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Also the following reports: Report on the U. S. A.; The Development of Chemistry in the Methods of determining Magnetic Force at Sea, Last Fifteen Years, by A. Ladenburg; The InReport of the Committee on Electrolysis and fluence of Solvents upon the Optical Activity of Electro-chemistry, Report of the Committee on Organic Compounds and A Method for resolving the Heat of Combination of Metals in the Forma- Racemic Oximes into their optically Active Comtion of Alloys, Report of the Committee on Radi- ponents, by W. J. Pope; The Chemical Effect on ation from a Source of Light in a Magnetic Field, Agricultural Soils of the Salt-water Flood of Report of the Committee on Solar Radiation, Nov. 29, 1897, on the East Coast, by Thomas Report of the Committee on Seismological Inves- S. Dymond; Phenomena connected with the Dry. tigations, Report of the Committee on Ben Nevis ing of Colloids: Mineral and Organic, by John Observatory, Report of the Committee on Me H. Gladstone and Walter Hibbert; Action of teorological Photography, and Report of the Light upon Metallic Silver, by John Spiller; InCommittee on Electric Standards, were presented fluence of Acids and of Some Salts on the Sacand discussed.
charification of Starch by Malt Diastase, by A. B. Chemistry. The presiding officer of this sec- Fernbach; A Note on the Combined Action of tion was Dr. Horace T. Brown, F. R. S., of South Diastase and Yeast on Starch Granules, by G. Kensington, England. He said: “ The subject Harris Morris; Action of Hydrogen Peroxide on which I have chosen for my address is the fixa. Carbohydrates in the Presence of Iron Salts, by tion of carbon by plants, one which is the com- J. M. Crofts and R. S. Morrell; Influence of Submon meeting ground of chemistry, physics, and stitution on Optical Activity in the Bornylamine biology. We have become so accustomed to the Series and New Derivations from Camphor Oxidea that the higher plants derive the whole of ime, by M. O. Foster; Investigations in the Fortheir carbon from atmospheric sources that we mation of an Intermediate Compound in the are apt to forget how very indirect is the nature Action of Caustic Soda in Benzaldehyde, by of much of the experimental evidence on which Charles A. Kohn and W. Tranton; On Some Exthis belief is founded. There can be no doubt periments to obtain Definite Alloys of Cadmium, that the primary source of the organic carbon Zinc, and Magnesium with Platinum and Palof the soil, and of the plants growing on it, is ladium, by W. R. Hodgkinson, Capt. Waring, and the atmosphere; but of late years there has been Capt. Desborough. such an accumulation of evidence tending to Also the following reports: Report of the Comshow that the higher plants are capable of being mittee on the Relation between the Absorption nourished by the direct application of a great Spectra and the Chemical Constitution of Orvariety of ready-formed organic compounds that ganic Substances, Report of the Committee on we are justified in demanding further proof that Isomeric Naphthalene Derivations, Report on the the stores of organic substances in the soil must Intermittent Bacterial Treatment of Raw Sewnecessarily be oxidized down to the lowest pos- age in Coke Beds, and Report of the Committee sible point before their carbon is once more in on the Teaching of Natural Science in Elemena fit state to be assimilated.” Then he “in- tary Schools, were presented before the section. dulged in a little historical retrospect," and de- Č. Geology.—The presiding officer of this secscribed the work of Priestley, Ingen-Housz, De tion was Sir Archibald Geikie, director-general Saussure, Bokorny, Acton, and the recent work of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom, of J. Laurent and Mazé. “ These facts,” he said, a past president of the association. He said: “ justify what I have already said, that we ought “ Among the many questions of great theoretical to demand more direct evidence than is at pres- importance which have engaged the attention of ent available before we accept the view that the geologists none has in late years awakened more majority of chlorophyllous plants take in the interest or aroused livelier controversy than that whole of their carbon from the atmosphere." which deals with time as an element in geological The greater portion of his address was devoted history. In offering a brief history of the disto a description of the experimental work done cussion there is, I think, a practical outcome by himself in the Jodrell Laboratory, at Kew. which may be made to issue from the controConclusive results have not yet been obtained, versy in a combination of sympathy and co-operaand he concluded with: “ When we have suc- tion among geologists all over the world. A ceeded in finding some simple chemical means lasting service will be rendered to our science of fixing the initial products of the reduction if by well-concerted effort we can place geological of carbon dioxide, then, and then only, may we dynamics and geological chronology on a broader hopefully look forward to reproducing in the and firmer basis of actual experiment and measlaboratory the first stages of the great synthetic urement than has yet been said." Then, beginprocess of Nature, on which the continuance of ning with James Hutton, the founder of modern all life depends."
