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lice inspector or detective. Recommendation is Canada and the South American republics are made that a detective force be placed at the dis- offering substantial inducements to newcomers, posal of the Commissioner of Immigration to act such as bounties and land grants. Large numat the great centers of mining, manufacture, and bers of persons are leaving the ports of Genoa other industries and report upon their investiga- and Marseilles for Brazil and the Argentine Retions to headquarters at Washington. One defi- public, where they immediately become producers nite reform has resulted, however, from the meas- of the staples that come into direct competition ures adopted to enforce the alien-contract law, with our own. a check has been given to the padrone system, Another fact is worthy of consideration in conand many Armenians, Syrians, and Italians of templating the large number of arrivals in the the lower classes have been freed from a servile United States. Only about half of those who obedience to the padrones who have clandestinely come remain in the country as permanent resi. landed them within our country to serve as ped- dents. Some aliens come and go so often that dlers, mendicants, fruit sellers, or street musicians. old officials at the immigrant stations recognize

No official records were kept of the influx of them, yet they are each year listed as new arforeign population prior to 1820, but it is esti- rivals. For example, out of the 230,832 arrivals mated by good authorities that the number of during the fiscal year 1897 as many as 1,880 were immigrants arrived in the United States from debarred admission on account of belonging to the close of the Revolutionary War up to 1820 the prohibited classes. Deducting from the rewas 250,000. The number in each year from 1820 mainder those who came to join families and to 1855 was as follows, some slight discrepancies those who had been here before, only 88,666 were being produced in the figures by change of the left, representing those who came to seek a new official end of the year from Sept. 30 to Dec. 31 home in the United States. and back again: 1820, 8,385; 1821, 9,127; 1822, Th arrivals of immigrants by decennial periods 6,911; 1823, 6,354; 1824, 7,912; 1825, 10,199; 1826, furnishes the following interesting table: 10,837; 1827, 18,875; 1828, 27,382; 1829, 22,520; 1830, 23,322; 1831, 22,633; 1832, 60,482; 1833, 58,

Aggregate Annual 640; 1834, 65,365; 1835, 45,374; 1836, 76,242;

PERIODS.

arrivals.

avenge. 1837, 79,340; 1838, 38,914; 1839, 68,069; 1840, 84,066; 1841, 80,289; 1842, 104,565; 1843, 52,496;

Decade ending with 1830..

143,439 14,343 1810.

599,125 59.912 1844, 78,615; 1845, 114,371; 1846, 154,416; 1847,

1850.

1,713,351 171,325 234,968; 1848, 226,527; 1849, 297,024; 1850, 369,

1860.

2,598,214 259,821 980; 1851, 379,466; 1852, 371,603; 1853, 368,645;

2,314,824 231.482 1880.

2,812,191 281.219 1854, 427,833; 1855, 200,877; total, 4,212,624.

1890.

5,246,613 52 1.661 Before 1856 the official statistics of the arrivals From 1891 to 1899 inclusive ..

8,395,848 377.316 of passengers from foreign countries do not distinguish those intending to make their permanent During the decade 1881 to 1890 an aggregate residence in this country from merely transient of 5,246,613 immigrants arrived, which number sojourners, but there were during that time com- is 34 per cent. of the entire arrivals during the paratively few of the latter. It has been esti- period of six decades comprised between 1820 and mated that 98 per cent. of the alien arrivals prior 1880. to 1856 were immigrants.

