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Prof. Burckhalter designed doing little, but of the Imperial Government and to the appellate doing it well. The ingenious device mentioned jurisdiction of the Judicial Committee of the above, one of his own inventions, was intended British House of Lords in matters of imperial to control the exposure so as to give the outer concern. The Crown is represented in each coland fainter streamers a long exposure, and the ony by a governor, who as the executive head bright inner ones and the chromosphere a shorter of the colonial Government acts on the advice of one upon the same plate, a feat never before ac- responsible ministers selected from the party or complished. This was done by a revolving disk coalition that forms the majority in the Legislain front of the plate, with slits cut out of it wide tive Assembly. The Crown colony of Fiji is adat the circumference and narrow at the center. ministered in accordance with native laws and The disk was made to revolve by clockwork at customs, and its Governor is High Commissioner the back of the plate, the attachment passing for the Western Pacific, having supervision of through a hole made in the plate itself. This the other islands under native rule. hole, falling in the center of the Moon's disk, did Area and Population.—The area in square no particular harm, its effect on the print being miles of the British Australasian colonies, accordstrikingly like some newly discovered crater on ing to the latest surveys, and their estimated the Moon. The light intensity transmitted to population on Dec. 31, 1897, are given in the folthe plate at the farthest limits of the corona lowing table: and streamers, being the same as at the Moon's limb, prevents an overexposure at the latter re

COLONIES.

Population. gion and an underexposure at the former. This

810,700

New South Wales.. arrangement, as used at the eclipse in India,

1,335,800 Victoria ............

87,884 1,169,434 gave an exposure at the outer corona of four

Queensland...

668,497 484,700 seconds, against only 0.08 of a second at the South Australia

903,690 858,224 inner. At the meeting of the Royal Astronomical Western Australia.....

975,920 161.924 Tasmania .....

26,385 195,500 Society attention was drawn to the beauty of

New Zealand *...

104,471 703.360 the details in the inner corona as seen on the Fiji and Rotumah

8.045

121,798 photograph, and especially to a formation in the northwest quadrant, which was not shown on

Total ............................ 3,085,592 4,530,740 any of the other photographs.

* Census of 1896. Astrographic Chart.- The Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford University Observatory, The estimate of population for New South speaking of the measurement and reduction of Wales was made on June 30, 1898. The number the plates for the Astrographic Catalogue, says of males was computed at 715,835; females, 619,that only 586 plates out of 1,180 required to in- 965. Sydney, the capital, had, with its suburbs, clude the entire sky have been measured, and an estimated population in 1897 of 417,250. The 525 of them are completely reduced. The scheme number of aborigines in 1891 was 5,097; of halfis less favorably considered by astronomers than castes, 3,183. formerly.

In Queensland the aborigines are estimated at Prof. Turner has found that sometimes 300 or 12,000. There is still some immigration of Chi400 stars are depicted on his plates, 2 degrees nese into Queensland, the number of arrivals in by 2 degrees square, with only twenty seconds' 1897 having been 455 and of departures 398. The exposure, and that with a three-minute exposure arrivals of Polynesians numbered 935 and dein the region of this area, whose center is in partures 924. The population of Brisbane and its right ascension 19h 43m, declination north 29°, environs in 1897 was estimated at 105,734. The 2,440 stars were measured. To avoid having too total population of the colony on Dec. 31, 1898, many stars on the plate, he found it necessary was estimated to be 499,000, consisting of 280,000 to reduce the time of exposure.

males and 219,000 females. As the result of the laborious investigation The population of Victoria was estimated for carried out by Prof. E. C. Pickering, of Harvard June 30, 1898. Melbourne, the capital, contained College Observatory, it has been found that with 458,610, nearly 40 per cent. of the total populaa photographic doublet lens large fields are ob- tion of the colony; Ballarat, 46,137; Sandhurst, tainable sensibly free from optical distortion. 43,075. There has been for five years an annual This being the case, astronomers begin to enter- excess of emigrants over immigrants, which was tain the opinion that the scheme of further com- 14,547 in 1896 and 19,949 during the three years pleting the astrographic chart with its hour's preceding, due to departures for the gold fields of exposure of plates, embracing an area of only Western Australia. 2 degrees by 2 degrees square, is a waste of time The population of South Australia comprised and labor, and the taking of these long-exposure 183,920 males and 174,304 females. There were plates is being abandoned.

