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berg trundled the long caravans of great Cape race of white freemen than it was to have Britwagons, each drawn by a dozen yoke of oxen. ish soldiers worsted in a few skirmishes. ThereThe Transvaal was the land of Canaan after all, fore the convention of 1881 was signed, giving for there the Philistines could not oppress them. back self-government to the Transvaal, Great
The elder Kruger took up a farm as large as Britain retaining suzerainty. The military suca county, and when the boys grew up and mar- cesses that brought about this result were due ried they made locations for themselves. Paul to Joubert, who was elected commandant genwas known throughout the Transvaal for his eral. The political and diplomatic success was strength, skill, courage, and resource. He hunted achieved by Kruger, and for that reason the over the whole country, and killed more lions burghers chose him in 1882 to be President of than any one else. No Kaffir could match him the Transvaal Republic, and in 1883, when the in fleetness of foot or endurance. Sound and regular electoral period came round, he was reshrewd of judgment, keen in practical affairs, elected for five years, and in each successive convincing in argument, eloquent, masterful, he election since, in 1888, in 1893, and in 1898. The asserted himself among the young burghers, and convention of 1881 did not secure to the Transsoon held a place in the councils of the young vaal that full measure of independence to which nation of which he was the product and the President Kruger and the burghers aspired. When type. He became field cornet, a member of the they had organized the republic on a new and Volksraad, an active and diligent member who lasting basis, and were strong again because they shaped legislation because he was grounded in were united, the President set himself to work the principles on which the republic was based to secure a revision of the convention. He was and a thorough believer in them. He became a willing to concede commercial and territorial admember of the Executive Council under Presi- vantages if the Queen's Government would yield dent Burgers in 1872. When dissatisfaction at rights that were scarcely exercised or had little the liberal religious views of President Burgers value. It was a question of names rather than threatened to disrupt the republic, when the fail- actualities, but names that fastened the badge ure of the expedition against the Bapedi rebels of dependence on the republic were harder to bear and the financial embarrassment caused by the than material sacrifices. There was the right to President's ambitious policy of internal improve- march troops through Transvaal territory, the ments seemed to justify the opinion of the pious right to represent the republic in its external Doppers that the Lord had deserted the republic, relations, the right to appoint a resident; there an English commissioner appeared and raised the was the suzerainty, an invidious word, having British flag over the Transvaal, and a strong body no modern legal meaning, only defined as meanof troops marched in straightway. Paul Kruger, ing here those specified rights. Paul Kruger went Piet Joubert, all the Boers, all the Boer wives to London again in order to negotiate a new still more, were determined that the republic convention with Lord Derby, who had to conshould not go under, that the Englander should sider, as before, the opinion of the Cape Afrinot rule them and their children. All signed a kanders, which was altogether propitious, for memorial declaring that they did not desire Brit Kruger always knew what ground he was walkish annexation-all the Boers, not the British ing on. To renounce any one of the thousand and German traders and artisans who had in shadowy rights built out of words that rest unvited the occupation. Kruger, Joubert, and Pre- heeded in the British archives would not enter torius went to London to protest against the into the head of a British minister. The Liberal action of Sir Theophilus Shepstone, went again Secretary of State for the Colonies was willing with this document to disprove the statement to make a new convention, to let the Transvaal that the people had asked for annexation, and resume the old name of South African Republic, were informed that the British flag, once raised, to expunge the word suzerainty from the prewould not be hauled down. The Boer deputation amble, to strike out the right to march troops returned home discomfited, but not entirely dis- into the Transvaal, to send a diplomatic agent heartened. They knew their people's patience, instead of a resident to Pretoria, and to let the persistence, unity, courage. The case was not republic have its own diplomacy, subject to the worse than when they warred against Dingaan condition that the Queen's Government should and his Zulus. They did as they had done in have six months in which to disapprove any that dire time of tribulation. They came to treaty made with a foreign power. That veto gether quietly to discuss' and plan. They prayed power was all that stood between the Transvaal and sang the Transvaal hymn of deliverance from and absolute independence. The state President the British yoke. They quietly acquired more was willing to give a substantial quid pro quo firearms and stored up provisions. When the in order to take back to Pretoria this convention British had reduced their garrisons they suddenly of 1884. raised the flag of independence. The British sent The national development of the South African troops up from Natal, and the Boers trapped them Republic was rapid after Kruger had secured this and beat them. When a rude farming community convention. With their own railroad to the nonof about 6,000 men bade defiance to the British British port of Delagoa Bay the Boers were inEmpire, and when 800 British regulars were put dependent of the railroad and customs tariffs of to flight on ground selected by an English gen- the Cape and Natal. They secured a title to a eral by 156 of these farmers, there seemed to be port of their own, the Bay of St. Lucia, in Zulupolitical and military grounds for vindicating land, but the British Government intervened and British prestige, and therefore an army was sent took it away from them. The discovery of gold to subjugate the Transvaalers. When, on the in the Transvaal opened the prospect of a naother hand, every Dutch Afrikander felt his blood tional revenue, a thing almost impossible to obboil when he saw what England had done and tain from farmers alone, and Kruger permitted intended to do to his kindred in the Transvaal miners to come in, and gave them a code of minthere were political and military grounds for the ing laws as liberal as those of California. He British Government to stay its hand. Mr. Glad had controversies with the Foreign Office, of stone appreciated these grounds, and he