In the early history of the immigration moveThe arrivals of immigrants in the United States ment, from 1821 to 1860, more than half of the from 1856 to 1899 were as follow: 1856, 195,857; influx to this country was from England and 1857, 246,945; 1858, 119,501; 1859, 118,616; 1860, Ireland, but there has been since 1820 almost a 150,237; 1861, 89,724; 1862, 89,007 ; 1863, 174,524; constant increase of immigration from nearly all 1864. 193,195; 1865, 247,453; for the six months countries. France is an exception to this rule. ending June 30, 1866, 163,594; for the fiscal year During the decade 1871 to 1880 the total immiending June 30, 1807, 298,967; 1868, 282,189; gration from France to the United States was 1869, 352,768; 1870, 387,203; 1871, 321,350; 1872, 72,206, and in the ten years from 1881 to 1890 404,806; 1873, 459,803; 1874, 313,339; 1875, 227, it was 50,464. The increase in the number of 498; 1876, 169,986; 1877, 141,857 ; 1878, 138,469; immigrants from Italy, Austria, Hungary, Po1879, 177,826; 1880, 457,257 ; 1881, 669,431; 1882, land, Russia, Germany, Norway, and Sweden has 788,992; 1883, 603,322; 1884, 518,592; 1885, 395,- been very marked. During the past year the ar346; 1886, 334,203; 1887, 490,109; 1888, 546,889; rivals from Italy-viz., 77,419-constitute nearly 1889, 444,427; 1890, 455,302; 1891, 560,319; 1892, one fourth of the entire immigration. It is in623,084; 1893, 502,917; 1894, 314,467; 1895, 279,- teresting to note the proportion of each of the 948; 1896, 343,267; 1897, 230,832; 1898, 229,299; leading nationalities in the grand aggregate of 1899, 311,715.

16,611,060 arrivals from 1821 to 1892 inclusive: From these figures it may be seen that the year of the largest immigration was 1999 when the Germany .......... 4.748,440 Scotland........... 347.900

Ireland .......
.... 8.592,247 China ........

296.219 number of arrivals at our ports aggregated 788, England :: .... 2,584,955 Switzerland ... . 185.488 992. The next largest volume was in 1881, when Norway and Sweden 1,082, 188 Denmark. .......... 169,769 the number was 669,431. The arrivals for 1892 Austria-Hungary... 585.666 All other countries. 2,700,295

Italy......

526.749 numbered 623,084, showing an increase in volume Russia and Poland. 517,507 Total........... 16,611,060 over every year since 1883. The marked decrease France.....

379,637 in immigration during the past six years has been attributed to the unpropitious conditions of

The aggregate arrivals, by nationalities, in the trade and business, but there can be no doubt

period 1893 to 1899 inclusive, the seven years since

bt decided measures were taken to regulate immithat the migratory disposition of European peas

gration, have been: antry toward this country has been restrained by the unsuccessful attempts of so many of the Italy ................. 417,367 | Scotland ............ 84.169 prohibited classes to gain admission.

This is
This is
Austria-Hungary..... 319,362 France.

20.976 Russia and Finland.. 284.868 | Denmark.....

28.492 especially noticeable in the marked decrease of Poland.....

87,478 Switzerland ...... 17.778 immigrants from Russia and Austria until 1899, Germany ............ 291,103 | All other countries.. 166,803

Ireland .. when the figures representing arrivals from these

Norway and Sweden, 190.591 Total............ 2,212,445 countries increased. Other causes are at work. England ....

1990

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these

Nomina............. 257.212 Alloner countries..

156,816

mereased. Other causes on

A new system of tabulation has been adopted tion exists, but in a much less degree, along the in the statistical statement of 1899, which shows Mexican border. the race to which immigrants belong distinct The proportion of the sexes of immigrants for from the country whence they embark for the the past seven years is given as follows: United States. In dealing with large figures this distinction of races makes a vast change in the

YEARS.

Males. Females. Totals. reports of immigration, for out of the 60,982 sup

1893.

280,344 159.386 439,730 posed Russians that entered our country in 1899 1894.....

169,274 116,357 285,631 about 5,383 were Germans, 15,517 were Poles, 1895.....

149,016 109,520 258,536 1,012 were Scandinavians, 24,275 were Hebrews,

1896.....

212,466 130.801 843.267 1897

135,107 95,725 230,832 120 were Bohemians, and 14 were English. As

1898.

135,7775 93,524 229,299 great discrepancies regarding the real nationali- 1899...

195,277 116,438 311,715 ties of immigrants no doubt exist in the reports of former years.

