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A. Nieberding; Imperial Treasury, Freiherr von marks. The receipts from customs, tobacco, Thielmann; Imperial Post Office, Lieut.-Gen. Von spirits, and stamp duties in excess of 130,000,000 Podbielski; Imperial Railroads, Dr. Schulz; Im- marks are repaid to the various states. This perial Exchequer, Herr Von Wolff; Imperial In- surplus in 1899 amounted to 441,328,000 marks. valid Fund, Dr. Rösing; President of the Imperial The expenditures of the Imperial Government in Bank, Dr. Koch; President of the Imperial Debt excess of the receipts from taxation and other Commission, Herr Von Hoffmann.

sources are assessed on the states in proportion Area and Population. The total area of Ger- to their population. These federal contributions many is 208,830 square miles. The population in 1899 were fixed at 475,526,600 marks. Included on Dec. 2, 1895, was 52,279,901, divided into 25, in the revenues are the receipts from posts and 661,250 males and 26,618,651 females. One half telegraphs, amounting to 39,771,200 marks, 1,639,of the population lives in towns of upward of 300 marks from the imperial printing office, 26,2,000 inhabitants. The number of persons sup- 320,900 marks from railroads, 5,988,300 marks ported by mining, metal works, and other indus from the Imperial Bank, 14,470,200 marks from tries in 1895 was 20,253,241; by agriculture, cattle the various departments, 28,646,500 marks of inraising, etc., 18,068,663; by commerce and trade, terest on the Invalid fund, and 565,000 marks 5,966,846; by forestry, hunting, and fishing, 432, of interest on the Imperial fund. The expendi644; employed in domestic and other service, tures under the separate heads were 689,400 886,807; engaged in the professions, 2,835,014; marks for the Reichstag, 228,400 marks for the without occupation, 3,327,069. The number of Imperial Chancellery, 11,360,700 marks for the foreign residents in 1895 was 486,190, of whom Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 40,755,600 marks for 222,952 were Austro-Hungarians, 50,743 Dutch, the Ministry of the Interior, 511,892,500 marks 44,875 Swiss, 28,146 Danes, 26,559 Russians and for the army, 62,750,900 marks for the navy, Finns, 22,693 Italians, 19,619 French, 15,788 from 2,008,200 marks for the Ministry of Justice, 446,the United States, 15,290 British, 11,755 Luxem- 750,900 marks for the Imperial Treasury, 373,200 burgers, 8,947 Belgians, 8,937 Swedes, 2,154 Nor- marks for the railroad bureau, 73,858,800 marks wegians, 3,316 other Europeans, and 4,416 from for expenses of the debt of the empire, 809,000 other countries outside of Europe. The number marks for the audit office, 61,713,100 marks for of marriages in 1896 was 432,107; of births, 1,979, the Pension fund, and 28,646,600 marks for the 747; of deaths, 1,163,964; excess of births, 815,- Invalid fund; total ordinary recurring expendi783. The number of emigrants in 1897 was 24,. ture, 1,241,836,900 marks. The total of nonre631, of whom 20,346 were bound for the United curring and extraordinary expenditures was 199,States, 936 for Brazil, 1,765 for other countries in 741,700 marks. The total expenses of the army, America, 1,115 for Africa, 324 for Australia, and ordinary and extraordinary, were 608,202,000 145 for Asia. Besides Germans, 64,419 emigrants marks; of the navy, 122,054,000 marks. Of the from Austria-Hungary, Russia, and other coun- federal contributions Prussia paid 277,727,700 tries embarked at German ports, while 6,573 Ger- marks, Bavaria 60,196,800 marks, Saxony 33,046,man emigrants sailed from Rotterdam and Am- 600 marks, Würtemberg 21,047,700 marks, Baden sterdam, still more from Antwerp, and an 16,327,7006 marks, Alsace - Lorraine 15,544,700 unknown number from French ports. Of those marks, Hesse 9,054,000 marks, Hamburg 5,941,600 who sailed from German, Dutch, and Belgian marks, Mecklenburg-Schwerin 5,212,000 marks, ports, 12,972 were males and 10,248 females. The Brunswick 3,787,300 marks, Oldenburg 3,258,400 number of families was 2,609, comprising 8,476 marks, Saxe-Weimar 2,959,400 marks, Anhalt individuals. Of the total number sailing from 2,558,000 marks, Saxe-Meiningen 2,040,000 marks, German ports, Antwerp, Rotterdam, and Amster- Saxe-Coburg-Gotha 1,887,900 marks, Bremen dam, 13,497 were from Prussia, 2,638 from Ba- 1,713,000 marks, Saxe-Altenburg 1,574,100 marks, varia, 1,401 from Würtemberg, 1,449 from Ham- Lippe 1,177,300 marks, Mecklenburg-Strelitz 885,burg, 950 from Saxony, 815 from Baden, 506 from 300 marks, Schwarzburg - Rudolstadt 773,800 Bremen, 468 from Hesse, 271 from Oldenburg, 217 marks, Lübeck 726,300 marks, Schwarzburg-Sonfrom Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and 198 from Alsace- dershausen 679,200 marks, Reuss-Greiz 588,200 Lorraine. The population of the principal towns marks, Waldeck 503,400 marks, Schaumburgon Dec. 2, 1895, was as follows: Berlin, 1,677, Lippe 359,300 marks, and Reuss-Schleiz 156,900 304; Hamburg, 625,552; Munich, 407,307; Leip- marks. sic, 399,963; Breslau, 373,169; Dresden, 336,440; The funded debt of the empire in 1898 amountCologne, 321,564; Frankfort on the Main, 229, ed to 2,141,242,300 marks, of which 901,242,300 279; Magdeburg, 214,424; Hanover, 209,535; Düs marks pay 3 per cent., 790,000,000 marks 3 per seldorf, 175,985; Königsberg, 172,796; Nuremberg, cent., and 450,000,000 marks 4 per cent. interest. 162,386; Chemnitz, 161,017; Stuttgart, 158,321; The unfunded debt consists of treasury bills to Altona, 148,944; Bremen, 141,894; Stettin, 140, the amount of 120,000,000 marks. A war treasure 724; Elberfeld, 139,337; Strassburg, 135,608; Char of 120,000,000 marks is hoarded in the fortress lottenburg, 132,377; Barmen, 126,992; Dantzic, of Spandau. The Invalid fund of 424,613,700 125,605; Halle on the Saal, 116,304; Brunswick, marks is invested. 115,138; Dortmund, 111,232; Aachen, 110,551 ; The budget and debts of the individual states Krefeld, 107,245.

