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Congreve, Richard, English philosopher, born in Leamington, Sept. 4, 1818; died in Hampstead, July 5, 1899. He was educated at Rugby and Oxford, and was subsequently assistant master at Rugby and tutor at Wadham. About 1855 he became an ardent follower of Auguste Comte, and resigned his post at Wadham College in consequence. For the remainder of his life he was the principal English exponent of Comte's religion of humanity. Besides a translation of Comte's Catechism of Positive Religion (London, 1858), he published The Roman Empire of the West (1855); Gibraltar, or the Foreign Policy of England (1856); India (1858); Elizabeth of England (1862); Mr. Broadhead and the Anonymous Press (1867); Aristotle's Politics, edited (1874); Essays: Political, Social, and Religious (1874); and Human Catholicism (1876).

Corvin-Kroukowski, Pierre, known under his literary name of Pierre Newski, Russian author, born in Nijni-Novgorod in 1844; died in Asnières in July, 1899. He wrote for the principal Paris newspapers, published a history of the Russian theater, wrote romances, produced plays, and collaborated with Alexander Dumas. His best-known piece is the Danicheffs.

Dawson, Sir John William, Canadian geologist, born in Pictou, N. S., Oct. 13, 1820; died Nov. 20, 1899. He was educated at the University of Edinburgh, and, returning to Nova Scotia, devoted himself to the study of the natural history and geology of the maritime provinces. The results of his investigations appeared in his Acadian Geology (Edinburgh, 1855). In 1842 and in 1852 he gave material assistance to Sir Charles Lyell during the latter's explorations in Nova Scotia. In 1886 he was president of the British Association at its meeting in Montreal. In 1884 he was knighted. Besides many professional papers, his writings include Archaia, or Studies on the Cosmogony and Natural History of the Hebrew Scriptures (London, 1858); Agriculture for Schools (Toronto, 1864); Handbook of Acadian Zoology (1871); The Story of Earth and Man, written in opposition to the Darwinian hypothe sis of the origin of species (1872); Nature and the Bible (New York, 1875); Life's Dawn on Earth (1875); The Origin of the World (1878); Fossil Men and their American Analogues (1880); The Chain of Life in Geological Time (1881); The Geological History of Plants (1888); Modern Science in Bible Lands (1888); Handbook of Canadian Geology (1889); Modern Ideas of Evolution (1890); Some Salient Points in the Science of the Earth (1893); The Ice Age in Canada (1894); The Meeting Place of Geology and History (1894); and Relics of Primeval Life (1897). Deane, Sir Thomas Newenham, Irish architect, born in Cork, June 15, 1828; died in Dublin, Nov. 8, 1899. His father, grandfather, and greatgrandfather were architects. He studied with his father, with whom he became associated in business. He was knighted in 1890. His principal work is the Science and Art Museum and National Library of Ireland, in Dublin. Among his many other designs are Tuam Cathedral, Church of Ireland Training College, restoration of Kilkenny Cathedral, the Physiological Laboratory and the Anthropological Museum in Oxford. His work is characterized by dignity of treatment and excellence of general design.

Delaborde, Comte Henri, French art historian, born in Rennes in 1811; died in Paris, June 1, 1899. He was the son of Gen. Delaborde, and studied art under Paul Delaroche. In the series of historical pictures ordered by Louis Philippe for the galleries of Versailles he painted the

Knights of St. John of Jerusalem and the Taking of Damietta. In later life he became known as a critic and historian of art, on which he wrote books, essays, and reviews. For many years he was curator of engravings at the national library and secretary of the Academy of Fine Arts. Essays on contemporary art, studies of Italian and French art, and a life of Ingres constitute three of the best known of his volumes, besides his various works on engraving.

