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Garden, New York, as Chateau Renaud in the Corsican Brothers, Nov. 21, and a few weeks later he took an engagement as a star in German at the Stadt Theater (afterward the Windsor), in the Bowery. On Dec. 23, 1864, he played Othello (in German) there, with Mme. MethuaScheller as Desdemona. In April following he returned to Niblo's Garden, appearing as Clifford in The Hunchback, with Kate Bateman as Julia. Subsequently he traveled several years as leading support with Edwin Forrest, Charlotte Cushman, Julia Dean, and Mrs. Jean Davenport-Landor. At the beginning of the season of 1868-'69 he took the management of the Indianapolis Theater. In 1867 he had married Miss Margaret E. Macauley, of Indianapolis, sister of the popular actor Barney Macauley. In 1869 he entered into comanagement of the St. Charles Theater, New Orleans, with Ben de Bar, and in 1870 took charge of the new opera house in Kansas City. During all this time he played in the West as a star. In 1874 he became associated with G. R. Spaulding in the management of the Olympic Theater, St. Louis, and he produced there an English adaptation of Salvini's Samson, which was made by William Dean Howells, and was often played by Mr. Pope with great public approval. In the same year he made another successful tour of California. In 1876 he became resident manager of the Varieties Theater, New Orleans, and in 1877 made a starring tour of Australia and New Zealand. With the encouragement of his friends in St. Louis in 1879, he built Pope's Theater, and then retired from active work as a player and devoted himself to its business management. In this he was very successful. In 1888 he sold his theater and ended his association with the drama to enter political life. In September, 1889, he was appointed United States consul at Toronto, Canada. At the incoming of another political party Mr. Pope was superseded, and thenceforward his home was in New York city. His skill as an orator and political debater made his services in campaign work valuable, and he was engaged by his party in that work in the State of New York for several years. In 1898 he made a brief return to the stage in the performance of Shakespearean parts, playing the week of May 7 at the National Theater, Philadelphia, and the week of May 14 at the Bijou Theater, Brooklyn. His last appearance was in the part of Colonel Sapt in Rupert of Hentzau, at Plainfield, N. J., Dec. 10, 1898.

Powell, Aaron Macy, editor, born in Clinton, N. Y., March 26, 1832; died in Philadelphia, Pa., May 13, 1899. He was educated at the New York State Normal School, and for several years previous to the civil war was editor of the Antislavery Standard, later called the National Standard. He was secretary of the American Antislavery Society from 1866 till 1870, assistant secretary of the National Temperance Society from 1873 till 1894, editor of the National Temperance Advocate and of the Philanthropist, and was president of the National Purity Alliance. His published works include State Regulation of Vice

(New York, 1878); The Beer Question (1881); and The National Government and the Liquor Traffic (1882).

Prince, Frederick Octavius, lawyer, born in Boston, Mass., Jan. 18, 1818; died there, June 6, 1899. He was graduated at Harvard College in 1836, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1840, and began to practice in Boston. He resided in Winchester, and represented that town in the State Legislature in 1851-53. In the latter year he was a member of the Constitutional

Convention, and in 1855 was elected to the State Senate. In 1860 he allied himself with the Democratic party, and was a delegate to the National Democratic Convention at Charleston, S. C. By that convention he was elected secretary of the National Democratic Committee, and was reelected to that office successively till 1888. Mr. Prince, having in the meantime become again a citizen of Boston, was elected mayor of the city in 1876, though his party was at that time in the minority. He was defeated for re-election in 1877, was successful in 1878, and was again twice re-elected, serving till the end of 1881. It was largely to his foresight that Boston owes its magnificent system of parks. He also labored successfully for the improvement of its system of sewerage. He was defeated as the Democratic nominee for Governor in 1885.

Putnam, John R., jurist, born in 1829; died in Hong-Kong, China, Nov. 28, 1899. He was elected to the Supreme Court of New York in 1887, and his term would have expired in 1900. In 1891 he was appointed to the General Term of the 3d department. He continued in that office till 1894, when he was designated as one of the justices of the appellate division of the 3d department. His death occurred while he was on his way to visit his son, a lieutenant in the 6th United States Infantry, stationed at Manila.

