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After the election, Nov. 7, a Louisville paper nounced the Philippine policy of the Administrasaid: “Following closely upon a series of whole- tion. Further the resolutions said: sale murders in the State's feud district,' where “We call attention to the incompetency of the a man's life is not safe, we are now shown the present Republican administration in Kentucky; sickening spectacle of 15 American citizens mur- to the abuses and scandals in the management dered outright at the polls while attempting to of penitentiaries and asylums while under Reexercise their right of suffrage. That number publican control, and we commend the wisdom were instantly killed in election rows and riots of the last General Assembly of Kentucky in the in different parts of the State, and the news comes enactment of laws which secure the wise and that a dozen more are likely to die."

economical administration of the penitentiaries On Dec. 6 a young negro, Richard Coleman, and other public institutions of the State under the confessed murderer of the wife of his em- Democratic control; to the increase in the rate ployer, was burned at the stake in Maysville, of taxation; to the vetoing of all Democratic after suffering frightful torture at the hands of legislation favorable to the interests of the peoa mob. The report said the husband and the ple and hostile to the oppressions and extortions brother of his victim fired the pile of wood and of organized wealth. · We declare that after four kept up the fire, and that none of the crowd was years of trial it is well established that the Remasked, the lynching having taken place in day- publican administration is incapable of uphold

ing and maintaining the laws and of preserving The Kentucky Monument at Chickamauga. peace and order in the Commonwealth, and we - This was dedicated with appropriate ceremonies especially condemn the present Republican Goyon May 3. In accepting the monument and trans- ernor for surrounding the State capital with the ferring it to the Government Gov. Bradley made military arm of the government in time of proan address, in which he said: “ This shaft is found peace, thus attempting to influence and dedicated not alone to those who died on this terrorize the General Assembly, pending the elecand surrounding fields, but to the gallant sur- tion of a United States Senator. vivors who, when the frowning clouds of war “We indorse the amendment to the State elecwere dispelled by the bright sunshine of peace, tion law passed by the last Democratic General returned to their homes to repair broken for Assembly of Kentucky over the veto of a Repubtunes and are to-day numbered among the best lican Governor. We declare the amendment to and most distinguished sons of the Common- be in the interest of fair and honest elections." wealth. Kentucky has evinced no partiality in A conference was called of the Democrats opthis evidence of loving remembrance. It carries posed to Goebel for the purpose of organizing with it no heartburning, no jealousy, no invidi. the opposition. It met at Lexington, Aug. 2, and ous distinction. It is not an emblem of honor called a State convention, which assembled there to the victor and reproach to the vanquished, Aug. 16. The resolutions that were adopted debut an equal tribute to the worth of all."

clare the Louisville nominees not nominees of Political.—The campaign for the election of the Democratic party; demand the enactment of State officers this year was the bitterest prob- a law giving force and effect to section 151 of ably in the history of the State, and, although the State Constitution, which provides for deprithe Republican candidates were declared elected vation of office of any person who to secure his on count of the returns, and were inaugurated, nomination or election has been guilty of the contests were entered, on the claim that fraud unlawful use of money or other things of value, had been used, which were still unsettled far into or has been guilty of fraud or intimidation, the year 1900, after the excitement of the cam bribery or corrupt practice; approve the prinpaign and the subsequent struggles had cul- ciples and platform of the Chicago convention minated in the tragic death of Senator Goebel, of 1896, and Bryan for President in 1900; dethe candidate of the Democratic party.

