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United States and Canada. The principal exports' were onions for £81.403, lily bulbs for £8,080, and potatoes for £18,052, nearly all to the port of New York. The shipping of the colony consisted in 1898 of 23 sailing vessels, of 5,469 tons burden, and 2 steamers, of 6,120 tons. The tonnage entered and cleared in 1897 was 346,538 tons. There are 36 miles of telegraph, 15 of cable, and 700 of telephone wires. Bermuda is connected with Halifax, Nova Scotia, by cable, and is a coaling and victualing station and naval base for British vessels in North America.
Mauritius, 500 miles east of Madagascar, is peopled by Creole French planters, descendants of liberated African slaves, mixed races, Indian coolies, etc. There were 260,542 Indians and 3,389 Chinamen at the end of 1897. The birth rate is 35.5, the death rate 29.5 per thousand. The Governor of the colony is Sir Charles Bruce. The revenue for 1897 was 7,996,705 rupees; expenditure, 8,626,798 rupees. The debt amounted to £1,236,489. The chief items of revenue were 2,769,889 rupees from customs, 2,377,961 rupees from licenses, and 1,712,322 rupees from railroads. The total value of the imports in 1897 was 18,948,233 rupees; exports, 28,192,675 rupees. The export of raw sugar was 22,327,650 rupees in value; rum, 67,370 rupees; vanilla, 136,620 rupees; aloe fiber, 242,507 rupees; cocoanut oil, 33,760 rupees. The acreage of sugar declined after a rapid increase in 1893 and 1894, but in 1897 began to recover. The British Government is assisting Mauritius with a new loan of £32,820 for reafforestation, drainage, and waterworks needed for the health of the community. The shipping of the colony in 1897 comprised 64 sailing vessels, of 7,159 tons, and 4 steamers, of 131 tons burden. There were 332 vessels, of 328,702 tons, entered and 342. of 338,683 tons, cleared at Port Louis during 1897. The British garrison in 1898 numbered 1,07S officers and men. The colony has 105 miles of railroad and a system of telegraph connecting all points on the island, with a cable to Seychelles and Zanzibar.
The Seychelles are a group of small islands, having a population of 16,440 inhabitants, who exported cocoanut oil, soap, vanilla, tortoise shell, coffee, and cacao of the value of 127,687 rupees in 1897. (See Australasia, Canada, Cape Colony And South Africa, East Africa, India, Newfoundland, West Africa, West Indies.)
GREECE, a monarchy in southeastern Europe. The legislative authority is vested in a single chamber, called the Boulc, consisting of 207 members elected for four years by universal manhood suffrage. The reigning King is Georgios I, born Dec. 24, 1845, the second son of King Christian of Denmark, elected King of the Hellenes on March 18, 1863, after the deposition of King Otto, with the assent of the protecting powers, France, Great Britain, and Russia, under whose auspices the Hellenic Kingdom was first established in 1830 after the overthrow of Turkish rule. The heir apparent is Prince Konstantinos, Duke of Sparta, born Aug. 2, 1868.
The Cabinet formed on Nov. 10, 1898, was composed as follows: President of the Council and Minister of Foreign Affairs, M. Zaimis; Minister of the Interior and of Worship and Instruction, M. Triantaphylakos; Minister of Marine, Capt. Miaoulis; Minister of War, Col. Karpas; Minister of Finance, M. Negris; Minister of Justice, M. Monferatos.
Area and Population.—Greece has an area of 25,014 square miles, with a population of 2,433,806 at the census of 1896, consisting of
1,266,816 males and 1,166,990 females. Education is compulsory, but the law is not enforced. About 70 per cent, of the recruits for the army can read and 85 per cent, can read and write.