3,848 Chinamen in the colony in 1891. The numAUSTRALASIA, one of the grand divisions ber of aborigines was then estimated at 3,134— of the globe, consisting of the continent of Aus- 1,661 males and 1,473 females. Adelaide, the capitralia and island colonies of Great Britain, with tal, contained, with its suburbs, 146,125 inhabitinterjacent islands. With the exception of the ants in 1897. Dutch and German portions of New Guinea, the The population of Western Australia consisted German protectorates of Bismarck Archipelago of 110,359 males and 51,565 females. Perth, the and the northern Solomon Islands, the French capital, had 37,929 inhabitants. The number of colony of New Caledonia, and the New Hebrides aborigines in the colony can not be estimated, as and smaller islands under native rule, all the they live mostly in unexplored regions. There islands of Australasia are British colonies and were 5,670 civilized aborigines in 1891. At the dependencies. The five colonies in Australia and end of 1898 the population of the colony was the colonies of Tasmania and New Zealand are estimated at 168,150. The number of arrivals self-governing, having each its representative during the year was 32,709; departures, 28,756. Legislature, with a responsible ministry, dispos- In New Zealand the population consisted of ing of its own revenues, and making its own laws 371,415 males and 331.945 females. Of the total under a charter granted by the British Parlia- white population, 340,631 were found on the ment, subject to a certain reserved veto power North island, 362,236 on the Middle island, and

tion,

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493 on Stewart, Chatham, and Kermadec islands. tax. The receipts from railways were £2,597,Including 39,854 Maoris and 3,711 Chinese, the 255; from posts and telegraphs, £522,741; from total population on April 12, 1896, was 743,214. Crown lands, £413,551; from other sources, Of the Maoris, 21,673 were males and 18,181 fe- £451,483. Of the total expenditures, £ 1,892,092 males. The total includes the half-castes living were for interest and expenses of the debt, in the tribes, numbering 3,503, and 229 Maori £1,476,696 for working expenses of railroads, wives of European husbands.

£251,552 for expenses of other public works, The population of Fiji consisted of 67,410 males £580,507 for posts and telegraphs, £135,928 for and 54,388 females. The Europeans numbered Crown lands, £568,357 for public instruction, 3,401, of whom 2,116 were males and 1,285 fe- £263,723 for charitable institutions, £156,137 miales; East Indians, 12,025, of whom 8,143 were for judicial and legal expenses, £299,235 for pomales and 3,882 females; Fijians, 99,773, of whom lice and jails, £93,211 for customhouses and 53,208 were males and 46,565 females; Rotumans, harbors, £53,316 for mines, £181,649 for dePolynesians, half-castes, and others, 6,599, offense, and £616,529 for other expenses. The whom 3,943 were males and 2,656 females. revenue for 1899 was estimated at £7,907,439; ex

The movement of population in the several penditure, £6,873,529. The actual receipts were colonies for 1897 was as follows:

£7,378,842. Of the total Victorian debt, £36,

700,944 were borrowed for railway construction,

Net im. £7,321,850 for waterworks, £1,105,557 for pubMar

Excess of COLONIES.

Births. Deaths. riages.

births.

lic-school buildings, and £1,800,970 for other

public works. The average rate of interest on New South Wales.. 8,813 37.247 14,264 22,983 6,606

the debt is 3.88 per cent. Victoria....... 7.568 31,310 15, 126 16,184 *6,454 Of the revenue of Queensland £1,207,849 came Queensland.... 2,894 14,313 5,423 8.890 3,631

from customs, £123,396 from excise and export South Australia.. 1,919 9,535 3,973 5,562 Western Australia. 1.659 4,021 2,648 1,378 22,600

duties, £110,207 from stamps, £56,598 from liTasmania...... 1,052 4,654 1,947 2,737 4,038 censes, £61,596 from the duty on dividends, New Zealand..

