Gambar halaman

A remarkable journey across the continent, California, forming more than a seventh of that from Loango on the west coast, in French Congo, particular circle spanning the earth. It has reto Jibuti on the east coast, in French Somaliland, quired more than a quarter of a century of conwas taken by a military expedition under Major tinuous work for the completion of the triangulaMarchand. The route was by way of the Congo tion. The length of the arc having thus been and its tributaries, then over plateau and through actually measured in feet and inches and fracforest to the Sueh, an affluent of the Bahr-el- tions thereof, and its curvature having been measGhazal, and down these rivers. The troubles in ured in degrees by astronomic work, from this Fashoda interrupted the journey in July, 1898. length and curvature combined will be calculated, It was resumed in December, when the Sobat was after months of most difficult computation, the followed to the junction of the Baro and the actual shape and expanse of our sphere." Juba. Here the little steamer Faidherbe, which The seventh International Geographical Conhad been used on the rivers, was abandoned, and gress met at Berlin in October. Oceanography the remainder of the route was traveled by land held a prominent place in the proceedings of the through Abyssinia and Somaliland. The position congress, and the papers and discussions on this of Addis Abbeba, capital of Abyssinia, was found subject showed what a complicated and fertile to be farther north and farther west than the field of research it has become. A commission place given to it on the maps. The most impor. was nominated for the purpose of devising a tant geographical work of the expedition was nomenclature for the different features of the that in the territory of the tributaries of the bed of the ocean. Bahr-el-Ghazal.

One result of the discussion of antarctic exThis region was explored at about the same ploration was the resolution that, as the protime by M. Liotard, Governor of the French posals of the antarctic committees of the two Ubangi territory, who traversed some country countries form an excellent basis for plans of hitherto unknown. .

co-operation, a small joint committee should be According to a communication from Lieut. formed for the purpose of arriving at a common Cerckel, the syllable lu in the names of African method of work in meteorological and magnetic rivers is a shortened form of lui, meaning river, observations. so that it is not properly a part of the name. Another important discussion related to the It is sometimes placed before, as in Lualaba, map of the world on the scale of 1:1,000,000 sometimes after, as in Sanku Lu, and sometimes (16 miles to the inch), which has been before the full form is used, as in Chibu Lui. For small the congresses of Berne and London. streams ka, a diminutive, is used instead of lu. It is doubtful if the resolution as to the adop

Islands.-The Samoan Islands have been as- tion of the metric system of weights and meassigned by agreement as follow: The two islands ures and the centigrade scale for thermometers of Upolu and Savaii, as well as the adjacent will have any result either in England or in small islands, are assigned to Germany in abso- America. One eminent geographer, Mr. J. G. lute possession; the island of Tutuila and its Buchanan, went so far as to maintain that even adjacent islands to the United States. Great from the scientific point of view the fathom and Britain renounces all her rights in the Samoan the Fahrenheit scale are far superior to the metre Islands, and Germany renounces in favor of Great and the centigrade thermometer. A resolution Britain all her claims to the Tonga Islands and was adopted deprecating the giving of new names to Savage island, and cedes also to this country to places where native names or names given by the two eastern Solomon Islands of Choiseul and early explorers have become familiar. The atIsabel, with their island surroundings.

tendance at the congress-members and associAt the proclamation of the British protectorate ates, including ladies—was 1,667, of whom about over the Santa Cruz Islands it was found by an 205 were foreigners in the strict sense, including examination from the English ships that the Austrians. island laid down on the maps as Motuiti or Ken- GEORGIA, a Southern State, one of the orignedy had no existence; at least none at the posi- inal thirteen, ratified the Constitution Jan. 2, tion indicated.

1788; area, 59,475 square miles. The population, General.—“ The population of the world was according to each decennial census, was 82,548 in estimated by Profs. Supan and Wagner in 1891 1790; 162,686 in 1800: 252,433 in 1810; 340,985 at 1,480,000,000. Prof. Supan estimates the pres- in 1820; 516,823 in 1830; 691,392 in 1840; 906,185 ent population of the earth at 1,500,000,000, or in 1850; 1,057,286 in 1860; 1,184,109 in 1870; an increase of 20,000,000 in the past seven years. 1,542,180 in 1880; and 1,927,253 in 1890. Capital, The population of Europe at the beginning of Atlanta. the Christian era, estimated at 54,000,000, was Government. The following were the State only a little more than half the present popula- officers in 1899: Governor, Allen D. Candler; tion of European Russia.”