Finances.—As the price of the intermediation of the great powers to secure better terms for Greece after the defeat of the Greek arm}' by the Turks in 1897, the Hellenic Government was compelled to an international control of the finances, which had for several years been urged in the interests of the foreign creditors of Greece, but had been obstinately resisted by the Government and people. A commission of financial delegates, representing Germany, Austria-Hungary, France, Great Britain, Italy, and Russia, was constituted in accordance with the law of control enacted in March, 1898, and in the month following they made their report. The average annual receipts of the Government for five years anterior to the war had been 91,651,000 drachmai in currency, and the average expenses of the administration 61,951,000 drachmai. The revenue was expected to fall in consequence of the war to 85,556,500 drachmai in 1898, increasing to 89,639,640 drachmai in 1899, 92,598,780 drachmai in 1900, 95,557 drachmai in 1901, 98,103,504 drachmai in 1902, and 99,750,056 drachmai in 1903. The administrative expenses, on the other hand, were placed at a higher figure than the recent budgets, notwithstanding the curtailment of military expenditure and economies in all branches of the administration, because for the rehabilitation of the finances on a permanent basis it was necessary to reorganize the police in order to put an end to the lawlessness that interferes with industry, while the existing laws of primary education required a larger expenditure on the schools than the Government had been allowing. The administrative expenses for 1898 were estimated at 05,501,326 drachmai, for 1899 at 64,051,326 drachmai, for 1900 at 03,851.326 drachmai, for 1901 at 04,151,320 drachmai, for 1902 at 04,451,326 drachmai, and for 1903 at 64,751,326 drachmai. The foreign debts of Greece, due in gold, consisted of the loan of 1833, guaranteed by England, France, and Russia, of the nominal amount of 100,932,833 drachmai, on which the annual charge was 900,000 drachmai, and the consolidated debt of 551,716,500 drachmai. in addition to which a floating debt of 31,375,093 drachmai had accumulated, making the total liabilities to foreign creditors, aside from the old guaranteed debt, 583,091.593. The currency debts amounted to 177,213.795 drachmai. consisting of a debt of 1,800,000 drachmai due to the heirs of King Otto, the patriotic loan of 2,345,000 drachmai, 60,723,795 drachmai of consolidated loans, and 112,345,000 drachmai of floating liabilities. In addition to these debts, the Bank of Greece had 137.500,000 drachmai of paper currency in circulation, not more than 1 per cent, of it covered by a metallic reserve. The powers agreed to guarantee a new loan of £0,800.000 sterling at 2'i per cent., the first issue of £5.004,900 to be applied to the pavment of the Turkish war indemnity of £ T. 4,000,000 and of £ T. 100.000 damages to private individuals, the balance being applied to the relief of the financial stress of the Government. The commissioners planned to convert 78,881,295 drachmai of internal debt into a new loan of 70.353.575 drachmai. The revenues from monopolies, stamps, tobacco, and customs were assigned to the commission for the service of the external debt. The annual charge for the old debt, including the consolidated loans and the guaranteed debt of 1833. is 15,058,750 drachmai, reckoning the gold drachma equal to 1.60 drachma in currency, increasing to 16,065,000 drachmai in 1903, when the rate of interest will be increased. In addition to the interest, the old creditors insisted on special payments on arrears, for which the sum of 6,580,000 drachmai was to be provided in 1898, then 1,780,000 drachmai for each of the next three years, and 500,000 drachmai in 1902, when these special payments cease. The annual charge of the internal debt was calculated at 5,545,610 drachmai for 1898 and 5,145,610 drachmai for succeeding years, which will be increased in 1900 and after to 7,145,010 drachmai by the appropriation each year of 2,000,000 drachmai to the gradual withdrawal of the forced paper currency. These estimates make the total expenditure 93,285,080 drachmai for 1898, which is 7,729,186 drachmai more than the total estimated receipts. The application of 4,425,000 drachmai from the new loan, reduced, however, by 3,000,000 drachmai for a half year's interest and 200,000 drachmai for commissions, leaves a deficit of 6,504,186 drachmai for 1898. For 1899 the total ordinary expenditure, as estimated, amounts to 80,635,686 drachmai. leaving a surplus of 3,003,954 drachmai, to which is added 8,000,000 drachmai from the new loan, but after paying the interest of 6,050,000 drachmai on the new loan, with 250,000 drachmai for commissions and 250,000 drachmai for temporary debt charges, there still remains a deficit of 2,050,232 drachmai at the end of the second year. For 1900 the estimated expenditures foot up 88,435,086 drachmai, showing a surplus of 4,163,094 drachmai in the year's ordinary budget; but there are no more funds to be applied from the loan to the aid of the treasury, while the sinking fund of 1.1 per cent, being added to the interest increases the annual charge of the new loan to 6,200,000 drachmai, the additional expense of 500,000 drachmai for commissions and temporary loan charges remaining the same. The estimated deficit at the end of the third year is therefore 4,587,138 drachmai, and at the end of 1901, with expenditures for the administration and the service of the old debts