geology, he discussed his theory on the age of Subsequently the following-named papers were the earth, together with those of Playfair and read and discussed: The Solidification of Hydro- Lyell. Sir Archibald then took up Lord Kelgen, by James Dewar; Oxidation in Presence of vin's famous paper of 1862, in which he declared Iron, by H. J. H. Fenton; The Condensation of his belief that the age of our planet must be Glycollic Aldehyde, by H. J. H. Fenton and more than twenty million, but less than four hunHenry Jackson; Some New Silicon Compounds dred million years. Continuing, he discussed the obtained from Silicon Tetraphenylamine by more recent statements by Kelvin, as well as those Heating with Mustard Oil, by J. Emerson Rey. by Huxley, Tait, and George Darwin. His own nolds; Water and Sewage Examination Results, conclusions were: “So far as I have been able by Samuel Rideal; The Place of Nitrates in the to form an opinion, one hundred millions of years Biolysis of Sewage, by W. Scott Moncrieff ; Ex- would suffice for that portion of the history cretory Products of Plants, by Prof. Hanriot; which is registered in the stratified rocks of the On the Nature of Symbiosis, by Marshall Ward; crust. But if the palæontologists find such a Note sur les Fermentations Symbiotiques Indus- period too narrow for their requirements, I can trielles, by A. Calmette; Symbiotic Fermentation: see no reason on the geological side why they Its Chemical Aspects, by Henry E. Armstrong; should not be at liberty to enlarge it as far as Proposed International Committee on Atomic they may find to be needful for the evolution of Weight, by Frank W. Clarke, Washington city, organized existence on the globe." His final re' marks were descriptive of suggested points in zoölogy which deals with the functions of organs, geology concerning which greater research might particularly of the organs of the higher animals, aid in elucidation of the subject.
is frequently spoken of as physiology, and is The following-named papers were read and dis- separated from the rest of zoology under that cussed: On the Relations between the Dover and heading. Some of the most important problems Franco-Belgian Coal Basins, by R. Etheridge; of the physiological side of zoology still remain The Southeastern Coal Field, by W. Boyd Daw. within the purview of this section." On the varikins; Note relating to a Boring through the ation of organisms he said: “The members of a Chalk and Gault near Dieppe, by A. J. Jukes. species, though resembling one another more Browne; On Some Recent Work among the Upper closely than they resemble the members of other Carboniferous of North Staffordshire and its species, are not absolutely alike. They present Bearings on Conceded Coal Fields, by Walcot differences, differences which make themselves Gibson; Photographs of Sandstone Pipes in the apparent even in members of the same familyCarboniferous Limestone at Doolbau, Anglesey, that is, in the offspring of the same parents. by Edward Greenley; Barium Sulphate as a Ce. It is these differences to which we apply the menting Material in the Bunter Sandstone of term variation. Without variation there could North Staffordshire, by C. B. Webb; Recent De have been no progress, no evolution in the strucvelopments in the System of Photo-micrography ture of organisms." After discussing genetic of Opaque Objects as applied to the Delineation variation, he asked: “ Has the variability of orof the Minute Structure of Fossils, by A. W. ganisms ever been different from what it is now! Rowe; Water Zones and their Influence on the Has or has not evolution had its influence upon Situation and Growth of Concretions, by George this property of organisms, as it is supposed to Abbott; The Extra-morainic Drainage in York- have had upon their other properties? There is shire, by Percy F. Kendall; The Origin of Lateral only one possible answer to this question. UnMoraines and Rock Trains, by J. Lomas; On the doubtedly the variability of organisms must have Origin of Flint and Homotaxy and Contempora- altered with the progress of