for 1899, or in the case of a few for 1898, are Finances.--The revenue of the Imperial Gov. given in marks in the table on the next page. ernment for 1899 was fixed at 1,355,460,500 marks "The debts were incurred in nearly all cases from ordinary sources and 57,427,000 marks from for railroads and other remunerative improveloans and other extraordinary sources; total, ments. Some of the states own the railroads free 1,412,886,500 marks. The extraordinary revenue of debt, and derive most of their revenue from was applied to military and other designated pur- these and the mines and forests belonging to poses. The ordinary expenditures were estimated them. In Alsace-Lorraine there are 998 miles at 1,384,152,600 marks. The total expenditures, of state railroads. In Anhalt more than half the including the extraordinary disbursements, came public revenue is derived from state property. In to 1,441,578,600 marks, according to the esti- Baden the whole debt was incurred for railroads, mates. The estimated receipts from customs and which pay a net profit of 15,000,000 marks a excise were 701,490,000 marks, and from stamps year. Of the Bavarian debt, 1,069,000,000 marks 60,842,000 marks; total tax revenue, 762,332,000 were borrowed for railroad construction, and the

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474,000 marks from the state lottery, 2,344,000 STATES. Revenue. Expenditure. Debt.

marks from the Marine Bank, 358,920 marks Alsace-Lorraine... 55,616,515 54,811,195 24,115,000

from the mint, 134,797,310 marks from mines, furAnhalt.

14,025,000 14,025.000 474,594 naces, and salt works belonging to the GovernBaden.

83,841,932 90,767,566 329,029,252 ment, 1,209,717.256 marks from the state railBavaria

872,167,595 372, 167,595 1,415,219,964 Bremen ..

20,532,5381 27.801.4511" 141.984.533 roads, 285,240 marks from dotations, 314,803,652 Brunswick

14,745,000 14,745,000 26,977,407 marks from the general financial administration, Hamburg ..

77.406,696 79,392,639 344,778,781 4,465,478 marks from the Ministry of State, 4,600 Hesse .....

37,378,159 37,418,195 238,769,000

1,326,889 Lippe..


08 marks from 948,598

the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Lübeck

4,859 0711 4,859,071 18,871,020 2,126,430 marks from the Ministry of Finance, Mecklenburg-Schwerin 4,070,000 4,070,0001 21,660,000 9,629,000 marks from the Ministry of Public Mecklenburg-Strelitz..

6,000,000 Oldenburg

* 7,834,000

Works, 2,612,076 marks from the Ministry of

50,408,043 Prussia....

... 2,187,527,384 2,187,527,384|6,485,222,069 Commerce and Industry, 68,018,500 marks from Reuss-Greiz.