Secretary of State, Philip Cook; Treasurer, W. J. The following was published in January: “ The Speer; Comptroller, William A. Wright; AtCoast and Geodetic Survey has at last completed torney-General, Joseph M. Terrell: State School valuable measurements from which its corps of Commissioner, G. R. Glenn; Adjutant General, skilled mathematicians is shortly to determine J. M. Kell; Commissioner of Agriculture, 0. B. for the first time, with any degree of accuracy, Stevens; Geologist, W. S. Yeates; Chemist, J. M. the figure and size of the earth. In other words, McCandless; Librarian, James E. Brown; Railwe are soon to learn something definite as to road Commissioners, L. N. Trammell, S. R. Athow large a mass the earth is, and whether it is, kinson, T. C. Crenshaw; Prison Commissioners, in truth, flattened at the poles. This tremendous J. S. Turner, C. A. Evans, T. Eason; Chief Jusfeat of surveying just finished is the most ex- tice of the Supreme Court, Thomas J. Simmons; tensive and valuable contribution toward the so- Associate Justices, Samuel Lumpkin, Henry T. lution of these problems thus far undertaken. Lewis, Andrew J. Cobb, William A. Little, and The survey has accurately measured in feet and William H. Fish; Clerk, Z. D. Harrison-all inches the longest arc of the earth's curvature Democrats. ever covered by measuring instruments. This line Finances.—The Treasurer's report for the year extends from Cape May, N. J., due west over ending Sept. 30 shows the following figures: Balthe thirty-ninth parallel to the coast of northern ance Oct. 1, 1898, $120,004.57; receipts during the year, $3,671,932.46; disbursements, $3,353, the percentage has declined. The total number 160.37; balance Oct. 1, 1899, $438,776.66.

in 1898 was 83,616, of whom 22,917 were white The largest items of receipts were: From gen- and 60,699 were colored. The percentage of illiteral tax, $2,201,197.26; from poll tax, $230,489.71; erates to the population was 12.6, a decrease of railroad tax, $269,044.11; rent Western and At 6.3 per cent. since 1893; the percentage of white lantic Railroad, $420,012; liquor tax, $142,452.24; illiterates is 6.7, a decrease of 4.6; and the perhire of convicts under the old lease, $25,000, and centage of colored illiterates is 18.9, a decrease under the new lease, $50,304.32; insurance tax, of 8.3. The enrollment of colored children in the $58,701.42; temporary loans, $100,000.

schools is 166,450; the average attendance, 92,973. The bonded debt of the State Sept. 30, 1898, Suit was brought by colored citizens of Richwas $8,031,500. On Jan. 1 the second installment mond County against the Board of Education. of bonds issued under act of 1887 became due, This board had closed the colored high school and was paid off with the sinking fund then for want of funds, leaving a white high school in hand, amounting to $100,000, leaving the valid still in existence, and the suit was instituted for interest-bearing debt, $7,031,500. The rates of the purpose of securing an injunction to prevent interest on the various issues vary from 31 to 7 the collection of taxes for the maintenance of per cent., and the total amount of interest is the school system generally. In passing upon the $339,380. The assets of the State include $20,700 case, Justice Harlan said that the education of of Georgia Railroad and Banking Company's the young had been remitted to the several States, stock and $10,000 of Southern and Atlantic Tele- and that it should be generally left to their congraph stock, besides the public buildings and the trol. The court had not been able to discover Western and Atlantic and Northeastern Rail that the Supreme Court of Georgia had erred in roads, none of which are estimated.

refusing to grant an injunction; hence the deThe aggregate value of real estate as reported cision of that court, which was adverse to the in 1899 was $235,410,751, and of personal estate petition of the colored people, was affirmed. He $137,516,326, making a total of $372,927,077, which reviewed the testimony at length, saying that it is an advance of more than $3,000,000 on that appeared that the school board was confronted of 1898. The whole amount of tax on polls, pro- with the necessity of closing the colored high fessions, and property, after deducting defaulters, school and turning the high-school building over was $2,372,246.84. The aggregate value of prop to the negro children of the primary grades or of erty returned by colored taxpayers was $13,447, leaving the latter without educational facilities. 423, a decrease of $271,777 from that of 1898.