footing up 88,735,686 drachmai, leaving a balance of 6,821,834 drachmai, it is 4,465,304 drachmai; but this is reduced in 1902, with expenses figured at 87,755,086 drachmai, to 817,486 drachmai, and in 1903, with expenditures figured at 87,901,930 drachmai, an equilibrium is expected to be reached and a surplus of 1,542,634 drachmai is counted on. notwithstanding the increase in the charges of the new loan to 8,928,000 drachmai. The revenue from monopolies was reckoned at 10,250,000 drachmai for 1898, rising to 12,975,700 drachmai in 1903, less an expenditure in each year of about 3.000,000 drachmai for the purchase of matches, playing cards, cigarette papers, and also of stamps; the revenue from stamps was estimated at 9,000,000 drachmai, rising to 10,000,000 drachmai; revenue from customs, 10,700,000 drachmai for each year; revenue from tobacco, 5.470,000 drachmai in 1898, rising to 7,025,000 drachmai. The total net yield of the assigned revenues was estimated at 32,420.000 drachmai in 1898, 33,476,140 drachmai in 1899, 34.532,280 drachmai in 1900, 35,588,420 drachmai in 1901, 36,231,004 drachmai in 1902, and 37,183,756 drachmai in 1903, after deducting the share of the old creditors in the plus values, which are the surplus of the gross proceeds of the monopolies and tobacco and stamp duties over 28,900,000 drachmai. Such a surplus is expected to arise in 1902, and from it 18 per cent, is to be deducted for expenses, and of the remainder 60 per cent, is to be applied to the service of the old debt and 40 per cent, to the expenses of the Government. The share of the
creditors for 1902 is estimated at 413,556 drachmai, and for 1903 at 516,944 drachmai.
The Army and Navy.—The army, which is recruited by general conscription, had in 1896 a nominal strength of 1,880 officers and 23,453 men, with 3,294 horses and 180 guns. The term of active service is two years, but leave of absence is frequently granted after a short training. The war strength is about 82,000 men, excluding the territorial army, estimated at 96,000 men.
The armor-clad navy consists of 5 vessels—the antiquated Basileus Georgios, of 1,770 tons, and Basilissa Olga, of 2,060 tons, carrying 6.6-inch guns, and the steel vessels Hydra, Spetsai, and Psara, of 4,885 tons, built in France in 1889 and 1890, each protected by a belt of 11.8-inch armor at the water line and armed with 3 10.6-inch and 4 5.9-inch Canet guns, besides 7 6-pounder and 10 smaller quick-firing and machine guns. The torpedo flotilla comprises 17 first-class craft and 2 submarine Nordenfeldt torpedo boats.
Navigation.—The number of vessels entered at Greek ports during 1897 was 4,560, of 2,491,522 tons; cleared, 4,487, of 2,444.618 tons. The merchant marine on Jan. 1, 1898, comprised 1,152 sailing vessels, of 238,190 tons, and 118 steamers, of 87,845 tons.
Commerce and Production.—The soil of Greece is owned mainly by the farmers, but their methods of agriculture are generally behind the age. The crop of wheat is about 7,000,000 bushels a year; barley, 3,000,000 bushels: corn, 3,000,000 bushels; and other grains, 7,000,000 bushels. About 16,000,000 pounds of tobacco are raised, much of which is exported to Egypt and Turkey. The wine product is 66,000,000 gallons, and of olives 15,000,000 pounds are gathered annuallv: of figs, 60,000,000 pounds. The quantity of dried figs produced in 1897 was 10.000 tons; of valonea, 9,000 tons; of cocoons, 150,000 kilogrammes, besides which 8,000 kilogrammes of silk were produced. The quantity of olive-oil soap manufactured in 1896 was 8,240 tons. The most important crop is the Zante currant, grown only in Greece. The quantity of dried currants produced in 1896 was estimated at 150.000 tons; in 1897, 146,000 tons. Under the law first passed in 1895, and re-enacted every year since, the Government retains 15 per cent, of the crop in order to prevent the export price from falling below the cost of production. In the district of Laurium are valuable mines, yielding 192,789 tons of manganese iron ore, 136,811 tons of hematite, 24,830 tons of zinc ore, and 9.060 tons of silver lead ore. besides 0,912 tons of dressed galena, 3,084 tons of dressed lead and zinc ore, and 16,074 tons of pig lead extracted from the poorer ores. The special imports in 1897 were valued at 114,275,510 drachmai in gold, and the special exports at 80,734,074 drachmai. The imports consisted of wheat and meslin for 30,140,630 drachmai, yarns for 20,371.281 drachmai, coal and raw materials for 12,110.954 drachmai, fish and caviar for 5,100,870 drachmai, hides for 3,667.172 drachmai, sugar for 3,179,461 drachmai, metals and ores for 2,785,720 drachmai, coffee for 2,754.512 drachmai, timber for 2,618.886 drachmai, colors for 2,117,843 drachmai, rice for 2,067,324 drachmai, live animals for 1,040,540 drachmai, and other articles for 21,621,199 drachmai. The exports were dried currants for 31,841,759 drachmai, ores for 19,429.248 drachmai. wine in casks for 5,701,108 drachmai, olive oil for 4,748,023 drachmai, figs for 2,064,647 drachmai, tobacco for 1,910,515 drachmai. sponges for 1,038.300 drachmai. brandy for 979.049 drachmai, olives for 888,258 drachmai, cocoons and silk for 834,048 drachmai, soap for 319,285 drachmai,
Railroads, Posts, and Telegraphs.—The length of railroads in operation in 1898 was 591 miles, and 300 miles were in process of construction, including the extension of the railroad running from Athens to Larissa, which, when completed to Salonica, will afford railroad communication with the other countries of the Continent.