By comparison of the ages of immigrants from Immigrants of all nations come under the juris- different nationalities the following general statediction of the Immigration Bureau, with the ex- ment has been reached: Ireland, Hungary, and ception of those from China, who are dealt with Italy furnish the largest percentages of immiby the Chinese Bureau. Immigration from that grants between the ages of fifteen and forty, being country reached its maximum in the years from respectively 78, 74, and 69 per cent. Italy at 1869 to 1882 inclusive. During the decade ending the same time furnishes much the largest per1880 it amounted to 123,201, and in the two years centage of immigrants more than forty years of 1881 and 1882 it aggregated 51,469. The law ex- age-namely, about 15 per cent.—while the avercluding Chinese laborers went into effect Aug. 6, age percentage of all other countries is about 10. 1882, and subsequent years show a decrease an- The next largest percentage of immigrants who nually from thousands to fewer than a hundred. have passed the prime of life is furnished by The large figures registered by the Chinese Bureau Austria, this proportion being about 11 per cent. recently indicate that Chinese of other occupa- The lowest percentage of those above the age of tions than laborers are seeking our shores. Since forty years is in the immigration from Ireland1891 the arrivals from China have averaged 2,000 namely, about 7 per cent. of the whole. The higha year.

est percentage of children under fifteen years of On the Pacific coast the Japanese arrivals are age comes from Germany, and is about 26 per exciting general interest and attracting the same cent; the lowest from Ireland, being about 14 prejudice which led to the Chinese-exclusion act. per cent. The Japanese immigrant has no family, and he' The 'occupations of immigrants are classed as works for wages that would scarcely keep a white “professional,” which embraces musicians, teachlaborer from starvation. He is steadily lowering ers, clergymen, artists, lawyers, physicians, etc.; the standard of living in California and other “skilled occupations,” embracing those engaged States, and the immigration laws can not check in forty or more different trades, such as blackbis progress, since he can not be included within smiths, carpenters, machinists, printers, miners, any of the prohibited classes. He is not a beggar, tailors, dressmakers, etc.; " miscellaneous," which he always brings money enough with him to last includes farmers, merchants, laborers, servants, until he can secure employment, and it can not etc.; and “without occupation.” From consid be proved that he had entered into any contracteration of the character of the foreign population to perform labor prior to coming to the United which sought the United States during the decade States, because he knows that the lowest rate from 1881 to 1890 (which comprises the largest of wages in America is higher than what he can number of arrivals of any decade), a fair estiobtain in his own country. The Japanese move- mate of the whole may be obtained. The proment to the United States began in 1861 with fessional class forms a very inconsiderable proa single arrival, and after a total cessation for portion, or 0.51 per cent. of the total immigrafour years 7 more arrived in 1866. During the tion. The skilled also make up a very small first decade; 1861 to 1870, the total immigration proportion-in fact, but 10.30 per cent. of the of Japanese was 218; during the second decade, whole number. The class denominated "miscel1871 to 1880, it was 149. In 1892 the number laneous " constitutes 39.63 per cent. of the whole. of arrivals was 1,498, of which 41 were females; The largest class, which represents 47.34 per cent. in 1899 they aggregated 2.844.