1,540,883 1,540,883 31,050 the Ministry of Justice, 13,099,184 marks from Reuss-Schleiz .. 2,386,900 2,379,734 1,040,550

the Ministry of the Interior, 4,578,046 marks from Saxe-Altenburg ..

4,057,798 4,056,189 887,450 Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. 2.318,333 2,994,148 2,924,858

the Ministry of Agriculture, 4,572,688 marks Saxe-Meiningen...

7,624,330 6,802,800 9,160,847 from the Ministry of Public Worship and InSaxe-Weimar ..... 10,461,0761 10,461,076 1,955,465

struction, and 300 marks from the Ministry of Saxony.....

82,934,955 82,934,955 752,464,950 Schaumburg-Lippe... 1,080,489 1,080,489 481,500

War. Of the total expenditures of Prussia for Schwarzburg - Rudol

1899, the sum of 44,660,320 marks was for workstadt ...... .

2,778,050 2,778,050 3,884,000 ing expenses of the Ministry of Agriculture, DoSchwarzburg -Sondershansen 2,985,755 2,985,755

2011.701 mains, and Forests, 121,980,090 marks for those Waldeck

1,401,428 1,401,428 2,004,300 of the Ministry of Finance, 118,522,731 marks Würtemberg ..........

11,876,3 for those of the Ministry of Commerce and In

dustry, 693,897,782 marks for the administration net profits from the railroads, after paying in- of railroads, 8,000,000 marks for an addition to terest and amortization, are about 6,000,000 the Crown dotation of the King, 224,133,416 marks a year. The whole of Bremen's debt was marks for interest of the public debt, including incurred for railroads, harbor works, and other the railroad debt, 38,911,332 marks for the sinkuseful improvements. Four fifths of the debt ing fund of the debt, 184,860 marks for the Herrof Brunswick are represented by railroads, be- enhaus, 1,215,920 marks for the Chamber of sides which the state possesses valuable domains Deputies, 277,523,878 marks for the federal conand forests and invested funds amounting to tribution to the expenses of the Imperial Govern42,000,000 inarks. The railroads have been trans- ment, 72,858,164 marks for appanages, annuities, ferred to the Imperial Government in return for indemnities, etc., 7,340,169 marks for administraan annual payment of 2,625,000 marks, ceasing tive expenses of the Ministry of State, 551,300 in 1932. The duke's civil list of 1,125,000 marks marks for those of the Ministry of Foreign Afis not paid out of the ordinary revenue, nor is fairs, 91,395,047 marks for those of the Ministry the expenditure of 2,612,880 marks a year for of Finance, 29,053,432 marks for those of the schools and art and science included in the budg- Ministry of Public Works, 8,932,573 marks for et, the means being derived from a special fund. those of the Ministry of Commerce and InIn the debt of Brunswick an annuity of 1,219,740 dustry, 103,145,000 marks for those of the Minmarks, running till 1924, is not reckoned. The istry of Justice, 60,259,739 marks for those debt of Hamburg was raised mainly for harbor of the Ministry of the Interior, 20,877,014 marks improvements and other public works. Against for those of the Ministry of Agriculture, Dothe debt of Hesse the state possesses the rail- mains, and Forests, 129,958,014 marks for roads, which were responsible for 210,584,000 those of the Ministry of Public Worship and Inmarks of the total, and active funds amounting struction, and 137,527 for those of the Ministry to 10,734,000 marks. In Lippe the farms and of War. The sum of all these is 2,055,891,380 forests constituting the domains are the entailed marks, the total ordinary expenditure, to which estate of the princely house, and the expenses of are added 131,636,004 marks of estimated exthe court are defrayed from their revenues. traordinary expenditures. The expenditure for Lübeck derives a sixth of its revenue from forests the army and navy forms part of the imperial and domains and a fourth from invested funds, budget. The bulk of the national debt pays 31 while a fourth of the expenditure is for interest per cent. interest, only 835,000,000 marks having and amortization of the debt. In Mecklenburg- been funded at 3 per cent. Schwerin, besides the common budget of the The revenue of Reuss-Greiz passes through the Grand Duke and the two states, given above, hands of the Prince, who has the sole executive the states have small separate budgets, and the power, and shares the legislative power with the Grand Duke has an independent income of 19,- Diet. In Reuss-Schleiz two thirds of the revenue 200,000 marks a year. The interest of the rail- are derived from domains. The state had an road debt of 9,660,000 marks is covered by an invested fund of 5,455,000 marks. In Saxeannuity of 960,000 marks, and that of the con- Coburg-Gotha the revenue from domains, amountsolidated debt by state funds. In Mecklenburg- ing to 439,000 marks for Coburg and 2,144,226 Strelitz more than half the land is owned by marks for Gotha, is kept separate from the state the Grand Duke, and the rest by federal nobles revenue, and each state has its special revenueand town corporations. The whole of the public 942,840 marks for Coburg and 2,052,570 marks revenue forms the civil list of the Grand Duke, for Gotha—which is not included in the common whose Minister of State publishes no accounts budget as given above. The debt of Coburg is of revenue and expenditure. In Oldenburg the 2,778,300 marks, and that of Gotha 146,558, both debt is fully covered by the value of the rail- nearly or quite covered by productive public roads.