The post office in 1896 forwarded 4,337,000 domestic and 5,107,000 foreign letters and postal cards, and 5,666,000 domestic and 2,807,000 foreign newspapers and samples; receipts, 2,110,877 drachmai; expenses, 1,983,860 drachmai.
The telegraph lines had on Jan. 1, 1897, a total length of 5,087 miles, with 6,023 miles of wire. The number of telegrams dispatched the previous year was 981,989 in the internal service and 413,602 in the international service. The receipts were 2,514,623 drachmai.
Politics and Legislation.—In the elections that took place in February, 1899, the Zaimis Government sustained a defeat, obtaining not over 40 seats. The Delyannists obtained not so many, and there were lesser groups; but a large majority of the seats was won by the followers of the late M. Tricoupis, who had not yet settled on a new leader. Although most of them were inclined to accept M. Theotokis, M. Dragoumis had a considerable following. In the interval between the elections and the assembling of the Chamber on March 16 the ministerial party endeavored to win over enough independent, undecided, and antagonistic members to secure a majority in favor of the projected reforms in the administration. M. Zaimis and his colleagues, however patriotic their objects were; could not render these objects popular. They had taken office to carry out the ungrateful but necessary measures connected with the introduction of the foreign financial control, which was the condition exacted by the powers when they intervened in the war with Turkey. Now that the stress of that period was relaxing and the country enjoying comparative prosperity, the old party divisions began to assert themselves. The acceptance by the powers and Turkey of Prince Georgios as Governor General of Crete was a favorable circumstance for the ministry, but not favorable enough to change the current of internal politics. The chief feature of the ministerial programme was a radical scheme of civil-service reform. It was proposed to institute a supreme council of supervision, which should control the administrative offices, regulating the appointment, promotion, and removal of all public officials, even including the magistrates and judges. Specialists would be brought in from abroad for the purpose of reorganizing some branches of the public serv
ice, especially the police. By creating a public body of control and supervision the Government hoped to do away entirely with the spoils system of public appointments and secure a permanent and efficient corps of administrative officials. Another important reform aimed at the decentralization of the administration. In furtherance of this object the Government proposed to create a ministry of agriculture, commerce, and industry. The speech from the throne promised social legislation for the benefit of the working classes. Other measures proposed to deal with the reorganization of the land and sea forces and the extension of the system of public education. The programme of legislation included a plan for the perpetuation of the Olympian games as revived in 1896. The completion of the railroad from the Pineus to Larissa was promised, also improved waterworks for Athens. The amelioration of thefinancial situation justified the expectation that the Government would be able to balance the budget in the future without recourse to fresh taxation. The Cabinet of M. Zaimis.remained in office for some weeks after the opening of the Boule, although his own election was declared null by a committee containing a majority of Trieoupists. The Premier offered to resign on April 7 without waiting for a formal vote. By the vote of the Chamber his election was pronounced regular. The strength of the parties was shown in the election for president of the Boule on April 12, when M. Tsamados, the Tricoupist candidate, received 128 votes against 37 for the Delyannist and 28 for the Government candidate. 41 members not voting. M. Zaimis thereupon tendered the resignation of the ministry to the King, who sent for M. Theotokis.