18,737 6,595 12,142 2,752 £346,249 from rent of pastoral lands, £214,427 Fijit........... 3,451 3,999 1548

from other rents and sales, £1,158,657 from rail* Net emigration. + Fijians only. Excess of deaths. ways, and £258,940 from posts and telegraphs.

The principal expenditures were £ 1,324,333 for Finances.-The revenue and expenditure of interest on the public debt, £ 684,566 for operatthe several colonies for 1897 and the state of ing railways, £313,610 for posts and telegraphs, their debts at the end of the fiscal year ending £247.473 for public instruction, £ 167,385 for the June 30, 1898, in New South Wales, Victoria, Colonial Treasurer's department, £84,014 for the Queensland, and South Australia; on March 31, Department of Public Lands, £37,280 for the 1897, in Western Australia and Tasmania; on Department of Agriculture, and £63,010 for enMarch 31, 1898, in New Zealand; and on Dec. 31, dowments to municipalities and divisions. The 1897, in Fiji, are shown in the following table: expenditure out of loans amounted for the year

to £937,066, of which £ 626,974 were spent on COLONIES. Revenue. Expenditure. Debt. railways, £36,101 on telegraphs, £11,717 on

rivers and harbors, £3,875 on defense, £7,598 on New South Wales.. £9,482,185 £9,391,012 £61,074,498 Victoria ......... 6,886,664 6,701,100 47,058,088

water supply, £ 12,274 on buildings, £70,016 for Queensland...

3,768,152 3,747,428 33,498,414 loans to sugar planters, and £116,877 for loans South Australia.

2,566,611 2,598,939 24,408,000 to public bodies. The revenue for 1899 was estiWestern Australia.. 2,843,775 3,236,044 7,608,480 Tasmania.. 845,019 785,026 8,390,026

mated at £3,882,360; expenditures, £3,866,507. New Zealand ..

5,079,230 4,602,272 44,081,521 The actual receipts amounted to £4,174,000, and 74,492 73,232 213,256 expenditures to £4,024,000.

South Australia obtains its revenue mainly The revenue of New South Wales is the gross from customs duties, inland revenue, posts and revenue. Of this, £2,570,489 are obtained by telegraphs, railroads, and public lands. The custaxation, the estimated yield of customs being toms revenue for 1899 is estimated at £584,386 £1,256,097; excise, £291,343; stamps, £348,558; out of a total revenue of £2,649,899, the estiland tax, £371,870; income tax, £ 180,103; li. mate of expenditures being £2,619,220. The censes, £ 122,518; the land revenue is £2,023, actual receipts from all sources were £2,665,500. 071; receipts from services, £4,633,196; from The yield of customs duties in Western Ausmiscellaneous sources, £255,379. Of the gross tralia in 1897 was £1,076,330. The rest of the expenditures, £1,855,387 were for the railway revenue is derived mainly from railways, the and tramway services, £702,361 for posts and postal service, and rent from public lands. The telegraphs, £2,271,833 for interest on the public annual charge of the debt is £303,153. The reydebt, £722,308 for education, and £3,839,123 for enue collected during the year 1898 was £2,605,other public works and services. The average 000, having grown from £400,000 in 1890, the rate of interest on the public debt is 3.71 per year when responsible government was introcent. The net return from railroads, tramways, duced, population having increased from 40,000 telegraphs, waterworks, and sewerage, on which to 168,000. 81 per cent. of the debt has been expended, is of the Tasmanian revenue £351,848 was de3.68 per cent. a year. The total revenue for 1899 rived from customs. The part derived from land was £9,754,185, railroad receipts having increased sales is expended for redemption of loans. The £200,000 and customs £73,000. Expenditure for revenue for 1898 was estimated at £913,275, and 1899 was more than covered by income.