Dene, Dorothy, English actress, born in London in 1861; died there, Dec. 27, 1899. Her first appearance of importance was at the Prince's Theater, London, June 22, 1885, in Gringoire. On May 13, 1886, she appeared as Cassandra in The Story of Orestes, and was received with great enthusiasm. On June 14 of the same year she played Madge in the original production of Jack at the Royalty. She played the heroine in Love's Martyrdom, July 3, and on Oct. 27 created another original part in Noah's Ark. During the seasons of 1887, 1888, and 1889 she played in many London productions as the heroine, and was a member of Benson's Shakespearean Company and of the company engaged by Mrs. Labouchere for her production of Midsummer Night's Dream. She came to New York under engagement to the Theater of Arts and Letters, and played leading parts in the productions made by that organization. She retired from the stage in 1894. Her grace and classic cast of features made her a favorite model with Lord Leighton, who painted her in his Greek Girls playing Ball, and Cymon and Iphigenia.

De Salla, Barton, English actor, born in Paris, Dec. 6, 1832; died in Croydon, England, June 29, 1899. He went to London with his parents at six years of age, and made his first appearance on the stage as a player of children's parts in the companies supporting such French actors as visited England. His first appearance in English drama was as a member of the company of the Theater Royal, Belfast, where he demonstrated his worth as a singing comedian. For many years he played as a stock actor in the theaters of Dublin, Liverpool, and Edinburgh. He gave concerts and operatic performances. He was the Gen. Sir Drummond Fyfe in The French Maid, at the Vaudeville, London, in 1898-'99, and was playing Dr. Magrath in The Broken Melody when seized with his fatal illness. His last appearance was June 28, 1899.

Devès, Paul, French statesman, born in Aurillac, Nov. 8, 1837; died Nov. 13, 1899. He first entered the Chamber in 1876, and in 1881 he became Minister of Agriculture in the Gambetta Cabinet. In 1882 and 1883 he was Minister of Justice in the Cabinets of Duclerc and Fallières. In 1885 he lost his seat in the Chamber, but in 1886 he was elected Senator.

Dollman, Francis Thomas, English architect, born in 1812; died in London, Dec. 26, 1899. He was a pupil of Augustus Pugin and afterward of Basevi, and became an associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1864, and fellow in 1895. He built several churches, but was best known as a most accomplished draughtsman and the author of architectural works of much value. These include Examples of Antient Pulpits in England (London, 1849); Examples of Antient Domestick Architecture (1856-'58); The Priory Church of St. Mary Overie, Southwark (1881); An Analysis of Antient Domestick Architecture, with J. R. Jobbins (1860-'64). With Bowman and Crowther he was associated in the preparation of their great work on The Ecclesiastical Architecture of the Middle Ages.

Ellis, Thomas Edward, Welsh politician, born in Cynlas, Merioneth, in 1859; died in Cannes, France, April 5, 1899. He was the son of a farmer, and learned English as a foreign tongue. He entered the Bala Theological College to prepare himself for the Welsh Calvinistic ministry, studied afterward at University College, Aberystwith, and thence went to Oxford, where he took classical honors. After acting as private secretary to John Brunner, he became the leader of the Young Wales party, being elected to Parliament in 1886. The tithe troubles of 1887 afforded the opportunity for pleading the cause of land reform, Church disestablishment, and education in Wales. He helped in the elaboration of the schemes of education carried through by the Liberal party, obtained an electoral success for his party in the county councils when they were first instituted, many Welsh nationalists being elected on his programme, and in 1892 he was appointed a junior Lord of the Treasury. From 1894 till his death he was the Liberal whip in the House of Commons.