On April 14 the new ministry was formed as follows: President of the Council and Minister of the Interior, M. Theotokis; Minister of Finance, M. Simopoulos; Minister of Foreign Affairs, M. Romanos; Minister of War, M. Koumondouros; Minister of Marine. M. Boudouris; Minister of Worship and Instruction, M. Eutaxias; Minister of Justice, M. Karapoulos. The Boule adjourned for a month to enable the new ministry to prepare its programme, and reassembled on May 24. In consequence of the satisfactory surplus anticipated by the Minister of Finance, the Government hoped to be able to carry out improvements in the administration of justice and in the system of public instruction and a reorganization of the police service, which will do away with a serious defect in the military service by relieving the army of the police duties which two fifths of the soldiers have been called upon to perform without achieving the best results in regard to the execution of the laws and the preservation of order. The provisional budget of the finance minister showed an income of 105,795,658 drachmai for 1900 and 99,347,624 drachmai of expenditure, leaving a surplus of 6,448,034 drachmai. The increase in revenue over 1898 was 18.069,053 drachmai, and the decrease in expenditure was 1,797,210 drachmai. The army estimates had been reduced 2,000,000 drachmai since 1896, the expenses of the Ministry of the Interior 1,500,000 drachmai; but the cost of the navy had grown, and a further increase was proposed in order to add to the present personnel and to give officers opportunities for instruction by sending them abroad and the fleet more practice in cruising. The burden of the debt had grown to 29,000,000 drachmai, but the cost of government had been reduced 3,359,000 drachmai since 1896, the last year in which normal conditions prevailed. The Government introduced a project of reforms in the internal administration which encountered so much local opposition that modifications were promised. The citizens of the ancient city of Thebes were so exasperated at having their municipal rights transferred to the newly constituted administrative district of Levadia that the Government sent cavalry to prevent a disturbance. The remodeling of -the provincial administrations rendered them more independent of the central Government. The Boule authorized the Government to employ foreign officers to reorganize the army and navy, although the older Greek officers protested. The gendarmery was reorganized and the military police abolished. A bill was passed prohibiting the exportation of antiquities and providing for their preservation. The Government arranged with Greek engineers to bring water to Athens from Lake Stymphalus in the Mores, but the measure met with opposition, and was postponed. The BouJe separated on July 27.ministration. The external debt of 1895, bearing interest at 4 per cent., was estimated in 1898 to amount to £1,482,800, or $18,443,600, reckoning the premium on gold at 150. The total liabilities of the Government were figured by the English council of foreign bondholders to amount to £3,215,000, or $40,185,424 in currency, while the assets of the Government in railroads and other property were only $17,383,513. About 10 per cent, of the Government's expenses are for the maintenance of the army, which numbered in 1890 about 7,000 men of all ranks. All Guatemalans are liable to military service in time of war, and the number of effective men below the age of thirty is about 56,900, with a reserve of 30,000 above that age.
GUATEMALA, a republic of Central America. The legislative power is vested in the Congress, consisting of a National Assembly of 69
and after a contest Manuel Estrada Cabrera was on Sept. 25, 1898, proclaimed President by the National Assembly for the term ending March 15, 1905. The members of the Cabinet in the beginning of 1899 were as follow: Secretary of Government, Justice, and Foreign Affairs, Dr. Francesco Anguiano; Secretary of War, Gen. Gregorio Contreras; Secretary of Fomento, Antonio Barrios; Secretary of Public Instruction, Domingo Morales; Secretary of Finance, Rafael Salazar.
Area and Population.—The area of Guatemala is estimated at 63,400 square miles. The population in 1897 was 1.535,632, of whom three fifths are of pure Indian race and the rest of mingled Indian, Spanish, and negro blood, excepting a few pure whites. There were 11,331 foreign residents in 1893. The number of marriages in 1896 was 5,504; the number of births in 1897, 71,353; of deaths, 43,892; excess of births, 27.401. Guatemala la Nueva, the capital, has 72.102 inhabitants, most of whom are of European origin or descent. Education is gratuitous and compulsory, and in 1895 there were 1,266 primary schools
Commerce and Production.—The soil of Guatemala is very rich in most parts of the country. The main crop is coffee, of which 824,756 quintals were exported in 1897. The export duty of $1.50 in gold per quintal was reduced in 1898 to $1 in currency. The yield of tobacco in 1897 was 9,900 quintals. Next to coffee, the chief crop for export is bananas. Cacao is also grown, and Indian corn is produced in abundance for domestic consumption. Cattle and horses are pastured in the elevated table-lands. Gold mining is a recent enterprise, and there are silver mines in operation. Salt is mined successfully, but the deposits of lead, tin, and copper ore have been neglected. The imports into Guatemala were valued in 1897 at $8,584,821, or $21,462,053 in currency; exports, $19,775,800 in currency. The gold value of the imports of cotton goods was $1,716,984; of wine, beer, and spirits, $067,176; of cereals, $659,832; of canned goods, $350,444; of woolen goods, $312,475; of iron manufactures, $246,961;
of railroad and telegraph materials, $227,267. The value in currency of the exports of coffee was $18,875,700; of silver coin, $473,000; of hides, $205,965; of bananas, $77,548. Of the exports of coffee 543,807 quintals were shipped to Germany, 137,055 quintals to the United States, and 123,277 quintals to England. The number of vessels entered at the ptjrts of Guatemala in 1897 was 614, of 782,076 tons, mostly from the United States.