nounce the Goebel election law; favor the reguThe Democratic convention was held in Louis- lation of railroads so as to prevent extortion; ville in June. The contest between the partisans demand the abolishment of the Chinn book bill; of William Goebel and those opposed to his can- and condemn President McKinley for alleged addidacy was long and determined. A permanent vancement of the trusts. organization was not effected until the third or The party was called “The Honest-election fourth day, and the nomination for Governor was Democratic party," and the ticket was: For Gov. not made until the sixth day. The principal can- ernor, John Young Brown; Lieutenant Governor, didates were William Goebel, ex-Gov. P. Wat P. P. Johnston; Secretary of State, E. L. Hines; Hardin, and William J. Stone. After many bal- Attorney-General, Lawrence E. Tanner; Treaslots had been taken Senator Goebel succeeded urer, John Droege; Commissioner of Agriculture, in securing the adoption of a resolution declar- G. W. Vandevere; Superintendent of Public Ining that after the twenty-fifth ballot and each struction, Rev. E. C. Overstreet; Auditor, Frank one following the candidate showing the least A. Pasteur. strength should be dropped. This resulted in The Republican State Convention was held in the elimination of Mr. Stone's name, and on the Lexington, July 12-14. Candidates for the gubertwenty-sixth ballot, June 27, Goebel was nomi- natorial nomination were Attorney-General W. S. nated by 5601, against 5304 for Hardin. The Taylor, Auditor Samuel H. Stone, and Judge Clifcompleted ticket was: For Governor, William ton J. Pratt. The two latter withdrew, and Tay. Goebel; Lieutenant Governor, J. 0. W. Beckham; lor was nominated by acclamation. Secretary of State, Breck Hill; Attorney-General, The ticket was: For Governor, William S. Tay. R. J. Breckenridge; Treasurer, S. W. Haeger; lor; Lieutenant Governor, John Marshall; SecreAuditor, Gus Coulter; Commissioner of Agricul- tary of State, Caleb Powers; Attorney-General, ture, J. B. Nall; Superintendent of Public Instruc- Clifton J. Pratt; Auditor, John S. Sweeney; tion, H. V. McChesney.

Treasurer, Walter R. Day: Superintendent of InThe platform reaffirmed the principles of the struction, John Burke: Commissioner of Agriculparty as formulated at Chicago in 1896, favored ture, J. W. Throckmorton. Candidates for Railthe nomination of William J. Bryan and the road Commissioners were H. S. Irwin and John election of J. S. C. Blackburn to the United States C. Wood in two of the districts. In the First Senate, and approved the Cuban war, but de District the Republicans made no nomination.

The resolutions declared: “We affirm that the 1896 for President of the United States, by his existing election law in Kentucky, enacted by a public indorsement of the ticket nominated at Democratic General Assembly in 1898 over the Í.ouisville and the platform there adopted, asobjection of our Republican Governor, is viciously sumes the responsibility of indorsing the criminal partisan, subversive of fairness and honesty in attempts of the corrupt element of Kentucky elections, hostile to the principles of free govern- politics to subvert the ballot. ment, removes safeguards which have heretofore “ We denounce the infamous Goebel election protected and guaranteed the right of suffrage, law as a revolutionary and undemocratic atdenies to our courts the power to protect voters tempt to subvert the ballot, to enthrone in Kenin this State against the perpetration of fraud tucky a corrupt political ring, and to practically at elections, commits broad power to irresponsible destroy popular government. Therefore we de. commissioners not chosen by or accountable to mand its speedy repeal and the enactment of a the people for their acts, and imperils the sacred- law which will preserve inviolate in this Comness, efficiency, and power of the ballot. We monwealth of Kentucky the right of a free, untherefore set forth as the supreme issue before trammeled ballot and a fair and honest count." the people of this State the repeal of this revo- The convention named G. W. Reeves for United lutionary law, and the Republican party pledges States Senator. itself to its repeal and to the restoration of the The Prohibitionists held a convention at Louissystem under which free and fair elections have ville, Aug. 2, declaring for complete legal proheretofore been the rule in Kentucky. We cite hibition of the liquor traffic, demanding the repeal the election law, the Penitentiary bill, the Me- of the Goebel election law, denouncing the State Chord railway bill, and many other measures in administration, and favoring woman suffrage. troduced and attempted to be passed by the last Their ticket was: For Governor, 0. T. Wallace; Legislature of Kentucky as proof of the type Lieutenant Governor, William H. Zeigler; Secreof legislation to which the people of the State tary of State, W. M. Likens; Attorney-General, will be subjected should the Democratic party Gen. James H. Beauchamp; Treasurer, J. R. Pile; come into power under its present leadership, Auditor, Rev. Samuel M. Bernard; Commissioner legislation alike hostile to political honesty and of Agriculture, A. W. Carpenter; Superintendent purity, and to the material prosperity and ad- of Public Instruction, G. E. Hancock. vancement of our Commonwealth."