Ennery, Adolphe Philippe d', a French dramatist, born in Paris in 1811; died there, Jan. 26, 1899. He was of Hebrew parentage. Starting in life as a clerk, he took to journalism, and then turned to the drama, which he worked as a profitable business, studying scenic effects and the possibilities of the stage; startling, but not intricate plots; novel situations; the quick change from tragic to comic scenes, and the contrast between serious and ludicrous characters; and conventional morality, such as the general public likes. Thus he came to be the master of modern melodrama, whose plays were the staple attraction of country theaters, and were played in Paris, sometimes three in one night on the stages of different theaters. His first attempt was Émile, on le fils d'un Pair de France (1831). His Honneur de ma Fille (1835) was followed by others in quick succession. From 1837 he produced almost every year one play or two, sometimes six or seven, and kept it up for fifty years, amassing a fortune of 6,000,000 francs. Some of his successful plays are the Prise de Pekin, Deux Orphelines, Martyre, La Grâce de Dieu, Dame de St. Tropes, and Aïeule. He possessed collections of Chinese and Japanese art, which he intended to bequeath to the state.

Erckmann, Émile, French novelist, born in Pfalzburg in 1822; died in Paris, March 14, 1899. He was the son of a bookseller, and studied law, but his talent for writing was early developed, and in 1847 he formed a literary partnership with M. Chatrian, then a professor at Pfalzburg. In the time of the second empire tales and legends of Alsace-Lorraine, signed by the coupled names of Erckmann and Chatrian, had some success, and long romances which followed attained an enormous popularity. The most celebrated of these was Le Conscrit de 1813. When interest in these began to wane, it was revived for a time by the success of the plays of Erckmann-Chatrian. Le Juif Polonais and L'Ami Fritz were dramas of considerable merit; the Rantzau, though of mediocre quality, was scarcely less remunerative. When their financial success was at the flood the two associates quarreled over business matters. They were business partners, rather than collaborators, for Chatrian attended to the advertisement and sale of the productions of Erckmann, who after they separated continued to write industriously, and his writings, although no longer in fashion, showed no diminution of merit. The short stories, strong in local color and sentiment, descriptive power, and keen and humorous

characterization of types of people, are still relished.

Farrer, Lord, an English economist and administrator, born in London in 1819; died at Dorking, Oct. 11, 1899. Thomas Henry Farrer was the son of an eminent lawyer, and was educated at Eton and Oxford, was called to the bar, and then entered the civil service as a clerk in the Board of Trade. Rising to be permanent secretary, he held that post nearly forty years, and was the arbiter in many decisions of the Board of Trade. But in later years he could not shape the policy of the Government in accordance with the Manchester theories of unrestricted individualism and laissez faire, which he was about the last economist in England to uphold in their purity. As a thoroughgoing individualist, it was the easier for him to appease the shipowners when Parliament imposed restrictions for the benefit of seamen and the railroad managers and shareholders when the regulation of railroads was made more and more stringent. He fought against forms of Government interference that since he retired have been introduced, and as adviser on commercial treaties he resisted unflinchingly and successfully every form of protection or retaliation. He was a leader in the organization of the Gold-Standard Defense Association in 1895.

Faure, François Félix, President of the French Republic, born Jan. 30, 1841; died in Paris, Feb. 16, 1899. He was descended from humble Provençal ancestors, received a good commercial education, learned the leather business from the foundation, became a shipowner and shipbuilder at Havre, entered the Chamber of Deputies at the age of forty, held various ministerial posts, and was elected President of the republic on Jan. 17, 1895 (see Annual Cyclopædia for 1895, page 280). He was a representative bourgeois, and his very lack of renown and political prestige made him popular with the middle classes, and his humble origin and the fact that he had once worn the workingman's blouse as a tanner's apprentice pleased the fancy of the proletariat. The nation was more than satisfied when it found that this President, selected almost by chance and previously so inconspicuous, displayed extraordinary tact and dignity of style in his public utterances and communications with the heads of foreign states, and maintained the dignity of his office with graceful ease. The visit of the Czar to Paris in the autumn of 1896, and President Faure's return visit to St. Petersburg in the following year, marked by the open avowal of the Franco-Russian alliance, cast a temporary halo of glory about the presidency of Félix Faure, which began to fade, however, when the fickle and impulsive French public ceased to value the Russian alliance. President Faure's popularity diminished rapidly, and his taste for display and etiquette, which the people had first admired and encouraged, made him a butt for satire and detraction. His health broke down under the burden of responsibility that was imposed by the scandals and animosities of the Dreyfus crisis, and he was suddenly stricken by apoplexy.