works. In Saxe-Meiningen also most of the debt In Prussia 86,529,004 marks of the revenue is covered by productive investments, while the were derived from domains and forests, 1,600,000 domains produce a third or more of the public marks from other receipts of the Ministry of revenue. In Saxe-Weimar the productive capital Agriculture, 170,397,700 marks from direct taxa- more than offsets the debt, and the state forests tion, 75,114,000 marks from indirect taxes, 82,- yield a large part of the state revenue. The ordinary revenue and expenditure of Saxony, as given cers and 11,996 men; 288 district commands, in the table, are kept apart from the extraordi- numbering 817 officers and 5,499 men; and 2,623 nary receipts and disbursements, amounting in surgeons, instructors, etc., making the total for 1899 to 106,495,114 marks, which were expended the infantry 13,251 officers and 383,058 men; 93 on useful public works. Almost the entire debt regiments of cavalry, numbering 2,385 officers and was incurred for railroads, telegraphs, and other 65,853 men, not including 817 officers and men reproductive works, and more than half of the on special details; 43 regiments of field artillery, total revenue is derived from domains and for numbering 2,671 officers and 57,984 men, not in. ests and the state railroads, which latter yielded cluding 810 officers and men detailed for special a net revenue of 37,540,190 marks in 1897. In service; 17 regiments and 1 battalion of fortress Schaumburg-Lippe the Prince disposes of the revo artillery, numbering 870 officers and 22,713 men, enue, controlled by a Diet. Of the debt of not including 132 on special service; 23 battalions Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt one fourth is covered of engineers, 3 railroad regiments, 2 balloon deby investments. The Prince of Schwarzburg tachments, 1 railroad battalion, and 3 railroad Sondershausen has a large private income from companies, numbering altogether 738 officers and his property, besides receiving a civil list of 500, 19,085 men, not counting 127 on special service; 000 marks. The finances of Waldeck are man. 21 battalions of train, numbering 310 officers and aged by Prussian officials.