evolution.” This he neity, by W. J. Sollas; Some Observations on the then discussed at length, closing with: “If variaSurface of the Mount Sorrel Granite, by W. W. tion was markedly greater in the early periods Watts; On the Origin of Chondritic Meteorites, by of the existence of living matter, it is clear that A. Renard; On Coast Erosion from Deal to Dover, it would have been possible for evolutionary Folkestone, and Sandgate, by Capt. McDakin; On change to be effected much more rapidly than at Coast Erosion from Walmer to Whitstable, by present, especially when we remember that the G. Dowker; A Preliminary Report upon the Ero- world was then comparatively unoccupied by sion of the Seacoast of the United Kingdom, by organisms, and that, with the change of condiG. W. Whitaker; Photographs of Wave Phe- tions consequent on the cooling and differentianomena, by Vaughan Cornish; On the Eruption tion of the earth's surface, new places suitable of Mount Vesuvius in September, 1898, by Tem- for organic life were continually being formed." pest Anderson; The Mode of Erosion of Some The following-named papers were read and disYorkshire Valleys, by Percy F. Kendall; The cussed: A New Form of Sponge (Astrosclera Geological Condition of a Tunnel under the villeyana) from Lifu, Loyalty Islands, by J. J. Straits of Dover, by W. Boyd Dawkins; A Pro- Lister; The Morphology of the Cartilages of the posed New Classification of the Older and Newer Monotreme Larynx, by Johnson Symington; The Pliocene Deposits of the East of England and Palpebral and Oculomotor Apparatus of Fishes, Meteorological Conditions of Northwestern Eu- by Bishop Harman; The Development of Lepidorope during the Pliocene and Glacial Periods, by siren paradoxa, by J. Graham Kerr; Animals in F. W. Harmer; Some Observations on the Palæowhich Nutrition has no Influence in determining lithic Implements of North Kent, by J. M. Mello; Sex, by James F. Gemmill; Some newly DiscovSigmoidal Curves in the Crust of the Earth, by ered Neo-mylodon Remains from Patagonia, by Maria M. Gordon; and A Few Observations on A. Smith Woodward; Observations on the Habits the Subdivisions of the Carboniferous System in and Characteristics of the Fur Seals of the Certain Portions of Nova Scotia, by H. M. Ami. Bering Sea, by G. E. H. Barrett-Hamilton; The
Also the following reports: Report of the Com- Results of Some Experiments made at Plymouth mittee on Seismological Investigations, Report of on the Artificial Rearing of Sea Fish, by Walter the Committee on the Structure of Crystals, Re- Garstang; An Account of Dr. C. G. Joh. Peterport of the Committee on Life Zones in the Brit- son's Investigations in Plaice Culture in the ish Carboniferous Rocks, The Report of the Com- Limfjord, by Sir John Murray; The Occurrence mittee appointed to investigate the Ty Newydd of the Gray Goumard and its Spawning in the Leaves at Tremeirchion, North Wales, Report of Offshore and Inshore Waters, bv W. C. McIntosh; the Committee on the Fossil Phyllopod of the The Physico-Biological Aspect of the Thames Palæozoic Rocks, Report of the Committee on Estuary as Bearing on its Fisheries, by J. Murie. Photographs of Geological Interest in the United Also the following reports: Report of the ComKingdom, Report of the Committee to examine mittee appointed to promote the Systematic Colthe Conditions under which Remains of the Irish lection of Photographic and other Records of Elk are found in the Isle of Man, Report of the Pedigree Stock, Report of the Committee on the Committee to investigate the Canadian Pleisto Periodic Investigation of the Plankton and Physcene Flora and Fauna, Report of the Committee ical Conditions of the English Channel during appointed to investigate the Ossiferous Caves at 1899, Report of the Committee on the Occupation Uphill, Report of the Committee on Erratic of a Table at the Zoölogical Station at Naples, Blocks of the British Isles, and Report of the Report on the Zoölogy of the Sandwich Islands, Committee on Registration of Type Specimens, Report on the Zoölogical and Botanical Publicawere presented before the section.