Ferguson, John, British journalist, born in Lanarkshire, Scotland, Oct. 28, 1851; died in London, April 3, 1899. For nearly a score of years he contributed special articles to the London Times, besides writing regularly for the Referee, the Academy, and other periodicals. Among his published works are The Insanity of Genius and The Human Machine: An Inquiry into the Divinity of Human Faculty (1899). ̃

Flower, Sir William, English naturalist, born in Stratford-on-Avon, Nov. 30, 1831; died in London, July 1, 1899. He studied in University College, London, served through the Crimean War as assistant surgeon, was demonstrator of anatomy in Middlesex Hospital after his return, then curator of the Hunterian Museum, and later Professor of Comparative Anatomy and Physiology in the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons from 1869 to 1884, when he became director of the Natural History Museum in South Kensington. The collections he arranged in double series, one set arranged in types and exposed to view for popular instruction, while the great mass of specimens were carefully classified and safely stored so as to be available for morphological study. He was the author of an Introduction to the Osteology of the Mammalia, Fashion in Deformity, The Horse, essays on museum management, and memoirs on the brain and dentition of marsupials, the cranium of the carnivores, and the evolution of the cetaceans.

Foli, Signor (Allan James Foley), Irish singer, born in Cahir, Ireland, in 1835; died in Southport, England, Oct. 20, 1899. He was one of the most celebrated of bassos. He was brought by his parents to the United States in early boyhood, and lived in Hartford, Conn. He was there a member of a church choir, and attracted so much attention by his extraordinary voice that generous citizens contributed to a fund for his education as an opera singer in Italy. He made his début as Signor Foli, with instant approval, at Catania, Italy, in 1862, and soon was engaged for the Italian opera in Paris. There he attracted the attention of J. H. Mapleson, the English impresario, who engaged him for Her Majesty's Italian Opera Company, London, in 1865. Foli was associated in Mapleson's company, on his introduction to the English public, with Titiens, Grisi, Trebelli, Lablache, Mario, Arditi, and Rokitanski. For the long term of Mr. Mapleson's management of Italian opera in England and America Foli was his favorite and perhaps most popular basso. In private life he was a big, jovial, and generous Irish boy, with the happy quality of making stanch friends everywhere. He visited both Americas, South Africa, and Australia, singing both opera and oratorio. In the last he was especially admirable in Elijah, The Messiah, The Redemption, and The Golden Legend. It had been his intention to retire from the stage at the close of his engagement with Mme. Albani's Concert Company, with which he was traveling in England at the time of his death, and he had fixed upon Tacoma, Washing ton, as a place of residence. But he had contracted a severe cold, and was suddenly attacked with pneumonia, from which he could not rally. His last appearance was in Southport, England, Oct. 14, 1899.

Forbes, John, a Scottish clergyman, born in Bohaven, Scotland, in 1802; died in January, 1899. His education was received at Marischal and King's Colleges and at Göttingen. In 1840 he became governor of John Watson's Institution in Edinburgh, and in 1850 of Donaldson's Hospital. In 1869 he was appointed Professor of Hebrew at Aberdeen University, and he was emeritus professor there at the time of his death. He was the author of Symmetrical Structure of Scripture (Edinburgh); Analytical Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans (London, 1868); Predestination and Free Will (Edinburgh, 1878); and Studies on the Book of Psalms (1888).