7,765 men, not counting 69 on special service; 509 The Army.-The German army is composed officers and 7,765 men in special formations; and of 21 corps, each organized as a strategical unit, 2,442 staff and nonregimental officers, with 283 with the cavalry, artillery, auxiliary services, and men; total peace strength, 23,176 officers and supply arrangements necessary to enable it to 562,277 men, with 98,038 horses, of which 64,604 operate as a complete army. Every one of these, are in the cavalry, 29,044 in the field artillery, 43 except the Hessian separate division, which is in the fortresses, and 4,347 in the train. The oneonly brought up to the strength of an army corps year volunteers, numbering about 8,000, are not in time of war, consists of two divisions of in- counted in the budgetary statement, as they serve fantry, to each of which a regiment of cavalry at their own expense. "Out of 400,000 or more is attached, one division of 4 regiments of cavalry, young men arriving at the age of twenty each to which are attached 2 batteries of horse artil- year nine tenths are fit for military service, but lery, a reserve of artillery, consisting of 6 field only about 240,000 are drafted into the active batteries and 1 mounted battery, 1 battalion of army. These are chosen by lot, and the remaintrain, and 1 battalion of pioneers. Besides the ing 120,000 are enrolled in the Ersatztruppen, or Prussian corps of the guards, there are 12 Prus- reserves, a part of whom are drilled ten weeks sian corps and 7 raised in other states, of which in the first year, six in the second, and four in the the 2 Bavarian corps and the Würtemberg corps third. The drill sergeants and other noncommisare provided for and administered in time of sioned officers are selected soldiers, who choose peace by the state governments, and officers are to remain with the army after the expiration of appointed, subject to the Emperor's approval, by the period of enforced service, which is two years the rulers of the two states. “All the other corps for the infantry and three years for the other are under the direction of the Prussian Ministry arms; and when they become too old for the of War. The First Army Corps is the East Prus- service they are provided with civil employment sian, the Second the Pomeranian, the Third the on railroads, in forests, or in other state services Brandenburger, the Fourth the Saxon, the Fifth for which they are fitted. The infantry is armed the Posen, the Sixth the Silesian, the Seventh with Mauser rifles of the model of 1888, having a the Westphalian, the Eighth the Rhineland, the caliber of 7.874 millimetres and 5 cartridges in Ninth the Schleswig-Holstein, the Tenth the Han- the magazine. The artillery has for its main overian, the Eleventh the Hesse-Nassau, the weapon the field gun of the models of 1873 and Twelfth the royal Saxon, the Thirteenth the Wür. 1888, having a caliber of 88 millimetres. temberg, the Fourteenth the Baden, the Fifteenth The Navy.-Germany possesses 6 battle ships the Alsatian, the Sixteenth the Lorraine, and the of the first class, 4 of the second class, and 6 of Seventeenth the West Prussian. The First and the third class; 19 effective coast-defense vessels, Second Bavarian Corps are not numbered con- consisting of 8 ironclad rams of the Siegfried secutively with the others. The empire is divided class and 11 armored gunboats of the Basilisk into 10 fortress districts, containing 17 fortified class; 2 cruisers of the first class, 8 of the second camps, besides 19 other fortresses. The fortified class, and 10 of the third class; and 4 torpedo camps are Königsberg and Dantzic, in the Königs- gunboats, 105 torpedo boats of the first class, berg district; Posen and Neisse, in the Posen dis- and 9 of the second class. There were building trict; Spandau, Magdeburg, and Küstrin, in the 3 first-class battle ships, I cruiser of each of the Berlin district; Mainz, Ulm, and Rastatt, in the three classes, 4 more torpedo gunboats, and 8 Mainz district; Cologne and Coblentz, in the Co- first-class torpedo boats. As the vessels of older logne district; Metz; Kiel; Strassburg; and In- construction now counted effective are gradually golstadt, in the Munich district. The minor retired, they are replaced by new ones of the fortresses are Pillau, Memel, Friedrichsort, Cux- latest design. Thus the König Wilhelm, launched haven, Geestemünde, Wilhelmshaven, and Swine in 1868, the Kaiser, launched in 1874, and the münde, which are coast fortresses; Glogau, Tor- Deutschland, of the same date, are replaced by gau, Diedenhofen, Bitsch, Wesel, Saarlouis, and powerful battle ships of the same design as the Germersheim, which are fortified for the protec- Kaiser Friedrich III, launched in 1896, and the tion of railroads and to command the railroads Kaiser Wilhelm II, launched in 1897, having a dis. leading into Germany; the forts at Boyen and placement of 11,180 tons, 113 inches of armor Glatz, on the Russian, and Neu Breisach, on the over the vital parts, engines of 13,000 horse power, French frontier; and those at Thorn, Graudenz, giving a speed of 18 knots, and an armament of Dirschau, and the Vistula, in the Thorn district, 4 9.6-inch guns in barbettes, with 18 6-inch quickon the Austro-Hungarian frontier.

firing guns and 32 of less caliber. The first-class The strength of the German army on the peace cruisers are the Kaiserin Augusta, provided with footing in 1899 was as follows: 215 regiments of 3 independent screws, of which the middle one infantry, numbering 12,024 officers and 362,940 alone can give a speed of 10 knots, and Fürst Bismen; 19 battalions of rifles, numbering 410 offi- marck, duplicated in a new cruiser, having 7.7



inches of Harveyized steel on sides and turrets The special trade of the German customs union and a 3-inch deck, with engines of 14,000 horse in 1897 was distributed among the different counpower, giving a speed of 19 knots, and an ex- tries as shown in the following table, giving ceedingly powerful armament. The new second- values in marks: class cruiser is of the same design as the Victoria Luise, Hertha, Freya, Hansa, and Vineta,



Exports. which have a displacement of 5,560 tons, a powerful armament, good protection, and a speed of Great Britain ..

661.990,000 702,589,000

Russia .... 20 knots.

708,319,000 372,064,000 Austria-Hungary..

600,293,000 435,131,000 Commerce and Production.-The number of


248,844,000 210,410,000 agricultural holdings worked by separate fami Netherlands .....

185,234,000 263,862,000 lies in 1895 was 5,558,317, including pastoral hold

d. Switzerland .......

158,613,000 254,393,000 Belgium........

186,512,000 189,619.000 ings, orchards, vineyards, etc. There were 2,529,

Norway and Sweden..

111,620,000 148,435,000 132 of less than a hectare, 2,329,367 between 1 Italy ...

152,981,000 90,255,000 and 10 hectares, 674,757 between 10 and 100 hec

Balkan Peninsula.....