The Socialist-Labor party made nominations The State administration and the conduct of for some of the State offices, as follows: For United States Senator Deboe were commended, Governor, Albert Schmutz; Treasurer, James Detrusts were denounced, and the Republican party laney; Auditor, R. P. Caldwell; Commissioner of was congratulated on its legislation for their Agriculture, Jasem 0. Hearn. suppression. The national administration and its As it was feared that the day of election would policy were approved, and further it was said: be marked by rioting, and possibly by bloodshed,

“ We believe in popular education and the fos- so strong was party feeling and so highly wrought tering and improvement of our public-school sys. the excitement, the State troops were ordered to tem, and we favor a just and equitable law by be prepared for an emergency, and were in atwhich the cost of books shall be reduced to the tendance in Louisville. The result of the eleclowest price consistent with due regard for their tion was for a long time in doubt, and notice merit. But we are opposed to the school-book was served upon the commissioners in Jefferson law passed last year by the lower house of the County before the official count was finished, Legislature, because under its provisions desired Nov. 17, as follows: "For the Democratic candirelief will not be secured, but a more complete dates we now give notice that at the close of the monopoly will be established."

count and before any certificates be issued we The convention of the People's party was held will move the board and all other authorities in Frankfort, July 27. Some effort was made that may consider this election to declare null toward fusion with the Democrats opposed to and void the election held in the city of LouisGoebel, but the sentiment for independent action ville on the seventh day of November, 1899. was too strong, and an entire party ticket was “1. Because of the usurpation of William 0. nominated. John Y. Blair was named for Gov. Bradley in calling out and illegally using the ernor; for Lieutenant Governor, W. R. Browder; militia and overawing and intimidating the Auditor, Samuel R. Graham; Treasurer, A. H. voters and officers of and at said election and Cardin; Secretary of State, Benjamin Keys; Su- interfering with the progress of said election and perintendent of Instruction, John C. Sullivan; with the duties of the officers of said election. Commissioner of Agriculture, W. J. Hanna; “2. Because S. B. Toney unlawfully usurped Attorney-General, John T. Bashaw; Railroad power in requesting said William 0. Bradley to Commissioners, R. H. McMullen, John H. Reed, call out and use said militia for said purpose and W. G. Patrick.

when said call was entirely unnecessary, and the The resolutions declared in favor of Wharton civil authorities were able and willing to exeBarker and Ignatius Donnelly as candidates for cute any order made by said court. the presidency and vice-presidency in 1900, and “ 3. Because said militia was used for the unsaid

lawful purpose aforesaid. “We heartily sympathize with those honest “4. Because said election was not a civil elecDemocrats and Republicans of Kentucky who tion, but a military election. refuse to submit to bossism in their several par- “5. Because the said military was unlawful in ties; especially do we approve of all efforts to every respect and a criminal usurpation of power rid Kentucky of the odium of the unfair and by said named persons, and thereby the civil disreputable law known as the 'Goebel election power was subordinated to the military power, law' passed by the recent Democratic Legisla- and an overt act of a treasonable nature against ture, indorsed by the Democratic convention at the Constitution of the State of Kentucky was Louisville, and to the retention of which the committed.” Democratic party of Kentucky stands committed With the vote of Louisville thrown out, there now on the statute books of this Commonwealth; would have been a plurality for Goebel. It was and we regret to see that Hon. William J. Bryan, charged also that ballots cast in some of the for whom the Populists of Kentucky voted in strongly Republican counties were on tissue paper, and the assertion was made that the elec- which, though now abolished in form, are very tion should be declared void in those counties. influential, and almost all industry is organized On the other hand, it was declared that the into powerful societies. Buddhism, under ban returning boards had thrown out every vote for from 1392 to 1895, and its priests and monks durrejecting which the slightest pretext could be ing that period disallowed entrance into cities, found, and that 25,000 anti-Goebel votes were is the popular religion, and is now unrestrained. lost by their rulings.

