tasmania about ministrative expenses of the commonwealth, in the same time 10,000 voted for and 700 against addition to the services taken over from the colothe bill. The vote in Queensland was taken on nies, are not expected to exceed £200,000 or Sept. 2, and resulted in about 10,000 votes being £300,000, against which should be set the sav. cast in favor of the bill and 5,000 against it. ings to be effected by the concentration of those Western Australia was not yet willing to accept services under a single management. The officers the federal bill as it was. The Government of employed in these branches of the civil service this colony claimed the right to have amend become federal officers, to be paid out of the ments introduced in its favor, as had been done federal treasury. The contemplated conversion to meet the objections of New South Wales. The of the public debt is estimated to promise a sav. West Australians considered that the bill placed ing of £1,000,000 a year, and the possible conthem in a worse position financially than the solidation of the railroads nearly £500,000 more. inhabitants of any other colony, as they would The commonwealth administration itself is not have to surrender £1,250,000 of their revenue, expected to add anything to the total expenses and would only be relieved of £370,000 of ex- of government, but financial difficulties and inpenditure. When Sir John Forrest proposed to equalities will be felt in some of the individual submit the commonwealth bill to a joint com- colonies, which will settle themselves in time or mittee of the West Australian Parliament the can be adjusted as experience dictates. An imother Premiers protested that alterations in the portant section of the Federal Constitution is debill were absolutely impossible, and warned him voted to the creation of a High Court of Austhat delay or isolation would not tend to the tralia, to consist of a chief justice and at least advantage of Western Australia.