103,342,000 78.551,000 Denmark .....

60,407,000 107,887,000 tares, and 25,061 above 100 hectares. The total

German free ports.

17,123,000 64,374,000 area was 43,284,742 hectares, supporting 18,068,

Spain ......

42,118,000 29,960,000 663 persons, of whom 8,156,045 worked on the Portugal.

17,285,000 14,081,000

British India..... land. There was 5,982,180 hectares under rye,

204,617,000 47,278,000 The rest of Asia..

147,514,000 90.902,000 5,909,693 in meadow, 3,979,643 under oats, 3,052, - Africa ...............

88,341,000 60,445.000 790 under potatoes, 1,926,885 under wheat, 1,676, North America.....

710,739,000 439,853,000 329 under barley, 461,074 under turnips, etc., 434,

South America and West Indies 369,359,000 153,728,000
Australia ...

87,044,000 32,594.000 708 under sugar beets, 151,526 under buckwheat,

Other countries.....


830,000 116,405 in vineyards, 40,700 planted to hops, and 22,145 planted to tobacco in 1897. The number

Total ........... .] 4,864,644,000 3,786,241,000 of horses in that year was 4,038,485; of cattle, 18,490,772; of sheep, 10,866,772; of hogs, 14,274,- The total value of the special imports in 1897 557. Forestry is one of the most important in- was 4,864,644,000 marks; of the special exports, dustries of the country, and is conducted on sci- 3,786,241,000 marks. The special imports of live entific principles, under the supervision of state animals were 180,444,000 marks in value, and speofficials even when the forests are not the prop- cial exports 23,210,000 marks; imports of animal erty of the state. About a fourth of the whole products were 153,064,000 marks, and exports country is under forest; in the south and central 31,300,000 marks; imports of articles of consumpparts from 30 to 38 per cent. The exports of tion were 1,434,261,000 marks, and exports 492,fresh fish in 1897 were valued at 7,100,000 marks, 447,000 marks; imports of seeds and plants were while the value of 17,700,000 marks was imported, 44,343,000 marks, and exports 27,882,000 marks; besides salt and preserved fish valued at 3,700,- imports of fuel were 130,375,000 marks, and ex000 marks. There were 399 sugar works in 1897, ports 177,972,000 marks; imports of fats and oils and these worked up 13,721,601 metric tons of were 236,602,000 marks, and exports 30,861,000 beet root, producing 1,738,885 tons of sugar and marks; imports of chemicals, drugs, and dyes 342,322 tons of molasses. The pulp, used as were 285,109,000 marks, and exports 358,581,000 fodder, is not less valuable than the sugar. The marks; imports of stone, clay, and glass were quantity of beet root required to produce a kilo- 68,756,000 marks, and exports 151,089,000 marks; gramme of sugar had been brought down in five imports of metals and metal manufactures were years from 8.35 to 7.72 kilogrammes. The quan- 455,316,000 marks, and exports 585,912,000 marks; tity of refined sugar produced was 1,004,454 tons. imports of timber and wood manufactures were The production of sugar from starch was 6,314 382,269,000 marks, and exports 147,159,000 marks; tons. The quantity of beer brewed in 1897 was imports of paper and paper manufactures were 61,479,000 hectolitres, of which 16,198,000 hecto- 23,630,000 marks, and exports 105,786,000 marks; litres were produced in Bavaria, 3,795,000 in imports of leather and leather manufactures were Würtemberg, 2,192,000 in Baden, 937,000 in Al. 236,461,000 marks, and exports 230,500,000 marks; sace-Lorraine, and 38,357,000 in the excise district imports of rubber and rubber manufactures were embracing the rest of the empire. The average 49,763,000 marks, and exports 37,483,000 marks; annual consumption is 21 gallons per capita imports of textile materials and manufactures There were 62,108 distilleries in 1897, producing were 1,033,546,000 marks, and exports 917,117,000 3,101,000 hectolitres of alcohol. The production marks; imports of machinery and instruments of coal in 1897 was estimated at 90,055,000 metric were 86,335,000 marks, and exports 230,551,000 tons; of lignite, 29,419,500 tons; of iron ore, 15,- marks; imports of hardware were 20,965,000 466,000 tons; of zinc ore, 663,900 tons; of lead marks, and exports 109,948,000 marks; imports ore, 150,200 tons; of copper ore, 700,600 tons; of of books and works of art were 43,405,000 marks, salt, 763,400 tons; of potassic salts, 1,946,200 and exports 127,549,000 marks; various other extons. The quantity of pig iron produced in 1896 ports, 894,000 marks. Of the total imports, was 6,372,575 metric tons, valued at 299,660,000 2,311,120,000 marks were free of duty and 2,553,marks; of zinc, 153,100 tons, valued at 47,108,000 524,000 marks paid duties amounting to 474,889,marks; of lead, 113,793 tons, valued at 25,032,000 826 marks, an average rate of 18.6 per cent. on marks; of copper, 29,319 tons, valued at 29,174,- dutiable goods. Some of the chief imports were 000 marks; of silver, 428 tons, valued at 38,872,000 raw cotton of the value of 243,221,000 marks; marks; of tin, 826 tons, valued at 952,000 marks; wool, 218,713,000 marks; wheat, 173,698,000 of gold, 2,487 kilogrammes, valued at 6,915,752 marks; coffee, 160,368,000 marks; hides, 136,547,marks; of sulphur and sulphuric acid, 593,150 000 marks; barley, 120,618,000 marks; woolen tons, valued at 15,313,000 marks; of nickel, bis- yarn, 99,128,000 marks; raw silk, 89,460,000 muth, and various mineral products, 33,546 tons, marks; horses, 84,500,000 marks; rye, 80,283,000 valued at 10,941,149 marks. The total value of marks; petroleum, 75,107,000 marks. Some of the the product of foundries of various kinds in 1896 chief exports were sugar of the value of 229,898,was 473,967,705 marks. The quantity of manu- 000 marks; coal and coke, 170,085,000 marks; factured iron produced was 7,382,489 tons, valued woolen cloth, 144,430,000 marks; trimmings and at 916,787,819 marks.