Confucianism is the cult of the literary and ofThe official count gave the election to the Re: ficial classes. Sorcery and superstitions abound, publicans, the vote for Governor being reported: influencing every action of life. There are many Taylor, 193,714; Goebel, 191,331; Brown, 12,140; grotesque expressions of these in the sculpture Blair, 3,038; Wallace, 2,346; Schmutz, 510. fronting the royal palace, besides the colossal

One member of the Board of Commissioners monolith mir-yeks (distance posts) near every prepared a minority statement, in which he de village, tablets, and stone work of various kinds clared his belief that the Democratic candidates throughout the country. were legally elected, and that the use of tissue Government.—Succession to the throne of the ballots should have rendered void the election in Korean Empire is hereditary, and the edict of several counties. He denounced the use of militia the sovereign is law. The written Constitution, on election day as reprehensible and intolerable in 9 articles-issued in August, 1899—declares in an Anglo-Saxon community.

the independence of the country, and that for The Railroad Commissioners elected were J. five hundred years Korea has been an absolute Fletcher Dempsey and C. C. McChord, Democrats, monarchy, and that it shall remain so for all and John C. Wood, Republican.

time. The other 7 articles asserts in detail his The Legislature of 1900 stands: In the Senate, prerogatives of absolutism. Historically, Ki-ja, 26 Democrats and 12 Republicans; in the House, an ancestor of Confucius, was the founder of 59 Democrats and 41 Republicans.

Cho-sen (1122 B. c. to 9 A. D.), which gave way The inauguration of the new State officers took to the Three Kingdoms (9_960 A. D.), and these place Dec. 12. Notices of contest were served. to united Korea, or Korai (960_1392), and this It was expected that while those for the two again to Cho-sen, founded by the present ruling higher offices would come before the Legisla dynasty, which in 1864 failed of direct heirs, when ture, those for the minor offices would be decided the present King, then a minor, was nominated, by the election board sitting as a board of con- his father, the Tai-Wen-Kun, practically ruling test. Two members of this board having re- the country for twenty years. From early ages signed, the State Election Board, or some other Korea was China's vassal, and paid tribute, while Democratic authority, appointed two Goebel Japan also claimed her as a tributary. Through Democrats to succeed them, while Gov. Taylor the Chino-Japanese War of 1894-'95, and by the appointed a Republican and an anti-Goebel Demo- treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895, Korea was decrat, thus further complicating matters.

clared free. On Oct. 14, 1897, at 3 A. M., before Meantime, in December, a suit was brought to the altars of the spirits of the land, the King have a local-option election in Ohio County de- assumed the title of Emperor and named his clared void. One of the minor grounds of con- realm Dai-Han ("Great Han," in distinction from test was the use of very thin or tissue-paper the ancient San-Han, or “Three Kingdoms"). ballots, and it was supposed that the decision In administration he is assisted by a Council of in regard to their acceptance would be used in State and 9 ministers, presided over by a Prethe election contests that were to come. The mier. The ministers are: Royal Household, Ficounty election on the local-option question was nance, Home Affairs, Foreign Affairs, War, Jusheld to be valid.

tice, Agriculture, and Education. In each of the An address was issued to the Democrats of the 14 provinces there is a governor, and in each of State, Dec. 21, signed by former Senator Black- the 360 districts a magistrate. There is no navy burn, chairman of the State Campaign Commit- apart from revenue vessels, but 5,000 men are tee, Chairman Young, of the State Central and armed and drilled in modern style. Nine ports Executive Committees, and all of the members of are open to foreign trade and residence. those committees, in which they said:

Open Ports.-Chemulpo, near the capital, Fu“The Democratic party of Kentucky, through san, in the southeast, and Wonsan, in the northits several State committees, has unanimously east, have hitherto been open to foreign comdeclared that the best interests of the party, as merce and residence, and aliens, mostly nontradwell as justice, demand that contests shall be ing, also have lived in the capital. Mokpo and made by all the candidates on the Democratic Chenampo were opened in 1895. On May 1, 1899, ticket for the respective offices for which they 4 new ports, after due survey of the land, were were nominated."

formally opened-Kunsan, on the west coast, The contest for the offices of Governor and Lieu- south of Chemulpo; Masampo, in the southeast, tenant Governor before the Legislature belongs near Fusan; Sungchin, on the east coast; and to the history of 1900.

the city of Ping-Yang, in the north, as a trade KOREA, or Cho-sen (" Morning Radiance"), a mart. The Russians and Japanese have at Macountry in eastern continental Asia. Seaward it sampo especially taken up land so eagerly and fronts Japan, and it lies between China and Rus- so largely that a collision between these rivals sia, separated from the former by Yalu river seemed for a while imminent. There are now and the Ever-White mountains, and from the lat- about 20,000 Japanese in Korea, 2,000 being in ter along a frontier of 11 miles by Tumen river. Seoul and the majority at Fusan. In the new No exact census of the population has been taken, treaty, published in October, 1899, in which China but, estimating from the number of houses, there is called the Middle Kingdom, Korean subjects are 13,000,000 to 15,000,000 souls in the empire. in China have the full rights of the most-favoredFemales are in the minority. The three social nation subjects, while in Korea no Chinaman classes are the yang-ban (civil and military), who can do stationary trade outside the treaty ports. live by Government employ in idleness or by evad. A handsome new bund or sea wall and avenue ing taxes and tolls; the mass of the people, mostly fronting the water in Chemulpo was opened with agricultural; and the seven degraded classes. The a grand celebration in June, 1899, by the Japanese peddlers and butchers form powerful guilds, residents, who number 6,000.

Foreign Trade.-The total trade for 1897 was Year's Day and season. After riots between the $11,755,625 in gold, and for 1898 $8,763,932 in reform and the conservative elements, the pedgold. The short crop of 1897, though succeeded dlers' and butchers' guilds were abolished and by a better one in 1898, made the natives timid the Independence Club and the popular moveabout parting with their food supplies, and ment were reduced to nullity. In March a school hindered trade. American imports have increased. for girls was opened in Seoul by Korean ladies, In 1897 they amounted to $400,000 in gold. In the first in the country under native auspices. 1898 railroad material, $297,861, and petroleum, After much excitement between the anti-Russian $189,380, were the chief items in the total of party and their few opponents, during which Kim. $655,037. In textiles the import of Japanese yarn, Hong-Niuk, a powerful pro-Russian, was murused by the native women on their hand looms, dered and his body mutilated by the mob, Russia increases, while that of shirting decreases, that and Japan, on April 25, agreed on a modus vivendi, for 1898 being 500,000 pieces. The Korean's com- both recognizing the sovereignty of Korea and mercial instinct is feeble. He runs easily into engaging to refrain from direct interference in debt, and permanently overdraws his account at her internal affairs. No military or financial adthe bank. Hence the Chinese trader is steadily visers will be nominated by either without mureplacing the native. Japanese and Chinese have tual agreement. Russia agrees not to impede acquired so much land, through the foreclosure the commercial relations between Japan and of mortgages, that the Korean Government fears Korea. On June 8 Prince Henry of Prussia arlest whole cities get into the hands of these aliens, rived at Chemulpo, and on the lith he had audiConcessions are granted to American, German, ence of the King, with a review of 3,000 troops. and English syndicates to work gold mines on On the same day there were attacks with dynacondition that one fourth the net product be paid mite bombs on five Korean ministers. On Oct. to the Korean Government, and these enterprises 21 the King's adviser, Mr. G. R. Greathouse, an are doing well. Forty Americans and 1,200 Kore- American of great legal ability, followed in death ans are employed on the 60 stamps that treat Gen. Charles Le Gendre, who for several years the auriferous rock in the region of Wonsan (or held the same office, and Gen. William McE. Dye, Gensan), including 1,000 square miles. Coal is the American military instructor and Vice-Minisnot yet mined by foreigners, but the surface fuel ter of War. The year was one of notable activity is bagged at $90 a ton, mixed with red clay and in Christian missionary work at the ports and used in balls, which burn well but are costly. the capital, and of steady progress in education, Japanese and Russian companies are licensed to with a revival of Confucianism among the yang. catch whales off the coast. The whales are shot ban. from small steamers, and their carcases are towed KRUGER, STEPHANUS JOHANNES ashore, cut up, and salted, to be sent to Japan PAUL, President of the South African Republic. as whale beef, which is bought at good prices He was born in Rastenburg, Cape Colony, in 1825. and eaten. This Japanese interest amounted in His father was not of the old Afrikander stock, 1898 to $1,750,000, and into Nagasaki alone 2,030, but an immigrant from Germany, one of the 912 pounds of whale meat, worth $56,470, were many that came from the Rhine country in the imported. The whalebone, being inferior, is sent eighteenth century and merged readily in the to Japan for manure. Various minor concessions Dutch population, to which in language and race have been granted to Russians (lumbering, lease they were closely related. When the Boers of of land for whale curing, etc.), Germans, and the eastern parts of the colony, rendered desperAmericans, native workers having the privilege ate by the decision of the British Government of steamer service on the Ta-tong river, the Seoul- that the Kaffirs who had murdered their neighGensan telegraph, and the working of coal mines. bors, stolen their cattle, and burned their home