Railroads, Posts, and Telegraphs.—The railroads in operation at the end of 1898 had a length of 336 miles, and 100 miles were under construction. An American company completed 133 miles in that year, receiving a subsidy from the Government of $480,000 a year for operating the line. The telegraph lines in 1897 had a total length of 3,093 miles. The number of messages sent during the year was 664,169. The receipts were $293,563; expenses, $418,394. The number of pieces of mail matter sent in 1897 was 4,038,966; the number received, 5,674,100.
Proposed Repudiation.—In consequence of its financial embarrassments the Guatemalan Government proposed to place the foreign debt on the same footing as the internal bonds, which were worth in the market only 25 per cent, of their nominal value. Various foreign governments protested, Germany most vigorously, and in July a threat was made to send a German naval force to compel the fulfillment of obligations. The Government of Guatemala at first refused all redress, but assumed a more conciliatory attitude later, and postponed the application of the law. The United States Government did not consent to take joint action with Germany and Great Britain to bring pressure on the disturbed and embarrassed republic.
HAWAII, a Territory of the United States, formerly an independent kingdom, the integrity of which was recognized by the United States, Great Britain, and France in the reign of Kamehameha III after he had proclaimed a constitution in 1840. In January, 1893, Queen Liliuokalani was forced to abdicate by the menace of United States marines, who were landed, ostensibly to protect American lives and property, at the request of Minister Stevens, and the leaders of the revolutionary party, most of them sons of American missionaries and advocates of annexation to the United States, proclaimed a provisional Government, which was succeeded on July 4, 1894, by a republic, in which native Hawaiians and whites who could read and write either the English or the Hawaiian language had the right to vote indirectly for Senators and members of the House of Representatives. On June 16, 1897, a treaty was signed at Washington by Secretary' of State John Sherman and envoys of the Hawaiian Republic providing for the annexation of the islands to the United States as the Territory of Hawaii. The treaty stipulated that the existing land laws of the United States relative to public lands shall not apply in the Hawaiian Islands, but that Congress shall enact laws to secure all revenue from or proceeds of the public lands of Hawaii for the benefit of the inhabitants of the islands for educational or other purposes. Until Congress shall provide for the government of the islands all the civil, judicial, and military powers exercised by the officers of the existing Government were to be vested in such persons and exercised in such manner as the
President of the United States shall direct, and power was conferred on him to remove officers and fill the vacancies so occasioned. The United States assumed all lawful debts of the Hawaiian Government, not to exceed $4,000,000, but so long as existing customs relations of the Hawaiian Government with the United States and other countries remain unchanged and the existing Government is continued. The municipal legislation of the Hawaiian Islands remains in force until Congress shall determine otherwise, so far as it is not inconsistent with the treaty or contrary to the Constitution of the United States, except such as has been enacted for the fulfillment of treaties with foreign nations, all of which forthwith cease and determine. There shall be no further immigration of Chinese into the Hawaiian Islands, except upon the conditions allowed by the laws of the United States, and no Chinese shall be allowed to enter the United States from the Hawaiian Islands by reason of their annexation to the United States. The United States Congress finally ratified the treaty on July 7, 1898, and on Aug. 12, 1898, the sovereignty over the islands was formally transferred to the United States. Five commissioners were appointed to recommend such legislation for the Hawaiian Islands as they deem necessary and proper. In accordance with their recommendations, all whites, including Portuguese, all persons of African descent, and all descendants of the Hawaiian race, either on the paternal or the maternal side, who were Hawaiian citizens prior to annexation, were declared citizens of the United States. The number of electors on the rolls in