ribbons, 115,459,000 marks; mixed silk and cot

ton cloth, 83,457,000 marks; hosiery, 82,276,000 transported 270,628,000 metric tons of freight, marks; leather goods, 74,534,000 marks; coarse which paid 1,041,790,000 marks in 1897, and 646,cottons, 69,078,000 marks; aniline dyes, 67,028, 461,000 passengers, paying 428,142,000 marks, not 000 marks; wooden wares, 63,498,000 marks; including 175,000 soldiers not paid for. paper, 59,410,000 marks.

The imperial post office in 1897 forwarded 1,292,Navigation.—The number of vessels entered 091,978 letters, 515,399,716 postal cards, 626,085,at German ports during 1897 was 77,117, of 16,- 928 books and circulars, 984,174,761 newspapers, 489,970 tons, counting vessels entered at more 41,507,744 samples, and post-office orders and than one port only once; cleared, 77,734, of 16,- registered letters remitting 25,865,972,482 marks; 626,628 tons. Of the vessels entered 66,383, of the Bavarian post office forwarded 136,921,360 let15,305,328 tons, and of those cleared 56,580, of ters, 32,483,120 postal cards, 57,229,693 books and 11,046,178 tons, were with cargoes, while 10,734 circulars, 198,517,392 newspapers, 3,360,220 samof those entered, of 1,184,642 tons, were with ples, and postal orders and letters remitting ballast, and of those cleared 21,154, of 5,580,450 1,166,487,285 marks; and the Würtemberg post tons. Of the vessels entered with cargoes 48,578, office forwarded 55,342,092 letters, 21,039,304 of 8,091,316 tons, were German; 5,469, of 4,421,869 postal cards, 30,731,889 books and circulars, 49,tons, were British; 4,801, of 822,676 tons, were 137,301 newspapers, 1,316,926 samples, and orDanish; 3,711, of 744,755 tons, were Swedish; ders and letters remitting 1,410,036,763 marks. 1,245, of 563,703 tons, were Norwegian; 1,744, of The total traffic of all three services was 1,484,260,368 tons, were Dutch; and 604, of 201,945 355,430 letters, 568,922,140 postal cards, 714,047,tons, were Russian. Of the number cleared with 510 books and circulars, 1,231,829,454 newspapers, cargoes 44,301, of 7,018,987 tons, were German 46,184,890 samples, and post-office orders and ships; 3,065, of 2,090,279 tons, were British; registered letters of the aggregate value of 29,4,454, of 660,509 tons, were Danish; 2,187, of 501, 442,496,530 marks. 908 tons, were Swedish; 750, of 311,909 tons, were The length of telegraphs in the imperial postal Norwegian; 1,322, of 204,277 tons, were Dutch; district in 1897 was 74,013 miles, with 295,742 and 342, of 121,509 tons, were Russian. At the miles of wire; in Bavaria, 10,128 miles, with 30,port of Hamburg 10,921 vessels, of 6,942,906 tons, 800 miles of wire; in Würtemberg, 3,372 miles, were entered, of which 9,779, of 6,498,402 tons, with 9,892 miles of wire; total, 87,513 miles of were with cargoes and 1,142, of 444,504 tons, line and 336,434 miles of wire. The imperial lines in ballast; and 11,616, of 7,168,888 tons, were forwarded 25,693,469 internal and 9,823,895 forcleared, of which 9,076, of 4,930,707 tons, were eign telegrams in 1897; the Bavarian lines 2,249,with cargoes and 2,540, of 2,238,181 tons, in bal- 248 internal and 584,769 foreign telegrams; the last. At Bremen the number entered was 3,997, Würtemberg lines 1,207,659 internal and 201,052 of 1,770,223 tons, of which 3,825, of 1,708,243 tons, foreign telegrams; total, 29,150,376 internal and were with cargoes; and the number cleared was 10,609,716 foreign telegrams. The receipts of the 4,217, of 1,757,312 tons, of which 2,588, of 1,276,- imperial postal and telegraph services for 1898 174 tons, were with cargoes. At Stettin the num- were 324,783,298 marks, and expenses 290,956,745 ber entered was 4,467, of 1,459,880 tons, of which marks; Bavarian receipts were 29,337,071 marks, 4,384, of 1,416,258 tons, were with cargoes; the and expenses 25,673,901 marks; total receipts for number cleared was 4,317, of 1,464,553 tons, of the empire, 367,839,846 marks; total expenses, which 3,056, of 815,368 tons, were with cargoes. 328,074,820 marks, leaving a surplus of 39,765,026 At Kiel the total number entered was 3,140, of marks for the united services, the surplus of the 514,469 tons; cleared, 3,060, of 512,266 tons. At imperial service being 33,826,553 marks, of the Lübeck the number entered was 2,866, of 542,809 Bavarian service 3,663,170 marks, and of the tons; cleared, 2,862, of 546,328 tons. At Dantzic Würtemberg service 2,275,303 marks. the number entered was 1,837, of 699,595 tons; Dependencies.--The German possessions in cleared, 1,864, of 703,830 tons. At Königsberg Africa have an aggregate area estimated at 930,the number entered was 1,590, of 326,827 tons; 760 square miles, with about 10,200,000 inhabitcleared, 1,698, of 369,614 tons.