Rayner, William S., philanthropist, born in Bavaria in 1821; died in Baltimore, Md., March 1, 1899. In early youth he removed to Baltimore. He was a director in the Western Maryland Railroad and of the Western National Bank, and at the time of his death was president of the Kingwood Gas, Coal, and Iron Company, of the Curtis Bay and South Baltimore Harbor and Improvement Companies, and chairman of the Baltimore Equitable Fire Insurance Society. He gave the ground and erected the building of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, and for many years was a director of the House of Refuge, vice-president of the Poor Association, and a manager of the Home for Incurables. To each of these and of other humane institutions he gave much of his time and wealth.

Rebisso, Louis T., sculptor, born in Italy in 1837; died near Cincinnati, Ohio, May 3, 1899. He took an active part in Mazzini's attempt to establish an Italian republic, and rather than serve a twenty years' imprisonment (the penalty imposed on the rebels by Victor Emmanuel's government) he escaped to an American ship, whose captain took him to Boston. Despite the subsequent amnesty to political prisoners and exiles, he refused to return to his native country. He had studied in Italy with the sculptor Rubatto, and also under Prof. Varni, and after settling in Boston he was employed several years in monumental establishments. His fame as a sculptor began to develop after his removal to Cincinnati, where he worked with T. D. Jones. The first important work that left his studio was the colossal equestrian statue of Gen. James B. McPherson, which was unveiled in Washington, D. C., in August, 1876. In 1887 he was awarded the commission for the Grant monument in Lincoln Park, Chicago, in a competition with 14 other sculptors. He also produced the statue of Gen. William Henry Harrison in Cincinnati and busts and monuments elsewhere. In 1875 he was appointed instructor in the McMicken School of Design (now the Cincinnati Art Academy).

Rector, Henry M., Governor, born in 1816; died in Little Rock, Ark., Aug. 15, 1899. In 1860 he was elected Governor of Arkansas as an Independent Democrat, after an intensely bitter can

vass. In April, 1861, he refused to furnish the quota of soldiers called for by President Lincoln for the National army. He seized the arsenal at Little Rock and the fort at Fort Smith, with all the ammunition and stores. In May, 1861, a military board, one of whom was the Governor, was appointed to organize and equip an army, which was done to the extent of 40 regiments, to fight for the Confederate cause. The revolutionary convention of 1861, having omitted to continue the office of Governor, a contest arose over the question, and the Supreme Court declared the of fice vacant. Gov. Rector then fought in the Confederate army till the close of the war.

Reed, Alonzo, author, died in Remsenburg, Long Island, N. Y., Aug. 19, 1899. While a teacher of English in the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn he developed a plan of teaching English grammar which was embodied in an elementary text-book, published under the title of Graded Lessons in English, and this was followed by others on the same subject, some of them written in conjunction with Brainerd Kellogg (New York, 1877).

Reed, Harrison, editor, born in Littleton, Mass., in 1813; died in Jacksonville, Fla., May 25, 1899. In 1836 he removed to Wisconsin. He founded the Milwaukee Sentinel, of which he was editor. During the civil war he worked in the United States Treasury Department. In 1868 he was elected Governor of Florida, under its new Constitution, and he served four years and a half. Reed, Myron Winslow, clergyman, born in Brookfield, Vt., July 24, 1836; died in Denver, Col., Jan. 30, 1899. He was preparing for the ministry when, in June, 1862, he enlisted as a private in the 18th Michigan Infantry, of which he was soon afterward appointed chaplain. This commission he resigned after two months, to accept a captaincy. He served till July, 1865, and for some time before he was mustered out he was chief of scouts on the staff of Gen. George H. Thomas. After the war he resumed his studies, was graduated at the Chicago Theological Seminary in 1868, and was pastor of Congregational churches in New Orleans and Milwaukee, and of the First Presbyterian Church in Indianapolis till 1883. In that year he went to the First Congregational Church in Denver, where he remained eleven years, resigning to take charge of the new Broadway Temple. Dr. Reed was for several years president of the Denver Charity Organization Society and of the Colorado State Board of Charities, and in 1892 was president of the National Conference of Charities and Corrections.