two associate judges. The Federal Parliament The scheme of federation which five of the six will also have power to create other federal Australian colonies have accepted, and which courts. The High Court will be a court of apawaits the approval of the British Parliament, peal from the supreme courts of the states, and, resembles the Constitution of the American although the right of appeal to the Privy CounUnion, and differs from that of the Canadian cil is not abolished, appeal to the High Court will Dominion in that all powers not expressly con- in most instances be substituted. In regard to ferred on the Federal Government are reserved the interpretation of the commonwealth Constito the individual states. The Federal Parliament tution, no appeal to the supreme imperial triwill consist, after the model of all parliaments bunal is allowed, a provision differing from the in British self-governing communities, of two law of Canada, and one likely to occasion some houses, called in this instance the Senate and demur in Great Britain. The amendment of the the House of Representatives, both elective by Constitution is provided for by means of a mapopular ballot, Senators for six years, subject to jority vote of both houses of Parliament, foldissolution, members of the lower house for lowed by a referendum to the people of the fedthree, the latter about in the proportion of 1 to erated colonies, the votes of colonies having fe50,000 of the present population. The franchise male suffrage being counted at half the total will be identical for both houses, and for the number. present will be the existing parliamentary fran- The Pacific Cable Scheme.-The question of chise of the several colonies. The right is re- laying a submarine cable to connect Canada with served, however, to the Federal Parliament to the Australian colonies has been discussed in its determine its own franchise when desirable. The political, strategic, and commercial aspects since powers delegated by the colonies to the Federal the land telegraph system of Canada was exGovernment are in some cases concurrent with tended to the Pacific coast, more than twenty those of the states, in others exclusive. The years ago. In 1887 proposals were laid before Federal Parliament will have the right of regu- the colonial conference, and in 1894 the interlating trade with foreign countries and between colonial conference at Ottawa approved the the states. After a certain period it will have project, and requested the Canadian Government exclusive powers over customs, excise, and boun- to take steps to promote its fulfillment. Estities. Its powers of taxation are not confined to mates, surveys, and tenders obtained by the Cacustoms and excise. Direct taxes may be nadian authorities were submitted in 1897 to a levied, as well as indirect, but all taxation must Pacific cable committee in London, which recombe uniform throughout the commonwealth. It mended the route from Vancouver by way of will have power to legislate with regard to all Fanning island and Fiji to Norfolk island, the services committed to its care, the most im- branching thence to New Zealand and Queensportant of which are the national defense and land. The total length to the Queensland termithe posts and telegraphs. The Federal Govern- nus would be 7,986 nautical miles. The estiment will have the right to borrow on the public mated cost from the best materials was £1,800,000, to which it was proposed Queensland, New ter of Public Instruction and Industry and Labor, South Wales, Victoria, and New Zealand should James Alexander Hogue; Minister of Justice, each contribute one ninth and the United King- Charles Alfred Lee; Postmaster-General, Varney dom and Canada the remaining five ninths in Parkes; Secretary for Mines and Agriculture, equal shares. With a cable rate of 38. a word, Joseph Cook. taking operating expenses at ls. a word, and the The government of G. H. Reid has depended first year's traffic at 1,800,000 words, the traffic for its continuance on the vote of the Labor by the eastern line having been 2,350,000 words party, which is always cast solidly either for in 1897, with a rate of 48. 9d. a word, the new measures which it advocates or for indifferent line would more than pay its way from the be- measures in return for concessions on other ginning, the utmost estimate of the fixed charges, points. The paternal methods of government including sinking fund and maintenance, being now followed in this colony are illustrated by £160,000. The Canadian Government agreed to the agreement of the Premier to distribute £500,pay its allotted share of the cost and the Aus- 000 as advances to the farmers, who have suftralasian governments their respective shares, but fered from drought for four seasons, the maxithe British Government at the last moment re- mum relief in each case being limited to £200. ceded from the plan of joint ownership, the East. He also promised a remission of rents on Crown ern Extension Telegraph Company having pro- leases and an extension of time for payments on tested against Government competition and the conditional purchases. After a special session reduction of cable charges. The Colonial Secre- for the passage of the federation bill, which was tary, Joseph Chamberlain, proposed instead to marked by a conflict between the Premier, supsubsidize the all-British line by extending im- ported by the Legislative Assembly, and the perial credit to raise part of the capital. Though upper house, Parliament was prorogued on April deeply disappointed, the Canadian and Austra- 21 till the summer session, for which important lian governments entered into negotiations with measures were being prepared. The deadlock was the home authorities on the new basis. The ended by the nomination of twelve new members Government of British Columbia offered to con- to the Legislative Council, of whom four were tribute two eighteenths of the cost in addition to working-class representatives. This infusion of Canada's five eighteenths. The proposal of the the Labor element into the upper house was a Imperial Government was to grant a subsidy to significant innovation. The acceptance by the meet five eighteenths of the net loss of any year, colony of federation takes away the great ground but not to exceed £20,000 annually, in considera- of division between the two main parties. The tion of which the cable must be made in accord- free traders, who have been in the ascendant, ance with imperial specifications, the rates sub- must now countenance a protective tariff for jected to the approval of the Imperial Govern Australia against the outside world, which for ment, and imperial messages have priority over fiscal reasons may not be less than 25 per cent., all others and be transmitted at half rates. The while sharing with the other colonies intersubsidy would begin from the time when the colonial free trade. New combinations of parties cable is opened for traffic, and would not run are therefore likely to result. Among the new longer than twenty years. The protests of the measures brought before Parliament were seycolonies induced the British Government in June eral of an advanced character, which the Labor to reconsider the offer it made in April, and to party considered important. On the retirement express willingness to modify its proposals on of Mr. Want, on April 18, Mr. Reid assumed the the basis of utilizing the public credit of the duties of Attorney-General temporarily. Before United Kingdom so as to raise the necessary the opening of the regular session a rearrangecapital on more advantageous terms than could ment of the Cabinet officers was effected on June be obtained for loans guaranteed only by the 27. The Premier retained the post of Attorneycolonial governments. The Eastern Extension General permanently, handing over the office of Company, in the hope of defeating the Pacific Treasurer to Mr. Carruthers, who was succeeded cable, offered to lay one from South Africa to as Minister of Lands by Mr. Young, the latter Australia, and to reduce the charges to or from being replaced by Mr. Lee as Secretary for PubEurope to 4s. a word. This proposal was favor- lic Works, and he in turn as Minister of Justice ably received in Victoria and Tasmania, and was by John Hughes, the Vice-President of the Exwelcome to Western Australia, where the cable ecutive Council and representative of the Govwould land, but New South Wales, New Zealand, ernment in the upper house. Parliament was and the other colonies clung to the project of opened on July 18. Changes in procedure were all-British cables encircling the globe and con declared necessary, and grand committees were necting the chief self-governing colonies.