tion, Report on the Zoölogy and Botany of the D. Zoology. The presiding officer of this sec- West India Islands, and Report of the Committee tion was Prof. Adam Sedgwick, F.R. S., of Trin- for constructing a Circulatory Apparatus for Exity College, Cambridge, who delivered an address perimental Observations on Marine Organisms. on Variation and Some Phenomena connected E. Geography.-This section was presided over with Reproduction and Sex. In beginning his by Sir John Murray, F. R. S., who since 1882 has address he said: “ That part of the science of been the editor of the scientific results of the Challenger expedition. The subject of his ad- material condition of the people. The economist dress was the Ocean's Floor. He said: “It was analyzes the motives of these phenomena, and the desire to establish telegraphic communica- endeavors to trace the connection between cause tion between Europe and America that gave the and effect.” Mr. Higgs then contended that “we first direct impulse to the scientific exploration want, above all, the careful, minute, systematic of the great ocean basins, and at the present day observation of life as effected by environment, the survey of new cable routes still yields each heredity, and habit.” Concerning wages, he said: year a large amount of accurate knowledge re- “It is now necessary for us to distinguish between garding the floor of the ocean." Taking up spe- real wages and utilities; not to stop at the fact cial topics, he showed from statistics that con- that so many shillings a week might procure siderably more than half of the sea floor lies at such and such necessaries, comforts, or luxuries, a depth exceeding 2,000 fathoms, or more than but to ascertain how they are expended." The 2 geographical miles. The greatest depth re- defects of household management received due corded is 5,155 fathoms, or 530 feet more than attention, and he contended that great possibili. 5 geographical miles, being about 2,000 feet more ties in the economic progress would result from below the level of the sea than the summit of attention being paid to the humblest details of Mount Everest is above it. Concerning the ocean domestic life. The waste in the consumption of floor, he said: “The deep sea is a region of darkfood was discussed, and he told how, owing to ness as well as of low temperature, for the first the great cheapness of bananas during a recent direct rays of the sun are wholly absorbed in severe strike, the strikers had sustained thempassing through the superficial layers of water. selves and their families on this fruit at a trifling Plant life, in consequence, is quite absent over 93 cost. Other forms of waste, such as coal, were per cent. of the bottom of the ocean, or 66 per mentioned, and he quoted Edward Atkinson to cent. of the whole surface of the lithosphere." the effect that the waste of food from bad cook. He referred to the changes in progress on the ing in the United States amounted to $1,000,000,floor of the ocean, and discussed the causes of 000 a year. He contrasted the economies of the the changes in the surface of land areas. In French people with those at home, and referred closing he made an appeal for aid to carry to a to the desirability of municipal management of successful issue the proposed antarctic exploring funerals. He quoted largely from Le Play's expedition.