Reynolds, Joseph Jones, military officer, born in Flemingsburg, Ky., Jan. 4, 1822; died in Washington, D. C., Feb. 26, 1899. He was graduated at West Point, and commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the 4th Artillery, in 1843; was promoted second lieutenant in the 3d Artillery, May 11, 1846; first lieutenant, March 3, 1847; resigned Feb. 28, 1857; was appointed colonel of the 26th Infantry, July 28, 1866; assigned to the 25th Infantry, Jan. 8, and to the 3d Cavalry, Dec. 15, 1870; and was retired June 25, 1877. In the volunteer service he was commissioned colonel of the 10th Indiana Infantry, April 25, 1861, and brigadier general, May 17; resigned Jan. 23, 1862; was reappointed a brigadier general, Sept. 17, 1862; promoted major general, Nov. 29, and was mustered out Sept. 1, 1866. He was brevetted brigadier general, United States army, for "gallant and meritorious services in the battle of Chickamauga," and major general for similar services in the battle of Missionary Ridge. In the early part of his career Gen.

Reynolds served at the Military Academy as Assistant Professor of Geography, History, and Ethics, and later as Assistant Professor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy. He was on frontier duty at Fort Wichita when he resigned from the army to become Professor of Mechanics and Engineering in Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. This place he resigned four years later, and engaged in private business in Lafay ette, Ind. Between the times of resigning his first commission of brigadier general and of accepting the second he served without any commission in organizing Indiana volunteers. After returning to the field he was assigned to command the Cheat Mountain district in West Virginia. He made the campaign of the Army of the Cumberland in 1862–63, taking part in the battles of Hoover's Gap, Chickamauga, and Chattanooga, and toward the end of 1863 became chief of staff of that army. In the early part of 1864 he commanded the defenses of New Orleans; in June he was placed in command of the 19th Corps, and in the next two months he organized the forces for the capture of Mobile. From November of that year till April, 1866, he commanded the Department of Arkansas. After his return to the regular army he commanded for five years the 5th Military District, comprising Louisiana and Texas, and while there (1871) was elected United States Senator from Texas, but declined the office. His last service was as commander of the Department of the Platte, in 1872-76. Gen. Reynolds was retired for disability contracted in the line of duty.

Richardson, John Peter, planter, born in Clarendon County, South Carolina, in 1831; died in Columbia, S. Č., July 6, 1899. He was graduated at the South Carolina College, and was a member of the Legislature till the civil war. He served on the staff of Gen. Cantey, in the Confederate army, from 1862 till the end of the war. He was again elected to the Legislature in 1878, was made State Treasurer in 1880, 1882, and 1884, and in 1886 and 1888 was elected Governor.

Richardson, Locke, elocutionist, born in Providence, R. I., in 1844; died in Berlin, Germany, June 15, 1899. He was a teacher of elocution at Cornell University, and made his first essay as a public reader before the Young Men's Christian Association, in New York city, in 1873. He was so well received that he made a season's engagement to give readings in different cities of the country, and became very popular. He was particularly admired in selections from Dickens and Shakespeare. Of his readings from the last-named writer, the most popular was Henry IV, in which he displayed an intimate and affectionate knowledge of the poet's dramatic intention and an admirable power of characterization.

Richardson, William, educator, born in Carnarvon, Wales, in 1843; died in New York city, April 15, 1899. He came to New York in 1869, and soon afterward began studying chemistry at Cooper Union. On completing the course he followed his profession for several years, and then returned to the school as an assistant in its chemical laboratory. He was afterward appointed director, and held the post nearly ten years. He received the degree of Ph. D. from Waynesburg (Pa.) College in 1888.

Richmond, Adelbert G., antiquary, born about 1840; died in Canajoharie, N. Y., Nov. 13, 1899. He was interested in various industrial enterprises in Canajoharie. For several years, in early life, he was private secretary to Francis E. Spinner, Treasurer of the United States. He was best known as a collector of relics of the North

American Indians, and his collection was especially rich in material relating to the Six Nations. Rickoff, Andrew Jackson, educator, born near Newhope, N. J., Aug. 23, 1824; died in San Francisco, Cal., March 29, 1899. In 1830 his parents removed to Cincinnati. He began teaching at the age of seventeen, and by means of untiring application to his studies he won from the Ohio University the degree of A. M. He was for five years superintendent of schools in Portsmouth, Ohio. He then taught in the public schools of Cincinnati, was appointed superintendent of schools there two years later, and held that office five years. He afterward established a private school, which he conducted about nine years. He was elected to the Board of Education in Cincinnati in 1864, and was made president, which office he held more than two years, when he accepted an offer of the superintendency of the schools in Cleveland. Fifteen years later he assumed similar duties in Yonkers, N. Y. On resigning the latter office he returned to Ohio, and then removed to California. In 1885 he was president of the Ohio State Teachers' Association, and in 1859 was elected president of the National Teachers' Association. In 1880 he was elected a member of the National Council of Education, which is limited to 52 members. For several years after 1888 he was in charge of Felix Adler's Workingman's School. He was the author of an arithmetic and many other schoolbooks, and he was the editor of a series of six readers. He recommended the plan of reorganization of the educational system which is now in successful operation in Cleveland; and at the Centennial Exposition in 1876 his system of schools in that city was declared superior to that of any other city in the United States. In fact, his system was the pattern after which nearly all the school systems of the Western States were constructed. He also paid much attention to school architecture, and to the heating and ventilation of schoolrooms. He was authorized by the Board of Education of Cleveland to make the floor plans of 6 of the large school buildings, the Central High School being one of the number; and he also made the plans for their heating and ventilation. At the Centennial Exposition he received a medal for the best designs for school buildings.