Ford, Sir Clare, an English diplomatist, born in 1828; died in Paris, Jan. 31, 1899. He was in

a dragoon regiment four years, sold out in 1852, entered the diplomatic service, and was attached by turns to most of the legations in Europe and America, acquiring gradually a reputation as a specialist in commercial questions. In 1875 he represented the British Government before the Halifax International Commission that made the United States pay $5,500,000 for the fishery rights acquired under the treaty of 1871. This triumph secured him the appointment of minister at Buenos Ayres. He arranged a restoration of diplomatic relations with Uruguay, and was accredited to Montevideo. He was minister to Brazil for a year or two, was transferred to Athens in 1881, and in 1884 went to Madrid, where he remained till 1892. In 1884 and 1885 he was commissioned at Paris for the settlement of the Newfoundland fisheries question, but the conventions that he signed were not ratified. In 1886 he negotiated a commercial treaty with Spain.

Forsyth, William, Scottish author, born in Greenock, Scotland, Oct. 25, 1812; died Dec. 26, 1899. He was educated at Cambridge, and was called to the bar in 1839. He represented Marylebone in Parliament, 1874-'80, but he made little figure in the debates. He traveled extensively, and was deeply interested in prison reforms. He became Queen's counsel in 1857, and held office in various professional and other societies. He wrote professional and miscellaneous works, of varying degrees of excellence, but he outlived his literary reputation many years, and at the time of his death had passed from the memory of most readers. The list of his published books comprises The Law of Composition with Creditors (London, 1841); The Law relating to Simony 1844); Hortensius, or the Duty and Office of an Advocate (1849); The Law of Infants (1850); The History of Trial by Jury (1852); History of the Captivity of Napoleon at St. Helena (1853); Life of Marcus Tullius Cicero (1864); Rome and its Ruins (1865); Novels and Novelists of the Eighteenth Century (1871); Hannibal in Italy: An Historical Drama (1872); Essays: Critical and Narrative (1874); The Slavonic Provinces South of the Danube (1876); and Idyls and Lyrics.

Foster, Myles Birket, English artist, born in North Shields, Feb. 4, 1825; died in Weybridge, March 27, 1899. At sixteen he was apprenticed to E. Landells, a well-known wood engraver, who encouraged him to draw on wood blocks, and in 1846 he began the business on his own account. For a dozen years he was a prolific illustrator of books, but then turned his attention toward water-color painting, exhibiting his first picture, A Farm, at the Academy in 1859. At a later period he exhibited pictures in oils. His work, both as illustrator and colorist, is very popular and has a decided charm. Its sincerity is everywhere apparent, but it is deficient in insight and the deeper kind of pathos.

Frankland, Sir Edward, English chemist, born in Churchtown in 1825; died in Norway, Aug. 11, 1899. He was educated in the Lancaster grammar school and studied chemistry first in the Museum of Practical Geology and afterward in the laboratory of Liebig at Giessen and that of Bunsen at Marburg. He isolated with Kolbe several organic radicals, and afterward devoted himself to the synthesis of organic bodies. In this work he made the discovery of the union of organic radicals with metals, announcing in 1850 the preparation of compounds of zinc with methyl and ethyl and predicting the existence of a score of similar bodies. From this he deduced the conclusion that an atom of the metal

could only attach to itself a definite number of the atoms of other elements, which led to the doctrine of atomicity or equivalence of the elements. He was appointed Professor of Chemistry in Owens College, Manchester, in 1851, and there began to devote himself to applied chemistry. He investigated the gases manufactured from different kinds of coal, and incidentally invented a gas burner with two concentric chimneys. He also developed the process for making water gas. Becoming Professor of Chemistry in the Royal School of Mines in 1865, he made monthly analyses of the water consumed in the metropolis, elaborating new processes for the accurate detection of pollution by sewage or animal matters, in which he was helped by H. E. Armstrong. When he was appointed on the commission to report on the pollution of rivers in 1868 he went to work in an improved laboratory, and during six years he investigated waters from different geological strata, the water of lakes, wells, and rivers, the purification of polluted water, the propagation of disease by drinking water, the healthfulness of hard water, the deterioration of water in mains and pipes, the purification of sewage, and the means of preventing the pollution of rivers by factory refuse. Frankland proved experimentally that compressed gases are capable of giving out a flame as brilliant, with a spectrum as constant, as ignited solid or liquid matter, and from his experiments he was convinced that the sun is not solid or liquid, that the photosphere at least consists of vapor. These experiments grew out of observations on the rate of combustion of candles in the rarefied air at the summit of Mont Blanc when he passed a night there with Tyndall in August, 1859. With Fick and Wislicenus he made experiments to determine the origin of muscular power by calculating the muscular oxidation and measuring the amount of nitrogen expelled from the body before, during, and after an ascent of the Faulhorn, no nitrogenous food being taken during the experiment. He concluded that the transformation of muscle supplies only a small fraction of the energy, the larger proportion being evolved by the oxidation of nonnitrogenous substances, such as fat.