suggested. Bills were presented for the establishNew South Wales.-Every male British sub- ment of a state bank, for old-age pensions, for the ject who has resided a year in the colony has amendment and consolidation of the mining the right to vote for members of Parliament. laws, and for the construction of narrow-gauge There were 324,338 electors, 24.28 per cent. of the railroads through fertile districts. The state total population, enrolled in July, 1898, and bank was to be established by consolidating two 178,717 voted. The duration of Parliament is existing savings banks, and empowered to loan three years. The upper house is the Legislative money to settlers at 4 per cent. The GovernCouncil, consisting of 58 members appointed by ment promised also to introduce technical eduthe Crown for life. The Legislative Assembly cation in the state schools and to establish more has 125 members, elected in separate districts. experimental farms. Farmers would be assisted

William Lygon, Earl Beauchamp, succeeded by the Government to obtain the best American Viscount Hampden as Governor in January, 1899. agricultural machinery. In the beginning of The Cabinet in the beginning of 1899 consisted September Mr. Lyne, who had succeeded Mr. Barof the following members: Premier, Treasurer, ton as leader of the Opposition, moved a vote and Minister for Railways, George Houstoun of censure, to which a Labor member, Mr. Fegan, Reid: Chief Secretary, James Nixon Brunker; added another on the payment of a member of Attorney-General, John Henry Want; Secretary Parliament for a report on old-age pensions. for Lands, Joseph Hector Carruthers; Secretary After a week's debate the Government was defor Public Works, James Henry Young; Minis- feated by a vote of 78 to 40.

Victoria.The members of the Legislative Public Lands, J. V. Chetaway; Home Secretary, Council, 48 in number, are elected for six years J. F. C. Foxton; Postmaster-General and Minisby freeholders, leaseholders or occupiers of prop- ter for Justice, W. H. Wilson; Treasurer and erty worth £25 a year, and professional men or Secretary for Mines, Robert Philp; Secretary for graduates. The Legislative Assembly contains Public Instruction, D. H. Dalrymple; Secretary 95 members, elected for three years by universal for Railways and Secretary for Public Works, manhood suffrage. The number of electors for John Murray; without portfolio, A. H. Barlow the Legislative Council registered in 1898 was and George Wilkie Gray. 130,545; the number on the roll of the Legislative The Legislative Assembly was dissolved on Assembly was 252,560.

Feb. 15, and a new Parliament was summoned The Governor is Lord Brassey, appointed in to meet on May 2 to consider especially the com1895. The Cabinet of ministers in the beginning monwealth bill subsequent to the action upon it of 1899 was composed as follows: Premier and by New South Wales. The advantage to QueensTreasurer, Sir George Turner; Chief Secretary land from opening the Australasian markets to and Minister of Public Instruction, A. J. Pea- its raw products was considered sufficient to cock; Attorney-General, Isaac Isaacs; Solicitor overshadow any temporary disarrangement of General, Sir Henry Cuthbert; Commissioner of industrial and commercial relations, while the Trade and Customs, President of the Board of colony, if it remained isolated, would be shut Land and Works, and Commissioner of Crown off from outside financial assistance necessary Lands and Survey, R. W. Best; Postmaster-Gen- for the development of its vast but sparsely popueral, J. G. Duffy; Minister of Defense, W. McCul. lated territory. The policy of Queensland was loch; Minister of Mines and Water Supply, H. declared by the Premier to be the exclusion of Foster; Minister of Agriculture and Commission- all alien and colored races not already sancer of Public Works, J. W. Taverner; Minister tioned by law. In accordance with a treaty with of Railways and Minister of Health, H. R. Wil Japan, the immigration of Japanese laborers and liams; without office, S. Williamson