Robbins, Hiram, playwright, born in Harris burg, Pa., in 1837; died in Little Rock, Ark., Jan. 21, 1899. In the years immediately following the civil war he appeared as an actor. His last work as a playwright was The Destruction of Hell, an extravaganza founded on Dante's Inferno, which was produced in Chicago in 1895. He went to the Klondike in 1897, and contracted a fatal cold. During his residence in Little Rock he was prominent in politics.

Roberts, Charles Boyle, jurist, born in Uniontown, Md., April 19, 1842; died in Westminster, Md., Sept. 10, 1899. He was graduated at Calvert College in 1861, and was admitted to law practice in 1864. In 1868 he was a presidential elector on the Democratic ticket. He was elected to Congress in 1874, and re-elected in 1876. In 1883 he was elected Attorney-General of Maryland, and in 1891 was appointed an associate judge of the State Court of Appeals. In 1892 he was elected chief justice of the 5th Maryland District, which office he held until his death.

Roberts, Daniel, lawyer, born in Wallingford, Vt., May 25, 1811; died in Burlington, Vt., Oct. 6, 1899. He was graduated at Middlebury College in 1829, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1832. He then went West. and spent a great part of the time till 1835 in Illinois, when

he returned to Vermont, practiced in Manchester till 1855, and then removed to Burlington, where he formed a partnership with Lucius E. Chittenden, afterward Register of the Treasury of the United States. Mr. Roberts was Bank Commissioner in 1853-'54, and in 1855-'56 was special agent for the United States Treasury Department. In 1868-69 he was State's attorney for Chittenden County, and from 1870 till 1872 was city attorney of Burlington, which office he again held in 1880. In 1878 he completed a Digest of the Decisions of the Supreme Court of Vermont; in 1889 published a supplement to it; and at the time of his death had finished a second supplement. He received the degree of LL. D. from Middlebury College in 1877. In 1880 he was president of the Vermont Bar Association. Robinson, Charles Seymour, clergyman, born in Bennington, Vt., March 31, 1829; died in New York city, Feb. 1, 1899. He was graduated at Williams College in 1849. After teaching nearly two years, he spent a year at the Union Theological Seminary, New York city, and the next at Princeton Seminary, and on April 19, 1855, he was ordained pastor of the Park Presbyterian Church in Troy, N. Y. In 1860 he went to the First Presbyterian Church, in Brooklyn, N. Y., and in 1868 accepted a call to the American Chapel in Paris, France, where he established a regular church organization. On the outbreak of the war between France and Prussia he returned to New York and assumed the pastorate of Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church, with which he remained till 1887. After the suppression of the Commune, in 1871, Dr. Robinson spent several months in Paris, striving to reorganize the work of the American Chapel. Since 1887 he had held no regular charge for any considerable period. He received the degree of D.D. from Hamilton College in 1866, and that of LL. D. from Lafayette College in 1885. Dr. Robinson published many volumes of sermons and other works, but was probably most widely known as a hymnologist. His books include Songs of the Church (New York, 1862); Songs for the Sanctuary (1865); Songs for Christian Worship (1866); Short Studies for Sunday-school Teachers (1868); Chapel Songs (1872); Psalms, Hymns, and Spiritual Songs (1874); Christian Work and Bethel and Penuel, sermons (1874); Spiritual Songs (1878); Spiritual Songs for Social Worship (1880); Studies in the New Testament (1880); Spiritual Songs for Sunday School (1881); Studies of Neglected Texts (1883); Laudes Domini, hymn-book (1884); Sermons in Songs (1885); Sabbath Evening Sermons (1887); The Pharaohs of the Bondage and the Exodus (1887); and Simon Peter: Early Life and Times (1887).