Railways.-Surveys for the Seoul-Fusan Rail- steads were in the right, aggrieved too by the way have been completed by the Japanese, but policy of the colonial Government to uproot the since the change in the programme of the Rus. Dutch language and laws, determined to abandon sian Manchurian lines nothing beyond survey has their homes and their fixed property and to go as yet been done by the French syndicate. The far into the wilderness to seek a promised land Seoul-Chemulpo Railway, 25 miles long, stand- where the English scepter could not reach, the ard American gauge, built by Messrs. Colbran & Krugers were as ready as the old Cape families James for James R. Morse, the concessionaire to leave their roof tree and encounter the danall Americans—at a cost of $1,500,000 in gold, gers of the great trek. Paul Kruger was only is running 4 trains daily between port and a boy of twelve, but so strong and bold that when capital. The concession and materials were sold, a leopard seized his little sister he rescued her Dec. 31, 1898, to a Japanese syndicate. It was and killed the beast with his knife. They were opened for traffic Sept. 1, 1899. In Seoul Mr. with one of the commandos, all neighbors and Colbran built an electric trolley railway 6 miles relatives, that trekked all the way over the long for a Korean company, of which Ye-Cha- Orange, over the Vaal, up the valley of the CaleYun, formerly in Washington, is president. It don, over the Drakensberg, and from their laager runs from outside the new west gate through on the Tugela sent their wisest farmers out to the city to the east gate, and thence to the im- view the land; and they found it fair, the rich perial tomb. It was at first injured by the mob, terrace country of Natal, truly the promised land because they supposed it hindered rain, but it is of Canaan. Then came the negotiation with now popular and pays well.

Dingaan, then his treacherous massacre of their Politics and Events.—The year has been char- leaders, then the deep cry for vengeance, the acterized by an intense conservative reaction in vengeance of the Lord, and the long, crafty war, the Government and an absence of important that strange war of 200 or 300 men against 30,diplomatic or political events, except the chronic 000; but their faith gave them strength, and they local rebellions in the provinces and the plots won the final victory. Then came a British de of rivals and partisans in the capital. Though tachment, and the officer told them that they were the solar calendar was adopted in 1895, and is British subjects; and when re-enforcements ar. officially observed, yet the people still celebrate, rived the British flag was raised over the land with a fortnight of rejoicings and old-time cus of the Amorites that they had taken with the toms, the lunar calendar and the Chinese New sword. Back over the steep pass of the Drakens

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