the expenditure at £803,527. Of the total debt, The revenue of Victoria derived from taxation 48.24 per cent. was raised for railroad construcwas £2,645,187, of which £1,759,380 was re tion, 1.59 per cent. for telegraphs, 28.82 per cent. ceived from customs, £294,746 from excise, for roads, bridges, and jetties, 9.08 per cent. for £115,524 from the land tax, £ 86.906 from duties public buildings, 1.58 per cent. for defenses, 1.34 on estates of deceased persons, £19,128 from a per cent. for loans to public bodies, and 2.57 per duty on bank notes, £ 153,500 from stamps, £17, cent. for various public works and services. 099 from business licenses, £19,603 from ton- Of the revenue of New Zealand £1,935,252 nage dues, etc., and £179,301 from the income were obtained from customs, £780,232 from the

Fiji ............

post office, telegraphs, and stamps, £1,370,572 all other exports, £4,646,398. Of the total value from railroads, £ 267,286 from the land tax, and of imports, £6,004,798 came from Great Britain, £115,210 from the income tax. Sales of land to which £9,559,249 of exports were sent; Ausbrought in £109,521. The chief expenditures were tralasian colonies produced £6,813,772 of the £1,741,413 for the public debt, £ 849,928 for rail- imports and took £4,969,120 of the exports; ways, £ 466,925 for education, £ 362,993 for posts India furnished £282,090 of imports and reand telegraphs, and £195,602 for constabulary ceived £325,261 of exports; Ceylon furnished and defense. The land tax is not assessed on im- £143,030 and received £59,812; Canada furprovements, and the mortgagee pays the tax for nished £11,682, but took only £424; and other the value of his mortgage. The rate for 1897 was British possessions furnished £335,341 and reId. in the pound, besides which a graduated tax ceived £162,583; making the total value imis collected on large properties ranging from jd. ported from British countries £13,590,713 and on values between £5,000 and £10,000 up to 2d. the total exports to them £15,076,449. The imon values exceeding £210,000. The income tax ports from non-British countries were £1,863,769, is collected on incomes above £300, 6d. in the of which £590,744 came from the United States, pound on the first £1,000 and 1s. on every addi-, £546,589 from Germany, £157,615 from Java tional £1,000 of income.

and the Philippine Islands, £142,924 from Of the revenue of Fiji £32,994 came from cus France, £ 142,915 from Belgium, £104,761 from toms, £4,254 from navigation dues, £7,298 from Sweden and Norway, £48,446 from China, and licenses and internal revenue, £6,847 from law £129,775 from other countries; exports to forcourts, £2,686 from postal and revenue stamps, eign countries amounted to £1,663,221, of which and £19,217 from native taxes, the last being the value of £740,638 went to France, £ 480,840 paid in native produce delivered by the natives to Germany, £198,525 to Belgium, £185,344 to and sold by the Government by annual contract the United States, £12,949 to Java and the Of the expenditures, £37,726 were paid in salaries Philippines, and £ 44,925 to other countries. and £35,506 for other expenses.

The largest imports of Queensland were textile Commerce.-The value of the foreign trade goods and clothing for £1,030,296 and metals of the several colonies in 1897 is given in the fol- and metal manufactures for £ 680,606. The chief lowing table:

exports were gold for £2,568,702, wool for £2,509,342, sugar for £681,038, frozen meat for

£ 662,994, hides and skins for £437,658, preserved COLONIES.

Imports.
Exports

and salted meat for £274,698, tallow for £272,New South Wales....

£21,744,350 £23,751,072

528, pearl shell for £126,492, meat extract for Victoria ...........

15,454,482 16.739,670 £92,255, fruit for £87,450, silver for £62,801, Queensland...

5.429,191 9,091,557

and tin for £36,670. Of the total imports, South Australia.

7,126,385 6.928,415 Western Australia.

6,418,565 3,940,098

£2,501,952 came from Great Britain, £2,323,035 Tasmania....

1,367,608 1.744.461 from Australasian colonies, £265,766 from the New Zealand..

8,055,223 10,016,993 United States, £157,342 from British possessions, Fiji ............