Rogers, Edward F., horticulturist, born in Salem, Mass., in 1826; died in Peabody, Mass., March 29, 1899. After receiving a common-school education, he made several voyages in his father's vessels, and then for fifteen years withdrew almost wholly from the public eye and applied himself to his garden. He produced the famous Rogers grape by taking the vine of the Mammoth Globe and the pollen of Black Hamburg and Sweetwater vines. To him belongs the credit of first hybridizing the grape, and he was awarded the only gold medal ever given by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in this line. In 1856 he recrossed the hybrids with the V. vinifera, obtaining vines bearing fruit nearly identical with the foreign kinds. Subsequently he gave much attention to hybridizing pears, with equal success.

Rogers, William F., soldier, born in Philadelphia, Pa., in 1820; died in Buffalo, N. Y., Dec.

16, 1899. He entered the volunteer service in the civil war as a member of the 21st New York Infantry, served two years, and rose to the rank of brevet brigadier general. After the war he was successively auditor, comptroller, and mayor of Buffalo. In 1887 he was appointed superintendent of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Home at Bath, which office he held till 1891.

Ropes, John Codman, historian, born in St. Petersburg, Russia, April 28, 1836; died in Boston, Mass., Oct. 28, 1899. He was graduated at Harvard in 1857, and after studying at Harvard Law School was admitted to the bar in 1861. Since the latter year he had practiced his profession continuously in Boston, and from 1865 was at the head of the firm of Ropes, Gray & Loring. His interest in military affairs began early in his career, and it was in great measure through his influence that the Government attempted the collection and preservation of information relative to the civil war. He organ ized the Military Historical Society of Massachusetts, to which he left his valuable collection of military books and maps, and in recognition of his services to the United States army he was elected a member of the Loyal Legion. His earliest published work was The Army under Pope (New York, 1881), a concise analysis of the summer campaign of 1862 in northern Virginia. This was followed by The First Napoleon (Boston, 1885), originally given to the public in the form of lectures at the Lowell Institute, in Boston. This was followed by The Campaign of Waterloo, an elaborate monograph (New York, 1892-'93). At the time of his death two volumes of The Story of the Civil War (New York, 1894-'98) had appeared. The materials for the completion of this history had been collected by him, and a final review and critical summary of the war had been written.

Rose, William G., lawyer, born in Mercer County, Pennsylvania, Sept. 23, 1829; died in Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 15, 1899. He educated himself, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1855. He was for a short time editor and proprietor of the Mercer Independent Democrat, and in 1857 and 1858 he was elected to the Pennsylvania Legislature as a Republic


In 1865 he removed to Cleveland, Ohio, where, after being admitted to the bar, he engaged in the real-estate business. In 1877 he was elected mayor of Cleveland, and his administration of municipal affairs was exceptionally able; and when, in April, 1891, he was a candidate for re-election, he was returned with a handsome majority. During the great railroad strike, in his first administration, he handled all difficulties so well that he was commended by both his friends and his political opponents. During the strike no property was lost and no citizen was in jeopardy of his life. At the beginning of his second administration the present federal system of city government was inaugurated, and upon him fell the work of setting the untried machinery in motion. So thoroughly and efficiently did he do this that his management of affairs has always been regarded as one of the best the city ever had. He was unanimously nominated for Lieutenant Governor in 1883, and ran 7,000 votes ahead of his ticket, which was defeated.

Russell, William Augustus, manufacturer, born in Wells River, Vt., April 22, 1831; died in Boston, Mass., Jan. 10, 1899. He was educated at Franklin, N. H., and Lowell, Mass., and in 1848 began working in his father's paper mill in the latter city. In 1853 the father and son

formed a partnership, and moved their plant to Lawrence. Soon afterward the father was obliged by failing health to retire from business, and the son assumed the whole management. In 1856 he began enlarging his operations by leasing and buying mills in Belfast, Me., and Lawrence, Mass. Having found by costly experiments that wood pulp was needed, he established in Franklin, N. H., in 1869, the first mill in the country for the production of the new fiber. He succeeded in this where many had failed, and created a new branch of industry. For the conversion of the fiber into paper he purchased two mills in Franklin and erected a large one in Bellows Falls, Vt. To carry out his plans in the last place he was obliged to purchase the entire water power there, build a new dam, and enlarge the canal. Through his enterprise this small town grew to be the third in valuation in the whole State. At the time of his death he was operating paper mills at Bellows Falls, Vt., Lawrence, Mass., St. Anthony's Falls, Minn., and in several places in Maine. Mr. Russell was a delegate to the Republican National Conventions of 1868 and 1876, a representative in the Massachusetts Legislature in 1869, and a member of Congress from 1879 till 1885.