of all, is made up of those who have no occupaImmigrants who are citizens of and come from tions. foreign contiguous territory are inspected the Since the immigration law of 1893 went into same as other aliens; but they are expressly ex- operation this condition of affairs has been ameliempted from payment of the head tax, and there- orated. The number of immigrants having no fore derive no benefits from the immigration fund. occupation has greatly diminished. Along our northern frontier large numbers arrive On Aug. 3, 1897, the Hon. Terence V. Powderly, and depart after finding temporary employment who for fifteen years had been grand master workranging from six months to a few days. No man of the Knights of Labor, was appointed by statistics are prepared in relation to these transi. President McKinley Commissioner General of Imtory aliens. They are principally thrifty, indus- migration. The recommendations made by Mr. trious people, and their presence for the express Powderly in the annual reports of his bureau for purpose of obtaining work has excited bitter 1898 and 1899 show a comprehensive grasp of the jealousy on the part of the trades unions. Urgent immigrant subject, and prove him to be still an protests have been sent to the Immigration Bu- energetic friend of the American workingman. reau and to Congress requesting that laws be He calls attention to the decided tendency of enacted excluding Canadians from seeking em- immigrants to crowd into our great cities, and ployment in the United States. Canada threatens suggests that concerted measures be adopted by to retaliate and assume a similar unfriendly atti- the States in which these large centers of popu. tude toward United States citizens who desire lation are located to distribute foreign arrivals to engage in business within her territory, and in such a manner as to utilize their labor where the legislative bodies of both countries have the it is needed, and avoid those disturbances of the subject under consideration. The same condi- peace which result from aggregation of strangers in any community. The rigor of our immigra- and the Philippines are already subjected to imtion laws has resulted in many ingenious devices migration regulations under military authority, on the part of foreigners to avoid their operation, and it is believed that no embarrassment will Some of the most objectionable classes are se- arise in the handling of immigrants therefrom curing cabin transportation to escape the vigilant when civil governments have been established in inspection exercised over the steerage-a fact those islands. which points to the necessity of requiring from INDIA, an empire in southern Asia, under the steamship companies complete manifests of all sovereignty of the Queen of Great Britain and foreign passengers, whether traveling first or Ireland on the basis of a personal union, and second class or in the steerage. Others gain ad governed under general acts of the British Parmission by booking on board ships as seamen liament by a Governor General in consultation merely to be discharged at American ports and with and under instructions from the Secretary landed by foreign consuls, in accordance with the of State for India in the British Cabinet. The laws of navigation and treaty agreements between Governor General, or Viceroy, is advised by a the United States and their respective countries. Council of 5 ordinary members, besides the comA more flagrant abuse is the fraudulent securing mander in chief of the forces, who are appointed of naturalization papers by persons who then for five years. The Legislative Council, which claim the custody of their alleged families, such is composed of the members of the Governor Genaction being taken after the latter had been re- eral's Council and 16 additional members apfused a landing because they belonged to some pointed by the Governor General on the recomclass expressly excluded by law. Instances of mendation of certain public bodies, has power to this kind caused trouble repeatedly during the make laws, subject to the approval of the Gov. past year.

ernor General and the Secretary of State, for all It is recommended by the Commissioner of Im- persons within British India, for all British submigration that an alien on landing be required jects in the native states, and for native Indian to state whether it is his ultimate intention to subjects of the Queen in all parts of the world. renounce allegiance to his own country; his af- British India is divided for purposes of adminisfirmative answer to this question to be entered tration into the presidencies of Madras and Bomof record and used at the expiration of five years' bay, each of which has a Governor, the lieutenant residence in verifying his asserted right to natu- governships of Bengal, the Northwest Provinces ralization. Canada continues to present an open and Oudh, the Punjab, and Burmah, and the chief door for the return of aliens who have been ex- commissionerships of Assam and the Central cluded from the United States. Contract labor- Provinces. Each of the governors and lieutenant ers enter our ports alleging that their destina- governors has his Legislative Council, those for tion is Canada, travel thither, and immediately the Punjab and Burmah having been established return across the boundary. In addition to this in 1898. fraudulent practice, our people are subjected to The Governor General is George Nathaniel still more injurious foreign contact, for there is Curzon, created Baron Curzon of Kedleston, who practically no rejection of diseased persons at was appointed to succeed the Earl of Elgin in Canadian ports. The only remedy for these evils September, 1898. The members of the Supreme appears to be the withdrawal of our officials from Council in the beginning of 1899 were Sir James these ports, to locate them at certain seletted Westland, M. D. Chalmers, Major-Gen. Sir E. H. points along our northern boundary, through H. Collen, Sir A. C. Trevor, C. M. Rivaz, and C. which border stations alone should aliens be ad- E. Dawkins. The commander in chief of the mitted. A similar carelessness or incompetence forces was Gen. W. G. S. Lockhart. Sir A. E. in the medical inspection maintained at trans- Havelock was Governor of Madras, Lord Sandatlantic ports has resulted in the embarkation hurst Governor of Bombay, Sir John Woodburn for the United States of a number of diseased Lieutenant Governor of Bengal, Sir A. P. Macimmigrants (most notably those afflicted with Donnell Lieutenant Governor of the Northwest contagious trachoma or granulated eyelids), and Provinces and Oudh, Sir W. M. Young Lieutenant request has been made that surgeons of the Governor of the Punjab, and Sir F. W. R. Fryer United States Marine-Hospital Service, whose Lieutenant Governor of Burmah. ability and energy in maintaining a strict quar- Area and Population.—British India comantine have been thoroughly tested during sea- prises Bengal, with Orissa, Behar, and Chota Nagsons of dangerous epidemics, be sent abroad to pur; Bombay and Sind, with Aden; Madras; the examine into the physical condition of foreigners Northwest Provinces and Oudh; the Punjab; desiring to come to this country.