Fruin, Robert, Dutch historian, born in 1824; died in Leyden, Jan. 29, 1899. His researches in archives gave him a great fund of original knowledge, and his penetrating judgment and spirit of impartiality placed him at the head of modern investigators of Dutch history, of which he was professor at Leyden from 1860 till 1894. He wrote a work covering ten years of the Dutch struggle for independence, and many historical


George Alexandrovich, Czarevich of Russia, born in Tsarskoe Selo, May 9, 1871; died in Abbas Tuman, in the Caucasus, July 10, 1899. The Grand Duke George was three years younger than his brother, the reigning Czar, whom he accompanied on a voyage round the world in 1890. During this voyage the symptoms of pulmonary consumption were observed, and, being affected by Indian fever also at Bombay, he returned home a confirmed invalid. The heir apparent after his death is the Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich, born Dec. 4, 1878.

Gould, James Nutcombe, English actor, born in Devonshire in 1849; died in Lustleigh, Oct. 10, 1899. He was the son of a clergyman, and was educated at King's College, London. He began as an actor in Shakespearean comedy in 1884, and traveled three years, playing many Shakespearean parts with marked success. When Beerbohm Tree produced The Red Lamp in Lon

don, in 1887, Mr. Gould played Rheinveck during the entire run. After touring with the companies of Helen Barry and Ben Greet he returned to London, where he played Roger Willoughby in The Power of Love, March 6, 1888, and on Oct. 17 was the Lord Petersfield in A Patron Saint and Lord Sakmundham in Brantinghame Hall, Nov. 29. During 1889 he was Lord Saltash in A Panel Picture, Prince Maleotti in Forget-me-Not, Mr. Crossley in Doubt, Mr. Basing in Her Own Witness, Lambert Streyke in the revival of The Colonel, and Rev. Mr. Bream in Man and the Woman. When George Alexander organized his company to occupy The Avenue Theater in the spring of 1890, Mr. Gould, who had become one of the favorite representatives of dignified modern character, was engaged, and he played first in that house in Fool's Mate, Feb. 1, 1890. He was Mr. Wriothesley in Miss Cinderella, Jacquemin in The Grandsire, Vaillant in The Struggle for Life, and Dr. Latimer in Sunlight and Shadow. He played at The Haymarket in Comedy and Tragedy in the interim, and as Jaques in As You Like It to the Rosalind of Mrs. Patrick Campbell. When Lady Windermere's Fan was produced, Feb. 20, 1892, he was Lord Darlington, and Mr. Pedrick in Liberty Hall. In The Second Mrs. Tanqueray he was Frank Misquith, Q. C. At the Haymarket, in 1894, he was Earl of Wauborough in The Charlatan, Diomede in Once Upon a Time, Viscount Mount Sowell in A Bunch of Violets, and the Rev. Stephen Wynne in Johna-Dreams. In the fine production of Romeo and Juliet made by Forbes-Robertson in 1895 he was Friar Laurence. He also played in revivals of Much Ado about Nothing and Fedora.