Rust, John R., civil engineer, born in Wolfeborough, N. H., in 1828; died in Brooklyn, N. Y., Sept. 12, 1899. He became a railroad builder, and helped to lay out the Lake Shore and the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul lines. Among his other engineering works were the construction of the Portland and Ogdensburg Railroad through the White Mountain notch, the St. Johnsburg and Lake Champlain Railroad, and a bridge across Maquam Bay.

Rycraft, John, abolitionist, died in Milwaukee, Wis., in December, 1899. In 1854 a slave named Joshua Glover escaped from his master, a planter living near St. Louis. He was discovered near Pacine, Wis., and was captured under the fugitive slave act and taken to Milwaukee. A mob broke open the jail and rescued the slave, and Rycraft and S. M. Booth, the publisher of an antislavery paper in Milwaukee, were arrested on the charge that they had incited the mob and aided in the rescue. Both were convicted of violation of the fugitive slave act, and a judicial conflict was precipitated between the State of Wisconsin and the United States; but the affair was closed by the events attending the outbreak of the civil war.

Sartori, Lewis Constant, naval officer, born in Bloomsbury, N. J., June 3, 1812; died in Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 11, 1899. He was appointed a midshipman in the navy Feb. 2, 1829; promoted passed midshipman, June 15, 1837; lieutenant, Sept. 8, 1841; commander, April 27, 1861; captain, Sept. 26, 1866; and commodore, Dec. 12, 1873; and was retired June 3, 1874. He was on sea duty nineteen years and four months, and on shore or other duty nine years and nine months. Prior to 1840 he served successively at the Brazilian station and with the Mediterranean, West Indies, and Pacific squadrons. During the Mexican War he was attached to the bomb schooner Stromboli, in which he took part in the capture of Tabasco and Coatzacoalcos. While on the John Adams, in the Pacific squadron, in 1855, he commanded a successful expedition and engagement against the Fijis. In 1861 he commanded the blockading steamer Flag; in the latter part of 1862 the Florida, of the North Atlantic squadron; in 1863, the Portsmouth, of the Western Gulf squadron; and in 1864, the Monongahela and Oneida, off Mobile. After the war he served on

the Pacific coast till his retirement, and commanded the naval rendezvous at San Francisco in 1871-'72, and the navy yard at Mare island in 1872-273.

Saunders, Alvin, Senator, born in Fleming County, Kentucky, July 12, 1817; died in Omaha, Neb., Nov. 1, 1899. He removed with his parents at twelve years of age to the vicinity of Spring field, Ill. When he was sixteen years old he obtained employment on a farm at Mount Pleasant (now in Iowa). Soon he became storekeeper's clerk, then part proprietor, and later postmaster for seven years. At the same time he studied law, but continued in business and became a banker. In 1846 he was a member of the convention that framed the Constitution under which Iowa was admitted as a State. Then he served as State Senator eight years. He was a member of the Republican National Convention of 1860, and took an active part in the campaign for Lincoln. He was also a commissioner to organize the Pacific Railroad Company. In 1861 he was appointed Governor of the Territory of Nebraska, and he held that place until the admission of Nebraska as a State in 1867. Although the population of Nebraska was only 30,000 for this period, Gov. Saunders not only raised 3,000 men for the National army, but was also able successfully to repel the attacks of hostile Indians. In the winter of 1876-77 he was elected to the United States Senate, and in that body he was active in securing the resumption of specie payments. He obtained more than 600,000 acres for Nebraska by the straightening of the northern boundary, adjoining Dakota. Another of his acts in the Senate was that of securing a labor school for Indians on the Pawnee reservation. He was one of the commissioners to visit the Indian tribes and report on the advisability of turning the management of the Indians over to the War Department. As chairman, he presented the majority report, adverse to such a measure. He also recommended the teaching of Indians to work and to become independent. His service in the Senate ended in 1883.