monograph, Family Budgets, saying: “They yield The following.named papers were read and dis excellent material, upon which science in its vari. cussed before the section: Description of an Arc- ous branches has yet to do work which will tic Voyage in the Russian Ice-breaker Yermak, benefit mankind in general, and promises espeby Admiral Makuroff; Physical Observations in cially to benefit the people of this country. the Barents Sea, by William S. Bruce; The Voy. The following-named papers were read and disage of the Southern Cross from Hobart to Cape cussed before the section: Aspects of American Adare, by Hugh R. Mill; The Problem of Ant- Municipal Finance, by John H. Hollander, of aretic Exploration, by M. H. Arctowski; The Baltimore, Md., U. S. A.; Municipal Trading and Physical and Chemical Work of an Antarctic Profits, by Robert Donald; The Single Tax, by Expedition, by John Y. Buchanan; On the Flora William Smart; The State as an Investor, by E. of the Seas, by George Murray; Travels in East Cannon; The Mercantile System, by G. J. Stokes; Bokhara, by Mrs. W. R. Rickmers; An Account On the Mercantile System of Laissez Faire, by of a Journey in Western Oaxaca, Mexico, by Miss Ethel R. Faraday; Geometrical Illustrations O. H. Howarth; An Account of the Oceanological of the Theory of Rent, by J. D. Everett; On the and Meteorological Results of the German Deep- Modes of representing Statistics, by F. Y. Edgesea Expedition in the Steamship Valdivia, by Ĝ. worth; Agricultural Wages from 1770 to 1895, Schott; The Mean Temperature of the Surface by A. L. Bowley; On the Census of 1901, by Miss Waters of the Sea round the British Coast, and Clara E. Collet; On the Cause of Average Wages its Relation to that of the Air, and Temperature between 1790 and 1860, by George H. Wood; and Salinity of the Surface Waters of the North The Regulation of Wages by Lists in the SpinAtlantic during 1896 and 1897, by H. N. Dickson; ning Industry, by S. J. Chapman; The Teaching The Nomenclature of the Forms of Suboceanic University of London and its Faculty of EcoRelief, by Hugh R. Mill; Bathymetrical Survey nomics, by Sir Philip Magnus; The Increase in of the Scottish Fresh-water Locks, by Sir John Local Rates in England and Wales, 1891-'92 to Murray and F. P. Pullar; Twelve years' Work 1896_'97, by Miss Hewart; Bank Reserves, by of the Ordnance Survey, by Sir John Farquhar. George H. Pownall; Indian Currency after the son; Sand Dunes in Lower Egypt, by Vaughan Report of the Commissioner, by Hermann Cornish; A Visit to the Kartchkhal Mountains Schmidt; The Silver Question in Relation to Britin Transcaucasia, by W. R. Rickmers; On the ish Trade, by J. M. Macdonald; Results of Recent Anthropogeography of New Guinea and Sara- Poor-law Reform, by Harold E. Moore; and Oldwak, by Alfred C. Haddon; Travels through age Pensions in Denmark, by A. W. Flux. Abyssinia, by Capt. Wellby; An Account of a G. Mechanical Science.-Sir William H. White, Journey to Wilczek Land and a Winter in the F. R. S., who is assistant controller and director Aretic Regions, by Walter Wellman, of Washing- of naval construction in the English Admiralty, ton city, U. S. A.; and On Oceanic Islands, by was the presiding officer of this section. His Charles W. Andrews.
address treated of Steam Navigation at High F. Economic Science and Statistics.—The pre- Speeds. He said that progress in steam navigasiding officer of this section was Henry Higgs, tion had been marked by the following characterwho is secretary of the British Economic Associa- istics: 1. Growth in dimensions and weight of tion and is connected with the English civil ships, and large increase in engine power as service. The subject of his address was The Con- speeds have been raised. 2. Improvements in dition of the People. He said: “ The prime con- marine engineering, accompanying increase of cern of the economist and of the statistician is steam pressure; economy of fuel and reduction in the condition of the people. The statistician the weight of propelling apparatus in proportion measures the changing phenomena of the pro- to the power developed. 3. Improvements in the duction, distribution, and consumption of wealth, materials used in ship-building; better structural which to a large extent reflect and determine the arrangements; relatively lighter hulls and larger
VOL. XXXIX.-4 A