248,748 431,860

and £181,096 from other countries. Of the ex

ports, £3,322,703 went to Great Britain, £5,645,The trade of New South Wales with other Aus- 626 to Australasian colonies, £79,615 to various tralasian colonies amounted to £9,602,277 of British possessions, £1,765 to the United States, imports and £8,174,666 of exports. The over- and £41,848 to other countries. The yield of sugar land trade was £3,931,292 for imports and in 1899 was 164,000 tons from 82,000 acres, com£4,498,619 for exports. Other British posses- pared with 98,000 tons from 65,000 acres in 1898. sions furnished £856,576 of imports and took The total value of imports in 1898 was £5,880,£ 602,449 of exports. The imports from Great 000; exports, £10,079,000, showing large inBritain were £7,557,069, and the exports to Great creases in sugar, wool, gold, and meat. Britain £8,728,828. Imports from the United The South Australian exports of wool in 1897 States amounted to £1,887,877, and exports to were valued at £995,393; of wheat flour, £225,the United States were £2,462,319 in value. 387; of wheat, £2,473; of copper, £238,277. The With all other foreign countries the import trade quantity of breadstuffs was 18,119 tons. Of the was £1,840,551 and the export trade £3,782,810. total imports, £2,054,267 came from Great Of the total exports, £17,057,543 were products Britain, £3,846,508 from Australasian colonies, of the colony. The export of wool was 285,797, £304,666 from the United States, £240,513 from 725 pounds, valued at £8,920,285. The export of various British possessions, and £677,431 from tallow was valued at £504,227; frozen and pre other countries. Of the exports, the value of served meat, £545,133; hides and skins, £772, £2,182,946 went to Great Britain, £2,961,212 to 584; leather, £304,179; coal, £952,054; gold Australasian colonies, £909,553 to other British coin, £4,346,647. The coal output for 1898 was possessions, £1,900 to the United States, and 4,736,000 tons, valued at £1,304,000.

£872,804 to other countries. The imports of Victoria comprised wool for The gold exported from Western Australia in £1,964,731, woolen goods for £604,895, cotton 1897 was 674,989 ounces, £2,564,977 in value. goods for £919,661, sugar for £785,717, tea for Other exports were wool of the value of £295,£273,338, live stock for £528,787, timber for 646; timber, £ 192,451; sandalwood, £49,480; £251,451, iron and steel manufactures for £535,- pearl shell, £40,253; skins, £28,021; pearls, 666, coal for £228,647, and other articles of the £20,000. Of the total value of the imports, value of £9,361,589. The export of wool was £2,624,086 came from Great Britain, £3,277,300 123,572,693 pounds, valued at £3,999,813, nearly from Australasian colonies, £210,100 from other half of it being the produce of other colonies. British possessions, £160,055 from the United The export of gold, mostly specie, was £6,472,- States, and £ 147,024 from other countries. Of 318; export of live stock, £329,860; wheat ex- the total for exports, £1.736,205 went to the ported, £225,957; other breadstuffs, £51,509; re- United Kingdom, £1,980,218 to Australasian colexport of tea, £155,896; export of sugar, mostly onies, £158,457 to other British possessions, refined in the colony, £160,554; export of leather £120 to the United States, and £65,098 to other and leather manufactures, £370,495; export of countries. In 1898 the gold export was 1,050,183 clothing, £ 164,285; export of tallow, £ 162,585; ounces, valued at £3,991,000.

The chief imports of Tasmania were textile planting of vineyards in Victoria became a huge goods and clothing for £410,768, mechanical speculation. Ignorant and careless methods deand art products for £334,539, and articles of stroyed the reputation of Australian wines until food and drink for £282,782. The wool export practical wine growers from France and Gerwas valued at £264,630; gold, £230,282; silver many introduced the true system. Young Ausand silver ore, £216,893; green and preserved tralians went to those countries to learn the fruit, £ 195,073; tin, £ 150,586; timber and bark, European processes. The wines shown at the £62,085; hops, £18,373. Of the total value of Indian and Colonial Exhibition of 1886 revived imports, £612,980 came from Victoria, £ 197,667 the interest of the British public in this colonial from New South Wales, £ 125,522 from other product. The old and discarded vineyards were British colonies, £397,510 from Great Britain, restocked and fresh lands were planted. In 1891 and £33,929 from foreign countries. Of the total the Victorian Government offered bonuses for exports, Victoria took £807,433; New South the planting of vineyards, and sent round inWales, £583,273; other colonies, £ 68,331; Great structors in wine making. In 1895 the GovernBritain, £274,497; and foreign countries, £10,927. ment of South Australia opened bonded stores