Lower and Upper Burmah; the Central Provinces; The annexation of Hawaii without a previous Assam; the minor provinces of Ajmere-Merwara, change in the municipal legislation of those Coorg, British Baluchistan, and the Andaman islands except the extension thereto of the Chi. Islands; and the Berars, temporarily under Britnese-exclusion act threatens to complicate fur ish administration. The total area is 964,993 ther the work of regulating immigration to this square miles, and the population in 1891 was 221,country. It has been ascertained that since July 172,952, of whom 112,542,739 were males and 108,7, 1898, 25,000 Japanese have been brought to 630,213 females. The native states under BritHawaii under contract to work on the sugar ish control are Hyderabad; Baroda ; Mysore, replantations; and it is asserted that members of stored to native rule in 1881; Kashmir; the the Territorial Government have been making Rajputana states, chief of which are Udaipur, arrangements with the officials of Italy for an Jodhpur, Bikaner, Jaipur and its feudatories, unlimited importation of Italian peasants. This Bhartpur, Dholpur, Alwar, Jhalawar, Tonk, and indiscriminate introduction of the lowest class Kotah; the Bombay states, of which the princiof aliens into a Territory of the United States is pal ones are Cutch, Kholhapur and dependencies, a menace to our people which fills the Immigra- and Khairpur in Sind; the Madras states of tion Bureau with grave apprehension, and it asks Travancore and Cochin; Bastar and other states to be authorized to examine and reject, at its in the Central Provinces; the Central India states discretion, all foreigners coming to our shores of Indore, Rewa, Bhopal, Gwalior, and minor from Hawaii, although they may claim to be states; Kuch Behar, Hill Tipperah, and numerous residents of that Territory, Cuba, Puerto Rico, other Bengal states; Rampur, Garhwal, and other

states in the Northwest Provinces; the Punjab different languages and dialects are spoken, is states of Patiala, Bahawulpur, Jind, Nabha, ethnically divided into 195,460,000 Aryo-Indians, Kapurthala, Mandi, Sirmur, Maler Kotla, Farid: 52,960,000 Dravidians, 7,290,000 Tibeto-Burmans, kot, Chamba, Suket, Kalsia, and others; Sik: 2,960,000 Kolarians, 1,330,000 Iranians, and 27,kim; and the Shan States of Burmah. The 000,000 others, including 400,000 gypsies, 710,000 total area of the native or feudatory states is Sinitec, 230,000 Annamites, 180,000 Khasis, 180,594,610 square miles, and their population in 1891 000 Shans, 50,000 Semites, and 250,000 Europeans. was 65,950,398, of whom 34,184,557 were males The principal languages are Hindu, spoken by and 31,865,922 females. This does not include 85,680,000 persons; Bengali, spoken by 41,340,tribes on the frontiers of Sikkim, Burmah, the 000; Telugu, spoken by 19,800,000; Mahrathi, Shan States, Rajputana, and British Baluchistan, spoken by 18,890,000; Punjabi, spoken by 17,among which a population of 607,710 was enumer- 720,000; Tamil, spoken by 15,230,000; Gujarati, ated. Nepaul, where the Gurkha troops are en- spoken by 10,620,000; Kanarese, spoken by 9,750,listed for the Indian army, is an independent 000; Uriya, spoken by 9,010,000; Burmese, spoken state in which the British refrain from interfer- by 5,560,000 : Malayalum, spoken by 5,430,000; ing, having an area of 54,000 square miles and a Urdu, spoken by 3,670,000; Sindhi, spoken by

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GATEWAY OF THE GREAT MOSQUE AT AHMEDABAD.