carrying power. 4. Improvements in form, lead. by T. Messenger; and Some Experiments on the ing to diminished resistance and economy of Thrust and Power of Air Propellers, by William power expended in propulsion. These character. G. Walker. istics were illustrated by a concise survey of the H. Anthropology.—This section was presided progress achieved (1) by transatlantic passenger over by Charles H. Read, who is the keeper of steamers, (2) by swift passenger steamers for British and mediæval antiquities in the British long voyages, (3) by cargo and passenger steam Museum. In his address he called attention to ers, and (4) by cross-channel steamers. He told the fact that in Great Britain there is a greater how speed had been increased from 81 to 223 variety of prehistoric and later remains than is knots, and the time on the voyage reduced to seen in most European countries, and yet in the about 38 per cent. of what it was in 1840. “ Ships absence of any organized means for their preshave been more than trebled in length, about ervation many ancient remains have been plowed doubled in breadth, and increased tentold in dis- down almost to the level of the surrounding placement. The number of passengers carried by country, thus scattering bones and other relics a steamship has been increased from about 100 unnoticed over the field. Such accidental and to nearly 2,000. The engine power has been casual destruction can only be remedied by enmade 40 times as great." The size and speed of lightening public opinion through local scienwar ships was discussed, and he showed how the tific societies. “ The plan I would propose," he speed of a war ship in 1860 was from 12 to 13 said, “ is this: Each society should record on the knots, while at present from 20 to 23 knots are large scale ordnance map any tumulus or earthobtained. Modern battle ships are of 13,000 to work within the country, and at the same time 15,000 tons, and modern cruisers of 10,000 to keep a register of the sites, with numbers refer14,000 tons, not merely because they are faster ring to the map, and in this register should be than their predecessors, but because they have noted the names of the owner and tenant of the greater powers of offense and defense and pos- property, as well as any details that would be sess greater coal endurance. He showed the ad- of use in exploring the tumuli." Mr. Read devantages of increased dimensions, and then scribed the steps taken toward the formation of passed to an interesting description of swift tor- a bureau of ethnology, and said: “ Within a pedo vessels. Concerning these he said: “The short time we shall have an organization that results obtained in torpedo vessels show such a will systematically gather the records of the wide departure from those usual in seagoing many races which are either disappearing before ships as to suggest the possibility of some inter- the advancing white man, or, what is equally .mediate type of propelling apparatus applicable fatal from the anthropological point of view, are to large seagoing ships, and securing sufficient rapidly adopting the white man's habits and fordurability and economy of fuel in association getting their own." Attention was called to the with further savings of weight.” He described at fact that the museums of anthropology in Berlin length the steam turbo-motor recently introduced surpass those in London; thus “ the British prorby Charles Parsons, and in conclusion discussed ince of Assam is represented in Berlin by a whole the future possibilities of speed, asserting that room, and in London by a single case.” This in the immediate future “further reductions may led to a plea for more ample accommodation be anticipated in the weight of propelling ap- and for more extensive teaching. He said: “I paratus and fuel in proportion to the power de. should like to say that courses of lectures in anveloped; further savings in the weight of the thropology delivered in the same building would hulls, arising from the use of stronger materials form a fitting crown to such a scheme for a really and improved structural arrangements; improve- imperial museum such as I have endeavored to ments in form and enlargements in dimensions"; sketch. There is but one chair of anthropology also, “if greater draughts of water can be made in this country, and there is ample room and possible, so much the better for carrying power ample material to justify the creation of a secand speed." .