The imports of New Zealand in 1897 included in London, where wines already approved by the textiles and clothing for £1,982,896, iron and officials in the colony are treated and matured steel goods and machinery for £1,406,111, sugar under the supervision of an expert, with the refor £373,407, books, paper, and stationery for sult that the exports from that colony have in£337,336, spirits, wines, and beer for £268,160, creased fivefold. The long voyage, the heavy fruit for £183,133, tea for £178,350, tobacco and freights, and the cost of importing casks are cigars for £164,889, oils for £163,793, bags and serious handicaps to the trade in competition sacks for £104,401, fancy goods for £100,824, with European countries, and hence the wine coal for £98,139, other merchandise for £2,686,- growers of Australia hoped that the new duty 762, and specie for £61,022. The exports were would be remitted in their case. The imports of wool for £4,443,144, frozen meat for £1,566,286, Australian wines into Great Britain have ingold for £980,204, butter and cheese for £553,- creased from 56,000 gallons in 1884 to 710,000 122, Kauri gum for £398,010, hides, skins, and gallons in 1898. leather for £343,769, grain and pulse for £339,- The imposition of a stamp duty on colonial 643, preserved meats for £78,235, grass seed for securities is also resented as an invidious action £46,947, phormium or New Zealand hemp for of the British Government. One of the most £30,674, bacon and hams for £13,560, animals troublesome pests in the pastoral regions is the for £11,974, other domestic produce for £530, cattle tick, which is spreading into new districts 735, British and foreign merchandise for £ 144, constantly. Government agents have been sent 955, and specie for £275,771. The export of wool to Europe to seek new ways of promoting the was 135,835,117 pounds; of frozen meat, 1,407,921 export commerce of the colonies. A fraudulent hundredweight; of Kauri gum, 6,641 tons; of trader of Adelaide, whose practices might cause butter, 99,002 hundredweight; of cheese, 77,683 alarm concerning the integrity of Australian hundredweight. Of the total value of the im- commercial men, was sentenced by South Ausports, £5,392,738 came from Great Britain, tralian justice to two years of penal servitude. £1,001,003 from Australia, £628,044 from the The gold production for the whole of Australia United States, £303,624 from India and Ceylon, in 1898 was estimated at 3,154,000 ounces, an £283,593 from Pacific islands, £43,390 from increase of 565,000 ounces over 1897, Western China, £25,564 from Mauritius, and £377,267 Australia having produced 1,049,000 ounces and from other countries. Of the exports, £8,168,123 Queensland 918,000 ounces, both leading Victoria, Went to Great Britain, £1,323,784 to Australia, which has heretofore headed the list, whose pro£375,096 to the United States, £117,365 to Pa- duction for this year was 845,000 ounces, and cific islands, £6,773 to China, £3,258 to Mau- that of New South Wales 342,000 ounces. ritius, £2,810 to India and Ceylon, and £19,784 The recent advances in the price of wool and to other countries. The total value of imports for meat have greatly benefited the colonies of New 1898 was £8,230,529; of exports, £10,523,290. South Wales, Queensland, and New Zealand, and

The chief imports of Fiji were textile goods the improvement in the economic situation has for £49,254, breadstuffs for £23,085, coal for made itself felt at once in the finances of the £14.274, rice for £11,205, machinery for £12,036, colonial governments, which here reflect more hardware for £12,807, meat for £9,234, and bags truly than in other countries the general situafor £6,862. The export of sugar was 26,991 tion. In Victoria the recovery in the pastoral tons, of the value of £323,830. Of copra 7,757 industries has made itself manifest in a less detons were exported, valued at £70,182; of dis- gree. In this colony agriculture has made great tilled spirits, 15,041 gallons, valued at £1,880; strides, the value of its products having risen of peanuts, 185 tons, valued at £2,636; of to- in five years from £5,000,000 to £7,000,000. In bacco, 9 tons, valued at £2,052; of cotton, 34 New South Wales the extension of cultivation has tons, valued at £1,615; of bananas, the value lately been still more rapid, the area having been of £16,514.