population variously estimated between 2,000,000 2,590,000; and the Pahari, Santali, Assamese, and 5,000,000. Bhutan is another of the Hima- Condi, Marwadi, Pushtu, Karen, Kol, Tulu, layan states which are politically independent, Kachhi, gypsy, Oraon, Arrakanese, and Kond. although subsidized and controlled by the Indian The English-speaking population was 238,499, of Government. The Ameer of Afghanistan also re- whom 100,551 were British born. As to religion, ceives a subsidy and is controlled by the British the Indian populations comprised 207,732,000 as to his foreign relations. The total area of Hindus, 57,321,000 Mohammedans, 9,280,000 AniIndia, officially so designated, comprising the ter- mists, 7,131,000 Buddhists, 2,284,000 Christians, ritories directly or indirectly under British rule, 1,908,000 Sikhs, 1,417,000 Jains, 90,000 Parsees, is 1,559.603 square miles; the total population, 17,000 Jews, and 43,000 others. The classification 287,123,350. This population, among which 118 of the population of India according to occupa

tions showed that 171,735,000 were dependent on Indian mutiny, amounting in 1898 to Rx 27,073,agriculture, 25,468,000 on earth work and general 000. Railroads, which cost Rx 22,801,300 to operlabor, 14,576,000 on the preparation and sale of ate in 1898, yielded a revenue of Rx 22,167,300. food, drink, and stimulants, 12,611,000 on making The revenue of the post office, telegraphs, and mint textile fabrics and dress, 11,220,000 on personal, was Rx 3,348,300, and the expense was Rx 2,878,household, and sanitary services, 5,672,000 on the 000; the revenue of irrigation works was Rx learned and artistic professions, 5,600,000 on serv. 3,591,100, and the expense Rx 3,138,200. Civil ice in the state and local administrations, 4,686,- salaries in 1898 amounted to Rx 15,721,300, and 000 on commerce, 4,293,000 on working in wood, miscellaneous civil charges to Rx 5,724,500. The cane, and matting, 3,953,000 on transportation charges of collection were Rx 8,991,000. For and storage, 3,821,000 on working in metals and famine relief and insurance Rx 5,414,200 were precious stones, 3,646,000 on provision and care of charged to that year. The result of the widespread cattle, 3,522,000 on light, firing, and forage, 3,285, famine and scarcity and of military operations 000 on working in leather and horn, making on the northwest frontier was a deficit in the boxes, etc., 2,361,000 on making glass, pottery, year's accounts of Rx 5,283,100. The cost of the and stoneware, 1,438,000 on building trades, famine to the Government, adding the loss of 1,155,000 on producing articles of supplementary revenue to Rx 7,470,000 spent on famine relief in requirement, 664,000 on military and naval de 1897 and 1898, is estimated at Rx 14,240,000, not fense, 500,000 on the service of foreign states, 392, including Rx 1,850,000 of suspended revenue and 000 on the gathering and preparation of drugs, Rx 1,370,000 lent to cultivators for the purchase dyes, gums, etc., 147,000 on vehicles and vessels, of seed. The budget estimate of revenue for 1899 141,000 on sport and amusements, 1,563,000 on was Rx 99,085,400, and of expenditure Rx 98,undefined and disreputable callings, and 4,774,000 194,000. The land revenue was estimated at Rx on their independent means. The registration of 27,568,200; opium, Rx 5,329,800; salt, Rx 8,728,vital statistics is attempted throughout British 000; stamps, Rx 4,855,900; excise, Rx 5,717,300; India, though in some of the provinces the rec- provincial rates, Rx 3,860,000; customs, Rx 4,590,ords are very imperfect. The official reports for 500; assessed taxes, Rx 1,892,900; forests, Rx 1896 show a birth rate per 1,000 of 43 in the Pun- 1,735,600; registration, Rx 462,200; tribute, Rx jab, 38.03 in Bengal, 36.76 in Bombay, 34.5 in the 919,400; interest, Rx 929,800; post office, teleNorthwest Provinces and Oudh, 33.69 in Assam, graphs, and mint, Rx 3,203,900; civil depart32.27 in Lower Burmah, 31.72 in the Central ments, Rx 1,733,000; miscellaneous, Rx 918,600; Provinces, and 29.9 in Madras. The death rate railroads, Rx 21,823,600; irrigation, Rx 3,228,100; was 49.31 in the Central Provinces, 36.33 in As- buildings and roads, Rx 678,700; military departsam, 34.17 in Bengal, 33.32 in the Northwest nents, Rx 909,900. The expenditures for interest Provinces and Oudh, 31.69 in Bombay, 31.5 in the on the debt were set down as Rx 3,378,600; rePunjab, 23.63 in Lower Burmah, and 20.6 in Ma- funds and compensations, Rx 1,880,100; charges dras. The number of coolie emigrants in 1896 of collection, Rx 9,330,800; post office, telegraphs, was 12,390, most of them bound for Demerara, and mint, Rx 2,932,000; civil salaries, Rx 15,694,Trinidad, Mauritius, and other British tropical 800; miscellaneous civil charges, Rx 5,777,600; colonies. The population of the principal cities of famine relief and insurance, Rx 1,099,200; railIndia in 1891 was as follows: Calcutta, 861,764; road construction, Rx 5,800; railroad revenue acBombay, 821,764; Madras, 452,518; Hyderabad, count, Rx 23,921,400; irrigation, Rx 3,213,100; 415,039; Lucknow, 273,028; Benares, 219,467; buildings and roads, Rx 6,021,500; the army, Rx Delhi 192,579: Mandalay, 188,815; Cawnpur, 188,- 25,055,900. The sum total is Rx 98,310,800, from 712; Bangalore, 180,366; Rangoon, 180,324; La- which are deducted Rx 116,800 of expenditures hore, 176,854; Allahabad, 175,246.