Grant, Baron Albert, English promoter, born in Dublin in 1830; died there, Aug. 30, 1899. He was of Hebrew extraction, and after attending school in London and Paris began as a wine merchant, became a money lender, changed his name from Gottheimer to Grant, founded an investment company in 1865, and operated on an enormous scale in Erie shares, in worthless Nevada mines, in the Emma mine bubble, in visionary English mines, in Honduras and Paraguay government loans, in all sorts of speculative properties. He gave Leicester Square to London, contributed to the gallery at Milan, thus winning his title, made other lavish gifts, built himself a costly palace, represented Kidderminster in Parliament, and in 1885 went into bankruptcy.

Graves, Charles, Anglican prelate, born in Dublin, Ireland, Nov. 6, 1812; died there, July 17, 1899. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, where he became a fellow and was Professor of Mathematics, 1843-'62. He was president of the Royal Irish Academy in 1861-65, and was also a fellow of the Royal Society. From 1860 to 1866 he was chaplain to the Lord Lieutenant, and was dean of Clonfert, 1864-'66. In the latter year he was consecrated Bishop of Limerick, Ardfert, and Aghadoe. He was a brother-in-law of Von Ranke, the German historian.

Greenbank, Henry Hewetson, English dramatist, born in London in 1866; died there, Feb. 26, 1899. He first became known as a play writer on the production of his comedy called The Director at Terry's Theater, London, May 7, 1891. This first effort was not successful, but was followed by an operetta called Captain Billy, Sept. 24, with success. Oct. 6, 1892, Incognito, adapted from Le Coeur et la Main of Charles Lecocq by Burnand, with lyrics by Greenbank, was produced and had 'fair success. Beef Tea, an amusing one-act operetta, was produced Oct. 27, and was well received. He was thenceforward the

leading writer of lyrics for musical comedy in London, and was the author of those of The Gaiety Girl, An Artist's Model, A Runaway Girl, A Greek Slave, and San Toy, which last work was not produced until after his death. He wrote also some pleasing songs for the successful play Monte Carlo.

Grosart, Alexander Balloch, English clergy man, born in Stirling, Scotland, June 18, 1822; died in Dublin in March, 1899. He held successive livings at Liverpool and Blackburn, but for several years resided at Dublin, editing the works of English authors of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. His original writings include Small Sins (1863); Mighty to Save (1863); The Lambs all Safe (1864); The Prince of Light and the Prince of Darkness in Conflict (1864); Joining the Church (1865); Representative Nonconformists (1879), and some of lesser note. His industry was prodigious, but his accuracy has not always gone unquestioned.

Groth, Klaus, German poet, born in Holstein, April 24, 1819; died in June, 1899. He studied philology at Bonn, and began to publish in the Plattdeutsch dialect poetry that soon attracted attention in Germany by its strength, sincerity, and conciseness. Afterward he wrote a long series of novels and tales devoted to the life, manners, and traditions of his native province. He was a zealous hunter of folklore, and was so attached to the Low German dialect that he wrote several philological treatises to prove its superiority to High German. In 1866 he was called to the professorship of the History of German Literature in the University of Kiel. Some of his most popular stories are Meister Lamp und sin Dochder, Vetterln, Baer de Goern, and Ut min Jungspara


Hamilton, Walter, English author, born in London, Jan. 12, 1844; died Feb. 1, 1899. He was educated at the Collége de Dieppe. His earliest publication was A Memoir of George Cruikshank (London, 1878). Other works by him are The Origin of the Office of Poet Laureate (1879); History of the Poets Laureate of England (1879); The Esthetic Movement in England (1882); French Bookplates; Dated Bookplates: Odd Volumes and their Bookplates (1898). He was the editor of Poems and Parodyes in Prayse of Tobacco, and of an important work, in six volumes, entitled Parodies of the Works of British and American Authors (1884-'89).