Savage, Philip Henry, author, born in North Brookfield, Mass., Feb. 11, 1868; died in Boston, June 4, 1899. He was a son of the Rev. Minot J. Savage, and was graduated at Harvard in 1893. From 1896 until his death he was a member of the Boston Public Library staff, and in the spring of 1899 he was appointed clerk of the corporation of the library. His two volumes of verse-First Poems and Fragments (Boston, 1895) and Poems (1898) displayed a marked degree of promise in thought and expression as well as skill in technique.

Sawyer, Thomas Jefferson, clergyman, born in Reading, Vt., Jan. 9, 1804; died in Somerville, Mass., July 23, 1899. He was graduated at Middlebury College in 1829, and entered the Universalist ministry the next year, and was pastor of a church in New York city 1830-'45, and again in 1852-61. From 1845 to 1852 he was president of the Clinton Liberal Institute, at Clinton, N. Y., and in 1847 was instrumental in founding Tufts College, at Medford, Mass. In 1869 he became Professor of Theology at Tufts College Divinity School, then newly opened, holding office until 1892, when he was made professor emeritus. He was a profound scholar, an eloquent and graceful speaker, and as a controversialist had few rivals. He was one of the greatest men his denomination has produced, and his influence in liberalizing the tone of religious thought in the earlier part of his ministry was of wide extent. Endless Punishment in the Very Words of its Advocates (1880)

is almost his only published book, but for forty years he contributed regularly to the Universalist Quarterly controversial and other articles, and he was successively editor of the Christian Messenger and the Christian Ambassador, for both of which he wrote notable articles.

Schriver, Edmund, military officer, born in York, Pa., Sept. 16, 1812; died in Washington, D.C., Feb. 10, 1899. He was graduated at West Point, July 1, 1833, and entered the army as a brevet second lieutenant in the 2d Artillery; was promoted second lieutenant, July 31, 1834; first lieutenant, Nov. 1, 1836; brevet captain and assistant adjutant general, July 7, 1838; captain in the 2d Artillery, Aug. 17, 1842; lieutenant colonel of the 11th Infantry, May 14, 1861; and colonel and inspector general, March 13, 1863; and was retired Jan. 4, 1881. In the volunteer army he served as colonel and additional aid-de-camp from May 18, 1862, till March 13, 1863. He was brevetted brigadier general, United States army, for meritorious services in the field, on Aug. 1, 1864, and major general, United States army, for distinguished service during the war, on March 13, 1865. After graduation, Gen. Schriver served several years with the artillery in New York, Alabama, and Tennessee; then spent four years in the Adjutant General's office in Washington; and afterward in the Seminole Indian war, in Florida, till July 31, 1846, when he resigned. From 1847 till 1861 he was engaged in railroad business in New York State, during the last ten years being president of the Rensselaer and Saratoga Railroad. At the outbreak of the civil war he was among the first to offer his services to the Government, and re-entered the army on May 14, 1861. He served for some time as aid-de-camp to Gov. Morgan, of New York, and then was made chief of staff of the 1st Corps in the Army of the Potomac. After taking part in the Shenandoah and the northern Virginia campaigns, he was appointed inspector general of the army. He was engaged in the battles of Chancellorsville__and Gettysburg, and in the campaign from the Rapidan to Petersburg, and thence till the close of the war he was on duty in the office of the Secretary of War. After peace he was on general inspection duty, principally in the West, and on special service till his retirement.

Seaver, Joel J., journalist and soldier, born in Salisbury, Vt., Dec. 17, 1822; died in Malone, N. Y., Nov. 29, 1899. He removed to Malone, where he taught school and studied law four years. In 1850 he joined the staff of the Malone Palladium. With his brother, J. K. Seaver, he purchased the Palladium later, and became its editor. When President Lincoln issued his first call for troops, in 1861, he was the first man in Franklin County to offer his services. He was subsequently chosen captain of Company I, 16th Regiment, New York Volunteers, and after serving as major and lieutenant colonel he became colonel, and within two years was in command of a brigade. He participated in sixteen engagements, among them Gaines's Mill, the two Fredericksburg fights, and Antietam. He was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1867.

Sedley, Henry, author, born in Boston, Mass., April 1835; died in New York city, Jan. 18, 1899. He was a son of William Henry Sedley, the actor, who became widely popular as Rolando in The Honeymoon. He was educated in Boston, studied civil engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, in Troy, and engaged in his profession in San Francisco, where he surveyed and mapped many of the principal streets. After completing this work he made a tour of the world,

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