artisans has wholly ceased. "That country has The Minister of Lands, with one of the memo furthermore given preferential treatment to bers of the Assembly, went to New Zealand in Queensland sugar. The general elections, which the spring of 1899 to study the solution of the took place toward the end of March, resulted in difficulty of the unemployed said to have been the return of 43 Ministerialists, 21 Labor canfound in the labor and social legislation of that didates, and 8 Opposition members. A rearrangecolony. Their report was on the whole favor- ment of the Cabinet took place on March 29 in able to arbitration in labor disputes and to old consequence of the appointment of Mr. Rutledge age pensions. The Government was already con- as Attorney-General. Mr. Wilson, while remaintemplating legislation for pensioning superannu- ing Postmaster-General, became Secretary of ated workingmen, and also a new factory and Public Instruction, Mr. Dalrymple became Secreshop act. The old-age-pension act was based tary of Public Lands, and Mr. Chetaway reon the New Zealand law, the funds to be pro- tained the secretaryship of agriculture only. vided by the income tax. The eagerness for Parliament was opened for regular business on Government employment and the glut in the May 16, and, after passing the federation bill, labor market of Victoria was shown by over was prorogued on July 4 until after the refer15,000 applications for less than 400 vacancies endum. in the railroad service. A rush for licenses to South Australia.—The Legislative Council dredge for gold in Victorian rivers met with op- contains 24 members, elected for nine years by position from owners of riparian rights and agri- freeholders, leaseholders, and householders. The culturists whose lands were endangered, and House of Assembly comprises 54 members, 2 for when this seemed to be the case the Minister of each district, elected for three years by the vote Mines postponed action for twelve months. Par- of all adult citizens, male and female, whose liament was opened on June 27. Besides the names have been on the register six months. In labor bills, one was brought in for continuing 1897 the number of electors enrolled was 134,886. and extending the income tax. The question of Lord Tennyson succeeded Sir Thomas Fowell plural voting was the subject of another. The Buxton as Governor on Feb. 2, 1899. The minGovernment also proposed to abolish female suf- istry in the beginning of 1899 consisted of the frage. A commission was appointed to draw up following members: Premier and Attorney-Gena scheme for technical education. A leader of eral, C. C. Kingston; Chief Secretary, ‘J. V. the Opposition, Mr. Deakin, after agitating the O'Loghlin; Treasurer and Minister controlling subject in public meetings, offered a resolution Northern Territory, F. W. Holder; Commissionin favor of including in the state system of edu- er of Crown Lands, L. O'Loughlin; Commissioner cation unsectarian religious instruction, consist of Public Works, J. G. Jenkins; Minister of Eduing of a short prayer and hymn and the reading cation and Agriculture, Richard Butler. of selected passages of Scripture. The Govern- Parliament was dissolved on April 6 and elecment offered to submit the question to a referen- tions for the Assembly were held on April 29. dum, and a motion to that effect was carried, A referendum for household suffrage was taken with the formidable condition that the heads of at the same date, as well as the referendum for the religious denominations should first meet and federation. For household suffrage 49,200 votes come to an agreement among themselves as to were cast to 33,900 in the negative. The Roman what form the religious instruction should take. Catholics endeavored to carry the country for a

Queensland.-The Legislative Council con- capitation grant to all schools and for religious sists of 41 members, nominated for life. The instruction in the public schools. The MinisLegislative Assembly contains 72 members elected terial party won, but their majority was cut by all adult males who have resided six months down. When the new Parliament met Mr. King. in the colony. There were 81,892 electors in ston suggested that, in view of federation, the 1897. The Governor is Lord Lamington, who was number of members in the colonial Parliament appointed in 1895. The Council of ministers in should be reduced to 16 in the upper and 36 in the beginning of 1899 was composed as follows: the lower house, and that there should be fewer Premier and Chief Secretary, James Robert Dick- ministers, and these elected by Parliament inson; Secretary for Agriculture and Minister for stead of being appointed.

Western Australia.-The Legislative Coun- European districts and in the 4 Maori districts cil consists of 24 members, elected for six years there were 13,008 votes recorded. by British subjects holding freeholds or occupy. The Governor is the Earl of Ranfurly, appointing property worth £25 a years. The Legislative ed Aug. 10, 1897. The ministry in the beginning Assembly consists of 44 members, elected in as of 1899 was composed as follows: Premier, Comany districts for four years by British subjects lonial Treasurer, Commissioner of Trade and resident for at least two years in the colony or Customs, Postmaster-General, Electric Telegraph in possession of freehold or leasehold property or Commissioner, Minister of Labor, and Minister of mining licenses.

Native Affairs, R. J. Seldon; Minister of Lands, The Governor is Sir Gerard Smith, appointed Minister of Agriculture, Commissioner of Forin October, 1895. The Cabinet in the beginning ests, and Minister in Charge of Advances to Setof 1899 was composed of the following members: tlers' Office, J. McKenzie; Minister for Railways Premier and Colonial Treasurer, Sir John For- and Minister of Mines, A. J. Cadman; Commisrest; Commissioner for Railways and Director sioner of Stamp Duties, Acting Colonial Secreof Public Works, F. H. Piesse; Commissioner of tary, and Member of the Executive Council reprelands, George Throssell; Minister of Mines, H. senting the Native Race, J. Carroll; Minister of B. Lefroy; Attorney-General, Richard William Immigration, Minister of Education, and MinisPennefather; Colonial Secretary, George Randell. ter in Charge of Hospitals and Charitable Aid,