Hay, John, British admiral, born in Perthshire, Scotland, in 1805; died in Edinburgh, Jan. 14, 1899. He entered the navy in 1819, and took part in the capture of Morea Castle in 1828. During the China war of 1840 and 1841 he served with distinction as lieutenant on the Pylades. He became commander in 1841 and captain in 1849, and was retired as rear admiral in 1866, receiving the rank of vice-admiral in 1873 and admiral in 1878.

Hennell, Sara Sophia, English author, born in England in 1813; died in Coventry, March 7, 1899. She was an early friend of George Eliot's, and appears to have exercised considerable influence in causing the latter to forsake the Methodism that she once professed. Miss Hennell's Skeptical Tendency of Butler's Analogy (London, 1859) made much stir at the time of its publication. Her other works are Christianity and Infidelity: An Exposition of the Arguments on Both Sides (1857); The Early Christian Anticipation of an Approaching End of the World (1860); Thoughts in Aid of Faith (1860); and Present Religion as a Faith owning Fellowship with Thought (1865-'87).

Herschell, Lord, English jurist, born in 1837; died in Washington, March 1, 1899. He was Attorney-General and afterward Lord Chancellor in Liberal cabinets. As Sir Farer Herschell he was one of the most active and distinguished of the legal members of his party, and when appointed Lord Chancellor in the Gladstone Cabinet of 1880 he was elevated to the peerage. He was sent to Washington in 1899 as chief of the British commissioners for the settlement of disputes between Canada and the United States.

Hervé, Édouard, French journalist, born in St. Denis, Réunion, in 1835; died in Paris, Jan. 4, 1899. He was the son of a Professor of Mathematics, studied in the College Napoléon, in Paris, took the first prize in philosophy in 1854, and entered the École Normale, but withdrew after gaining distinction in literature in order to devote himself to journalism. He wrote on politics in the Revue de l'Instruction Publique and the Revue Contemporaine, became editor of the Journal de Dimanche in 1863, wrote for the Temps and the Époque, and sent to the Journal de Genève articles that could not be printed in France. In 1867 he founded, with M. J. Weiss, the Journal de Paris, in which appeared the boldest criticisms of the Imperial Government. He was an unsuccessful candidate for the Chamber in 1869. As editor of Le Soleil, which he established in 1873, he exercised a notable influence in public affairs. His articles on the visit of the Comte de Paris to Frohsdorff led to a duel, in which he wounded Edmond About. He upheld the policy of the Broglie, Cissey, and Buffet cabinets, and defended the reactionary measures in 1877; but after the elections had destroyed all hope of a restoration of the monarchy he warned the Republicans against attempts to effect it by violence. He attacked Jules Ferry's educational proposals in 1879 with energy and vigor. After the death of the Comte de Chambord he was the first to advocate a union of the Royalists and to hail the Orleans prince as the head of the house of France. He was elected to the French Academy in 1886.

Heureaux, Ulises, President of Santo Domingo, born in Puerto Plata in 1853; died in Moca, July 26, 1899. He was the son of a Haytian mulatto and a negress from St. Thomas, entered the Dominican army as a private, and rose through successive grades to that of major general, having distinguished himself in the wars against the Spaniards. He was Government delegate in Cibao in 1878, and in 1880 delegate of the provisional government for the southern provinces. During the administration of Merino he was Minister of the Interior and Prime Minister. He was elected President of the republic in 1882, serving till 1884. In 1887 he was elected again, and retained the reins of Government and scarcely disputed control of the electorate till his death by assassination. But for his vigilance and courage he would have been assassinated long before, for he did not himself spare the lives of his enemies. He was as unscrupulous as he was despotic and cruel, but always affable and dignified in his demeanor. His friends he permitted to enrich themselves by monopolies and concessions. Putting away his wife, he kept up luxurious establishments for women in various towns, and they were of service to him in watching the constantly hatching conspiracies. employed a host of spies of both sexes, belonging mostly to the lower classes. Speaking their own patois to the country people and scattering lavish alms among them, he maintained his popularity among the ignorant. He drank only water, and


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