ond." Failing to secure more accommodations The following-named papers were read and dis- in the British Museum, the natural home of such cussed before the section: On the Dover Harbor a collection, he recommended the conversion of Works, by William Matthews and J. C. Coode; the Imperial Institute into " such a museum of On Noninflammable Wood and its Use in War anthropology as I have indicated, but, of course, Ships, by E. Marshall Fox; A Short History of as a Government institution. I am by no means the Engineering Works of the Suez Canal to the an advocate of the creation of new institutions Present Time, by Sir Charles Hartley; A De- if the old ones can adequately do their work. scription of Suggestions made for Fast Cross- But the removal of the ethnographical and anthrochannel Steamers to be fitted with the Parsons pological collections from the British Museum to Steam Turbine, by Charles Parsons; Niclausse the galleries of the Imperial Institute would posSteam Boilers, by Mark Robinson; The Method sess so many manifest advantages that the disof Under-water Torpedo Discharge adopted by advantages need scarcely be considered." Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Company, The following-named papers were read and disby Capt. Lloyd; Electrical Machinery on Board cussed before the section: The Personal Equation Ship, by Alexander Siemens; A Contribution to in the Anthropometry of Criminals, by J. G. the Knowledge of the Electric Conductivity and Garson; The Finger Prints of Young Children, Magnetic Properties of an Extensive Series of by Francis Galton; On the Finger Print as a Iron Alloys, by W. F. Barrett and William Means of identifying Criminals, by E. R. Henry; Brown; A Method of Electric Railway Signaling The Cambridge Expedition to Torres Straits and without Contact, by Wilfred S. Boult; Some Re- New Guinea and Some of the Totem Customs cent Applications of Electro-metallurgy to Me- of the Yarai Kanna Tribe of Cape York, North chanical Engineering, by Sherard C. Coles; On Queensland, by Alfred C. Haddon; The Linthe Lighthouses of the English Channel, byguistic Results of the Cambridge Expedition to James Kenward; Recent Experiences with Steam Torres Straits and New Guinea, by Sidney H. on Common Roads, by J. I. Thornycraft; Dym- Ray: Some Observations on Savage Music and church Wall and the Reclamation of Romney Observations on Hearing, Smell, Taste, Reaction, Marsh, by E. Case; An Apparatus by which the and Time, by C. S. Myers; On the Clubs, Houses, Circularity of Boiler Furnaces could be tested, and Dubus of British New Guinea, by C. G. Selig.
mann; Observations and Experiments on Vision, trol of the will, are under the control of the Color, and Estimation of Î'ime and Two New higher centers of the brain.” The arrangement Departures in Anthropological Method, by W. H. of the involuntary nervous system was described, R. Rivers; Observations on the Sense of Touch as well as the cranial and sacral systems. He and of Pain on the Estimation of Weight and discussed inhibition, and said that the heart, Variations of Blood Pressure, by W. McDougall; stomach, and intestines work when no longer conStonehenge: Some New Observations and a Sug- nected with the central nervous systems, and that gestion, by Alfred Eddowes; The Discovery of they are especially liable to inhibition. Under Stone Implements in Pitcairn Island, by J. Allen the caption of the view of the equal endowment Brown; On the Occurrence of Celtic Types of of the tissues, he denied the probability that all Fibula of the Hallstatt and La Tène Period in unstriated muscle and glands, and even the volTunisia and Eastern Algeria, by Arthur J. Evans; untary muscles, have inhibition nerve fibers. ExOn Irish Copper Celts and On Stone Molds for perimental evidence, he asserted, was fairly deNew Types of Implements from Ireland, by cisive in favor of the simple view that the nerve George Coffey; On Recent Ethnographical Work impulse passes indirectly through one“ relay stain Scotland, by J. Gray; Recent Anthropometri- tion” only from the central nervous system to cal Work in Egypt and Some Remarks on the the involuntary tissues. His final topic was a * Cero" of St. Ubaldino: the Relic of a Pagan discussion on the regeneration of certain nerves. Spring Festival at Gabbio, in Umbria, by D. He said: “ The factors which determine whether MacIver; A Study of One Thousand Egyptian a particular tissue or part of a tissue is eventualSkulls, with Fifty Thousand Measurements, by ly supplied with nerve endings, and the degree of Donald Macalister; Notes on Color Selection in development of these, are the factors which deMan, by John Beddoe; Sequences of Prehistoric termine evolution in general. In the individual Remains and Early Mediterranean Signanis or it is exercise of function which leads to the deAlphabets, by W. M. Flinders-Petrie; Primitive velopment of particular parts; in the race it is the Rites of Disposal of the Dead as illustrated by utility of this development which leads to their Survivals in Modern India, by W. Crooke; Pre- preservation. And so it is conceivable that in animistic Religion, by R. R. Marett; Thirty-seven some lower vertebrate at some time the autonomic Nâts (or Spirits) of the Burmese, by R. Č. Tem- nervous system may have developed especially ple; Exhibition of Ethnographical Specimens in connection with those tissues which appear in from Somali, Galla, and Shangalla, by R. Koett- ourselves to be wholly unprovided with motor litz; The Ethnography of the Lake Region of nerve fibers." Uganda, by J. R. L. Macdonald; and The Eth The following-named papers were read and disnology of West African Tribes North of the cussed before the section: Auto-intoxication as a Middle Benue, by H. Pope Hennessy.