Western Australia has suffered from a depres W. C. Walker; Minister for Public Works, Minsion owing to the withdrawal of capital conse ister of Marine, and Minister in Charge of Printquent upon overspeculation in gold mines. The ing Office, W. Hall-Jones; Minister of Justice, production of the gold fields has nevertheless Minister of Defense, and Minister of Industries increased, and recently ore has been shipped as and Commerce, T. Thompson. well as gold. Nine public batteries are working, No community has gone so far as New Zealand and more are being erected. Coal mines have in experimental social reforms since the estabbeen opened at Collie and tin mines at Green lishment of the principle of one man one vote. Bushes. The ill treatment of natives by some The public men of this colony have given their of the local magistrates resulted in these losing chief attention to the prevention of social contheir commissions. The mole at Fremantle has ditions detrimental to the well-being of the been extended so as to accommodate more ship- poorer classes, such as are flagrant in the mothping. Parliament was opened on June 21. New er country. The newly enacted old-age-pension measures deal with a tax on dividends, rural and act provides that every man and woman in New land improvement, the encouragement of local Zealand from the age of sixty-five onward is enindustries, boards of conciliation for labor dis- titled as a matter of right, not of charity, in conputes, trade unions, and free education through- sideration of services rendered and labor perout the colony. The labor bills were suggested formed in helping to build up the colony, to a by a fierce strike of dock laborers that inter- pension of £18 a year from the state, provided fered for many weeks with the commerce of Fre- they have been residents of the colony for twentymantle until it was settled early in April. The five years, have never been in prison for a longer dividend duty is 5 per cent. on the dividends of term than four months, and have not deserted joint-stock companies doing business in the coltheir families. The money to provide these penony, including banking and mining corporations, sions is taken from the ordinary revenues, and but excluding insurance companies. Resolutions three years must elapse before Parliament can in favor of woman suffrage were voted by both repeal the enactment or revise it by either inhouses.

creasing or reducing the amount of the pension. Tasmania.-The Legislative Council is com- Maoris and naturalized foreigners participate in posed of 18 members, elected under a property the benefits of the act, but Asiatics are excluded. and educational franchise for the term of six The railroad revenue of the colony has increased years. The House of Assembly has 37 members, so much that the Government intends to reduce elected for three years by householders and per- freight charges to home markets in order to ensons in receipt of an income of at least £40. courage production and trade. Inland postage, The electors for the Legislative Council num- which is still a penny, will probably also be rebered 9,359, those for the Assembly 31,613 in 1898. duced, but the Premier does not think it a good

The Governor since 1893 has been Viscount policy to reduce taxation, as it is necessary to Gormanstown. The Cabinet in the beginning of spend money to improve the colony. The Parlia1899 was composed as follows: Premier and ment was opened on June 23. The harbor deTreasurer, Sir E. N. C. Braddon; Chief Secretary, fenses are almost completed, the volunteers fully W. Moore; Attorney-General, D. C. Urquhart; armed, and the Defense Committee are studying without portfolio, Thomas Reiby; Minister of a complete scheme for the defense of the colony. Lands and Works, A. T. Pillinger.

Large areas have been purchased under the land An attempt to upset the ministry in June fell settlements act, but the number of applicants far short of success. A motion in favor of far exceeds that of available farms. The act is woman suffrage was passed by the Assembly. to be extended so as to provide land for workOn Aug. 18 this chamber approved a bill extend- ingmen's homes and villages. Bills were introing throughout the colony the Hare system of duced dealing with workmen's compensation and voting, which had already been tried in Hobart accident insurance, facilitating the settlement of and Launceston.

native lands, and providing for a direct vote of New Zealand.-The Legislative Council con- the people on questions of colonial importance sists of 48 members, who hold their seats for and the decision of such questions by a bare seven years, except those appointed before 1891, majority of voters at the polls. The operation when the term was for life. The Legislative of the industrial conciliation and arbitration act Assembly has 74 members, including 4 representa had so expanded that delays resulted, and protives of the Maori nation, elected for three years posals were submitted to remedy this. The exby the votes of all adult persons of either sex periment of compulsory arbitration as far as it who have resided in the colony a year. In 1896 has gone is approved by all the workers and by there were 339,230 registered' voters, of whom many of the employers, but the majority of the 196,925 were men and 142,305 women; in the 70 employers are still distrustful, and some are bit

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