under- course. His life has been spent in these controstood that it would be more ignominious for versies. The British settlers objected to being Great Britain to impose a tyrannical yoke on a commandeered to fight Kaffir rebels. He excused them from being commandeered. Afterward they who will not suffer others to rule them, and that wanted franchise privileges. He gave them fran- such a condition constituted a danger to the chise privileges in matters affecting the mines and peace of South Africa. The policy of President the Uitlander community. Eventually they raised Kruger in regard to the franchise was always a factitious clamor for full burgher rights. Here clear and simple. He wanted as many new burghhe had to deal not with the bungling imperson- ers as he could get that would stand by the reality in Downing Street, with its pigeonholed public and uphold its laws and institutions. official knowledge which would make out the Strangers who came to get money and return Transvaal Boers to be British subjects who had after a few years to their own country he did gone beyond the pale of the law to gratify their not want; still less Britishers who desired to criminal propensities among sa vages, but with a upset the republic and convert it into a British man, a practical politician, who could bend multi- colony. When the strangers began to flock in tudes to his will, who was crafty, ingenious, re- the naturalization period was made longer and sourceful, careless of the means he used if they longer, so as to exclude the elements that could only served his end, and that end involved first not be assimilated, though all who showed their of all the extinction of the South African Repub- loyalty to the republic by going out with the lic. The history of South Africa subsequent to burgher commandos to fight native rebels or the the conclusion of the last London convention is Jameson raiders were naturalized immediately by a narrative of the struggle between Paul Kruger special legislation. The state President offered and Cecil Rhodes. As Premier of Cape Colony to prove to Sir Alfred Milner that Englishmen and the accepted leader of the Afrikander party, with few exceptions would not renounce their pretending to pursue the good of all South Africa, nationality to become Transvaal burghers, and but nursing the local jealousies springing from that the majority of the Uitlanders were satisseparate material interests, Rhodes sought to win fied with the laws and their administration. The the Cape Dutch and the Free Staters to his side, High Commissioner persisted in his demand for and actually secured their quiescence and con- a five years' retrospective franchise as an irresent when he threw a strangling band of British ducible minimum. The state President offered territory round the Transvaal, checking all ex- this if the newly revived claim to suzerainty were pansion to the west or the north. Kruger had abandoned; but Sir Alfred Milner could not agree established friendship with Lobengula; but to retract or even ignore the absurd assumption Rhodes unearthed a dormant mining concession, of Mr. Chamberlain that the preamble of the given by Lobengula for a supply of firearms to convention of 1881 was still in force. President fight the Boers, and on the strength of this ob- Kruger said he would not consent to give his tained a royal charter. The Cape Dutch had now country away to strangers. Thus war resulted lost faith in Rhodes, so he took the opposite between Great Britain and the allied Boer repubparty into his train, and nursed the jealousies lics-a war that he predicted would stagger huof the British in South Africa, especially the manity rapidly increasing mining community on the Ohm Paul, or Uncle Paul, as his people someRand, which grew to outnumber the Boers of the times call him, is vigorous in body and intellect Transvaal. He plotted the revolutionary upris. in his old age. He is a typical Boer patriarch, ing of 1895 and the invasion of the Transvaal the father of eleven children, who have large famiby the Chartered Company's troops. This proved lies too. He has sold gold-bearing land and other a lamentable failure, owing to the watchfulness property enough to make him very wealthy-a of Kruger and the unwillingness of the American millionaire in pounds sterling, it is said-yet he conspirators and of the workingmen to abolish lives in the utmost simplicity in a modest house. the republic and accept British rule. If Rhodes He shares the common Boer disdain for luxury had been on hand there would have been no and elegance, as well as for ceremony and formalabortive rising, but he had to suffer an eclipse in ity. The Bible is his constant guide, and from consequence of the fiasco. To Kruger it gave the its perusal he has acquired the habit of quoting opportunity he desired. He armed and fortified scriptural texts in support of his political arguthe Transvaal. It was four years before the Uit- ments. From the Bible, too, he has learned the lander agitation could be renewed with the pros- graceful art of illustrating his meaning by means pect of British official support. In 1899* Mr. of parables and forcible similes. He often mounts Chamberlain and Sir Alfred Milner determined to the pulpit, and has the reputation of being the curb the growing military power and national best preacher in Pretoria. Tobacco and coffee spirit of the South African Republic, even at are his only indulgences. Coffee is indeed the the cost of war. Asserting the suzerainty of only regale that is usually set before visitors in Great Britain, they assumed the right of the Brit- the President's house, and to keep a plentiful ish subjects in the Transvaal to the franchise supply ready an annual sum is allotted from the on a theory that Englishmen are a masterful race, state treasury.
LAWTON, HENRY WARE, American sol- 25, 1865, with the brevet rank of colonel. In dier, born in Manhattan, Lucas County, Ohio, 1864 Capt. Lawton commanded his regiment. Its March 17, 1843; fell in the battle of San Mateo, service was at the West, and he received the ofLuzon, Philippine Islands, Dec. 19, 1899. He was ficial commendation of his superior officers on a student in the Methodist Episcopal College in several occasions, especially for the manner in Fort Wayne, Ind., when the civil war broke out, which he handled his men in the battle of Nashenlisted in the Ninth Indiana Volunteers April ville. The brigade to which his regiment be. 18, 1861, and was appointed a sergeant. On Aug. longed captured on the two days of battle 7 of 20 he was commissioned first lieutenant in the the 13 guns secured by the entire division, and Thirtieth Indiana Regiment, May 17, 1862, was 641, or more than half, of the prisoners. The promoted captain, and Nov. 15, 1864, lieutenant Thirtieth Indiana was very much reduced in colonel. He was mustered out of the service Nov. strength about this time, and Capt. Lawton car