Cause of Pancreatic Diabetes, by J. H. Tuckett; Also the following reports were presented be. The Effects of Pituitary Extract, by Edward A. fore the section: Report on the New Edition of Schäfer and Swale Vincent; The Theory of HearAnthropological Notes and Queries, Report on ing, by A. A. Gray; A New Instrument for measthe Collection, Preservation, and Systematic uring the Duration of Persistence of Vision on Registration of Photographs of Anthropological the Human Retina and A New Instrument for Interest, Report of the Committee for the Ethnomeasuring the Persistence of Duration of Vision, graphical Survey of the United Kingdom, Report by E. S. Bruce; (1) On the Resonance of Nerve of the Committee appointed to investigate the and Muscle; (2) The Propagation of Impulses in Mental and Physical Deviation from the Normal the Rabbit's Heart; (3) Fibrillation and Pulsaamong Children in Public Elementary and Other tion of the Dog's Heart, by H. Kronecker and F. Schools, Report on the Lake Village at Glaston- C. Busch; The Effects of Successive Stimulation bury, Report on the Analysis of the Metals found of the l'iscera and Vasomotor Nerves of the in the Lake Village, Report of the Committee Intestine, by M. Bunch; On the Innervation of appointed to Co-operate with the Silchester Ex- the Thoracic Part of the Esophagus, by H. caration Fund Committee in their Excavations Kronecker and W. Muklberg; Experiments on a in the Roman City of Silchester, and Report of Dog with a Vella Fistula, by H. Kronecker and the Committee appointed for the Ethnographic T. E. Essdemont; On Variations in the Tonus Survey of Canada.
of the Sphincter of the Bladder and The DependI. Physiology.-The presiding officer of this sec- ence of the Tonus of the Muscles of the Bladder tion was Dr. John N. Langley, F. R. S., lecturer in Rabbits on the Spinal Cord, by H. Kronecker on histology in the University of Cambridge. He and Dr. Arnold; On Respiration on Mountains, said: “I propose to consider some relations of by H. Kronecker and Dr. Burgi; Protamines and the nerves which pass from the brain and spinal their Cleavage Products: Their Physiological Efcord and convey impulses to the other tissues of fects, by W. H. Thompson; The Vascular Mechanthe body-the motor or efferent nerves—and in ism of the Testes, by W. E. Dixon; Observations especial the relations of those efferent nerves on Visual Acuity from Torres Strait, by W. H. R. which run to the tissues over which we have little Rivers; On Protamines: The Simplest Proteids, or no voluntary control.” Concerning limitations by Prof. Kossel; and Observations on Visual Acuin the control of the nervous system over the tis- ity from New Guinea, by C. G. Seligmann. sues of the body, he contended that “this control K. Botany.—Sir George King presided over this is in considerable part indirect only, the several section, and gave as his address a sketch of the tissues are in varying degree under direct control, history of Indian botany. He pointed out that and different parts of one tissue may be influenced the first contribution to the knowledge of the by the nervous system to different extents.” As botany of what is now British India was made to limitations in the control of the nervous sys- by the Dutch. The active study of botany on the tem over the different activities, he said that binomial system of nomenclature invented by “even when nervous impulses can strikingly af- Linnæus was initiated in India by Koenig; and fect the vital activity of a tissue their action is the subsequent history of botanic science in India limited." After discussing the somatic or vol- might be divided into two periods, the first extenduntary nervous system, he passed to the auto- ing from Koenig's arrival, in 1767, to Sir Joseph nomic or involuntary tissues, which, he said, “ al. Hooker's arrival, in 1849, and the second extendthough not under the prompt and immediate con- ing from the latter date to the present day. Ile