from provincial balances. The famine grant of Finances. The revenue in 1897 was Rx 94,- Rx 1,500,000 a year, to obtain which the salt 129,741, and the expenditure was Rx 95,834,763, duties and other taxes were increased, was di. of which Rx 69,600,508 were expended in India verted for many years to strategical railroads and and Rx 26,234,255 in Great Britain. The loss by other military purposes. The estimates for 1899 exchange was Rx 10,438,419, making the sterling provide for the expenditure of the full amount expenditures in England £15,795,836, offset to under the head of famine relief and insurance the extent of £327,107 of receipts in England, on and on railroads for the transportation of food which the gain by exchange was Rx 216,163. The supplies in times of scarcity. Extraordinary exrevenue collected by the Government of India penditures on railroads and irrigation not charged was Rx 17,131,376, and expenses of the General against revenue amounted to Rx 4,604,600 in 1898 Government were Rx 22,241,456; revenue of the and Rx 5,749,300 in 1899. Central Provinces Rx 2,178,831, and expenses Rx In the financial year ending March 31, 1899, the 1,768,753; revenue of Burmah Rx 5,883,624, and gold liabilities to England were reduced £2.695,expenses Rx 4,222,271; revenue of Assam Rx 000. There was a reduction of Rx 1,973,000 in 1,322,549, and expenses Rx 899,538; revenue of the annual expenditure, and an increase of Rx Bengal Rx 20,957,055, and expenses Rx 9,794,785; 1.658,200 in the revenue. The year closed with revenue of the Northwest Provinces and Oudh Rx the surplus of Rx 4,759,400, the largest ever real10,165,235, and expenses Rx 6,281,637; revenue ofized. The land revenue, opium, the salt duty, the Punjab Rx 8,042,650, and expenses Rx 4,874, customs, and other branches of revenue showed 948; revenue of Madras Rx 13,563,169, and ex. an unexpected and, after a famine, a remarkable penses Rx 9,549,378; revenue of Bombay Rx 14, improvement. For 1900 the revenue was esti341,982, and expenses Rx 9,967,742. The land mated at Rx 62,477,000, and expenditure at Rx revenue, which was Rx 26,200,955 in 1896, de 58,544,400. The unremunerative debt of India at clined, in consequence of famine, to Rx 23,974,489 the end of 1899 amounted to only £31,689.000. in 1997, but recovered in 1898, in which year it The total public debt of British India on March was Rx 25,932,300, according to the revised esti 31, 1897, amounted to Rx 237,325,160, of which mates. The opium revenue has fallen, as a result Rx 113,883,233 represent the permanent debt in of the extension of the poppy culture in China, England, Rx 109,115,053 the permanent debt in from Rx 8,515,462 in 1888 to Rx 5,179.700 in 1898. India, and Rx 14,326,874 the unfunded debt in The salt tax produced Rx 8,592,400 in 1898. The India. The accounts for 1898 closed with a deficit expenditure for the army has doubled since the of Rx 5,630,000, which was Rx 350,000 more than

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