doubled in five years. The increase in 1898 under In the early part of 1899 rains fell in many the new land laws was remarkable, and in parts of Australia that have suffered from almost Queensland land legislation has contributed to continual drought for three or four years past. produce a like movement. The best butter seaAmong the other drawbacks to the prosperity of son in Australia lasts from October till March, these colonies, which, in spite of precarious sea- and the harvesting of fruits, such as apples, sons, are the most productive communities in raisins, currants, prunes, and figs, takes place the world in proportion to population, is the at the opposite season of the year to that of the phylloxera, which has appeared among the vine northern hemisphere, so that the Australian yards of Victoria. The increase of the wine duty products scarcely come into competition in the in England is regarded as a serious blow to viti- markets of the world with those of Europe and culture in Australia, which is just reaching a America. The dairy industries are making progpractieal commercial footing after half a century ress in all the colonies. The sugar production on of struggles. The early samples exhibited at the the north coast, notwithstanding the general deworld's fair of 1851 were so promising that the pression, has increased 50 per cent. in a year.

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The fruit of Victoria and Tasmania, both fresh miles were in the northern territory. The railand dried, finds a ready market in England roads pay a profit to the Government of about

Navigation.— There were 3,345 vessels, of 3 per cent. 3,331,877 tons, entered during 1897 at the ports The length of railroads open to traffic in Westof New South Wales, 2,996, of 2,837,143 tons, ern Australia on June 30, 1898, was 1,456 miles, being British and 349, of 494,734 tons, foreign. of which 464 miles were private lines. There were The number cleared was 3,120, of 3,412,554 tons, 360 miles building. of which 2,775, of 2,913,314 tons, were British and Tasmanian railroads had a length of 495 miles 345, of 499,240 tons, foreign. The shipping regis- in the beginning of 1898. tered in the colony comprised 475 sailing vessels, The railroads of New Zealand on March 31, of 54,671 tons, and 496 steamers, of 66,750 tons. 1898, consisted of 806 miles of Government lines

The number of vessels entered at Victorian in the North island and 1,249 miles in the Middle ports was 1,888, of 2,437,190 tons, of which 359, island, besides 167 miles of private lines, a total of 846,250 tons, were British and 1,371, of 1,242,- of 2,222 miles. The gross receipts on the Govern918 tons, were colonial; the number cleared was ment railroads were £1,376,008, and the operat1,882, of 2,428,182 tons, of which 357, of 848,547 ing expenses were £857,191. The cost of contons, were British and 1,370, of 1,249,306 tons, struction was £16,872,045. The number of paswere colonial. The shipping registered as be- sengers transported was 4,672,264; tons of freight, longing to Victoria was 259 sailing vessels, of 2,628,746. 40,637 tons, and 149 steamers, of 55,737 tons.

The postal traffic of New South Wales for 1897 The number of vessels entered in Queensland was 72,939,084 letters, 1,085,770 postal cards, 42,ports was 642, of 569,610 tons; the number 426,394 newspapers, 12,742,704 packets and book cleared was 654, of 559,290 tons. The shipping parcels, 539,503 parcels, and 403,779 money orof the colony comprised 90 steamers, of 12,884 ders for the amount of £1,421,524, besides £377,tons, and 138 sailing vessels, of 9,874 tons. 282 paid on postal notes.

In South Australian ports 1,178 vessels, of The postal revenue of Victoria, including tele1,774,476 tons, were entered and 1,191, of 1,785,- graph and telephone receipts, was £529,754 in 673 tons, were cleared. The shipping of the col- 1897, and the expenses were £494,257. ony consisted of 217 steamers, of 22,229 tons, and The Queensland postal traffic for 1897 amount109 sailing vessels, of 30,641 tons.

ed to 18,370,937 letters, 11,496,656 newspapers, The number of vessels entered in Western 4,767,783 packets, and 202,248 parcels. The postal Australian ports during 1897 was 721, of 1,196,- revenue was £ 167,998. 760 tons; cleared, 707, of 1,181,072. The regis. The post office of South Australia in 1897 cartered shipping comprised 17 steamers, of 3,898 ried 19,128,982 letters, 2,039,686 packets, and tons, and 135 sailing vessels, of 5,812 tons.