ants (see CAPE COLONY AND SOUTH AFRICA, The German merchant fleet on Jan. 1, 1898, EAST AFRICA, and WEST AFRICA). In Asia Gercomprised 2,522 sailing vessels, of 855,571 tons, many holds under a lease from the Chinese Goyand 1,171 steamers, of 969.800 tons. Of the sail- ernment the naval station of Kiau-Chau Bay, on ing vessels 2,050, of 526,262 tons, and of the the Shantung peninsula. The leased land area steamers 737, of 747,142 tons, belonged to North is about 120 square miles, with 60,000 inhabitSea ports, while 509 sailing vessels, of 76,703 tons, ants. The neutral zone, over which the German and 389 steamers, of 142,818 tons, belonged to Imperial Governor has control, is 2.500 square Baltic ports. The total number of seamen was miles in extent, with 1,200,000 inhabitants. The 42,428. Of the steamers 1,163 and of the sailing town and harbor were occupied by a German vessels 527 were built entirely of steel or iron. naval force in December, 1897, transferred to GerThe number of vessels engaged in coasting and many for ninety-nine years by treaty on March in inland navigation was at the same date 22,564, 6, 1898, and declared a German protectorate on of which 21,945 had a total declared tonnage of April 27, 1898. A garrison of 1.500 marines and 3,371,247 tons.

artillerists is stationed there. The sum voted for Railroads, Posts, and Telegraphs.-The administrative expenses in 1900 is 8,500,000 railroads of the German Empire in the beginning marks. The Government has acquired land from of 1898 had a total length of 29,461 miles, all the Chinese owners with the object of establishbelonging to the Government, imperial or state, ing a European settlement after improving the except 2,502 miles, of which 172 miles were op- harbor and declaring the place a free commercial erated by the Government. These figures do not port. German investors will have the privilege include 2,012 miles not open to public traffic nor of working the Wiehsien and Pashan coal mines, 819 miles of narrow gauge, of which the Gov- about 100 miles inland, and of building railroads ernment owned 390 miles. The capital invested to the boundary of Shantung province through in the railroads was 11,680,193,000 marks. The these coal fields and to Chin-Chao and Tsinan. receipts in 1897 were 1,595,242,000 marks, and In the Pacific Ocean Germany possesses Kaiser expenses 889,053,000 marks, showing net receipts Wilhelm's Land in New Guinea, having an area equal to 6.05 per cent. of the capital. There were of about 70,000 square miles and a population

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