9,421,986 newspapers. In Tasmania 699 vessels, of 542,049 tons, were In Western Australia the post office carried entered, of which 38, of 116,719 tons, were Eng. 12,898,552 ordinary and registered letters and lish; and 717, of 542,119 tons, were cleared, of postal cards, 6,744,536 newspapers, and 3,952,025 which 36, of 115,190 tons, were English. The packets. The receipts from the post office and shipping of the colony comprised 155 sailing ves- telegraphs were £261,328. sels, of 8,340 tons, and 44 steamers, of 6,036 tons. The post office in Tasmania carried 7,906,506

The number of vessels entered during 1897 at letters, 2,278,082 packets, 257,878 postal cards, ports of New Zealand was 600, of 686,899 tons, and 5,095,792 newspapers during 1897. The reof which 563, of 648,171 tons, were with cargoes; ceipts were £58,099, and expenses, including the cleared, 587, of 675,333 tons, of which 548, of 647, telegraph service, were £65,268. 121 tons, were with cargoes. Of the vessels en- The post office in New Zealand during 1897 fortered 133, of 276,020 tons, were British; 395, of warded 32,272,923 letters, 757,172 letter cards, 340,793 tons, were colonial; and 72, of 70,086 tons, 1,341,821 postal cards, 14,825,386 books and parwere foreign. The merchant shipping of the col- cels, 14,261,345 newspapers, and 293,240 money ony comprised 318 sailing vessels, of 40,733 tons, orders. The receipts of the postal and telegraph and 188 steamers, of 78,980 tons.

departments were £371,962; expenses, £364,403. Railroads, Posts, and Telegraphs. There The telegraph lines of New South Wales had were 2,691 miles of railway in operation in New in the beginning of 1898 a length of 12,778 miles, South Wales on June 30, 1898, the capital cost with 33,073 miles of wire. The total cost was of which was £37,719,402. The receipts for the £932,412. The number of telegrams sent was year were £3,026,748 and operating expenses 2.728,360 during 1897. The receipts were £427,£1,614,605, which was 53.34 per cent. of the gross 440; the net revenue was £155,162. earnings. The Government owns the railroads Victoria had 6,947 miles of telegraph lines, with and also the tramways, which have a length of 14,374 miles of wire. The number of dispatches 65 miles, built at a cost of £1,478,251, the gross in 1897 was 1,821,634. The telephones had 10,541 receipts from which were £313,871 and working miles of wire. expenses £259,141.

There were 10,090 miles of telegraph lines in The railroads of Victoria, all owned by the Queensland, with 18,472 miles of wire, at the end Government, had a total length of 3,130 miles, of 1897. The number of messages sent was 934,built at a cost of £38,325,517. The receipts for 326, and the number received from abroad was 1897 were £2,615,935; expenses, £1,563,805, being 121,239, besides 109,569 official dispatches. The 60 per cent. of the receipts. The net profit was receipts were £83,846; expenses of the telegraph 2.75 per cent. of the capital cost, while on the and postal services, £313,944. borrowed capital the mean rate of interest is 3.90 South Australia had 5,862 miles of telegraph per cent. There were 42,263,638 passengers and and telephone lines, with 14,447 miles of wire. 2,383,445 tons of freight carried during the year. The overland telegraph from Adelaide to Port

The railroads of Queensland had a total length Darwin has a length of 2,000 miles. The Gov. of 2,609 miles at the beginning of 1898. The cost ernment receives a net profit after paying interof construction was £18,016.150. The receipts in est on borrowed capital. 1897 were £1,122,637 and expenses £ 688,033. The telegraphs of Western Australia on Jan.

The length of railroads in South Australia in 1, 1898, had a length of 5,958 miles, besides 965 December, 1897, was 1,870 miles, of which 146 miles under construction; the length of wire was

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