Preparations have been made for a summer ses. Education.—The report of the State School sion of eight weeks at the university, to which Commissioner for 1898 shows the number of any white person qualified to pursue any of the schools of the common-school system to be 7,547, courses of instruction may gain admittance. and those of local systems 384. The number of Thirty-four courses are offered, in order that the teachers of the former was 8,629, and the amount preferences of students may be ascertained. paid them $1,231,307.67. There were 948 teach- Andrew Carnegie has offered to give $100,000 ers of local systems, receiving $442,765. The for a free library in Atlanta if a site is provided county school commissioners were paid $62,304.95 and a fund for maintenance of not less that $5,000 and local superintendents $27,675.

a year. The enrollment in common schools was 421,237, The Normal and Industrial College, at Milledgeand the average attendance 231,060; the per ville, had a total attendance of 382 girls in the capita of expenditure estimated by enrollment college classes and 60 children in the model school was $3.26, while in the local schools, which had during the session of 1898_'99. The students came an enrollment of 47,870, it was $11.78. The en- from 99 counties in the State; 165 were preparrollment in common schools in 1898 was 34,414 ing for teaching in the normal course, 61 were in more than in 1897, and the amount paid to teach the collegiate-industrial, and 31 in the special ers was $290,698.24 greater.

industrial classes. The normal graduating class The amount of the fund received from the State in June numbered 18, and the collegiate 4. by the common-school system, including balances During the session of 1898_'99 the North from the previous year, was $1,404,832.88. The Georgia Agricultural College had 237 regular stulocal systems received from the State, including dents, of whom 51 were women, representing 60 balances, $206,318.14, and $356,068.36 was raised counties of the State. The cost to the State was for them by local taxation.

$30 for each student. The sources from which the school fund for The enrollment at the State Normal School, at 1899 was derived and the amounts were as follow: Athens, in 1899 was 714. The average attendance Direct appropriation, $800,000; half rental West- is not more than half the enrollment, because ern and Atlantic Railway, $210,006; liquor tax, many students attend for five months and teach $104,659; net hire of convicts, $13,622; tax on for five months each year till their course is shows, $6,000; dividend on Georgia Railway finished. There are 10 instructors. The approstock, $2,146; fees for inspection fertilizers, $16,- priation, which was $22,500 for 1898, was re749; fees for inspection oils, $15,000; poll tax, duced to $16,000 for each of the two years next $230,000; total fund, $1,398,122.

succeeding. The amount received from the Peabody fund Prisons.—The second annual report of the was $7,156.

Prison Commission covers the year ending Sept. The value of books in use that were bought 30, 1899, the commission having been created by before July 1, 1898, was $107,369.45, and the legislative act in December, 1897, when the old value of those bought during the year 1898_%99lease-contract system was given up and a new was $97,765.34, many new books having been system was established, under which the State adopted. These figures are from reports of 97 resumed control of the convicts. A farm was counties.

bought, and the 60 women, 23 boys under six. There are 94 school libraries, valued at $10, teen, and 75 old or infirm men were removed to 918.31.

it, leaving 2,022 to be placed at labor for conFrom a statement in regard to illiteracy in tractors. The expenditures for farm expenses, the report it appears that, though the number including pay of officers and guards in charge, of illiterates has increased in the past five years, transportation, clothing, etc., amounted to $15,859.19. The products of the farm were valued at amount of money, which if kept at home would $16,495, showing a small profit.

have made us one of the richest States in the The commission has examined 251 applications Union? It has all gone to pay the farmers and for pardons, out of which they recommended par manufacturers of the North and East for supdons in 46 felony cases not capital and 26 in plies of various kinds, every item of which we misdemeanors. Commutations were recommended could and should have produced within our own in 4 cases of felony not capital, 17 in misdemean- borders. Suppose we had made only 10,000,000 ors, and 2 in capital cases.

bales in the past thirty-three years, and in addi. Since the passage of the law allowing juries tion had produced all the supplies that we have and judges to reduce certain felonies to misde- bought from other States, is it not self-evident meanors there has been an increase in the num- that we would be better off by $400,000,000 than ber of convictions for misdemeanors and a cor we are at present? The entire property of the responding reduction in the number of convicts State, cities included, is now but a little over sent to the Penitentiary.

$400,000,000, and the farmers of Georgia ought to At the time of the report there were in the have been richer by this vast amount had they chain gangs 37 boys under sixteen and 117 women, not been deluded by the all-cotton fallacy." I of each being white, besides 132 white men and The wheat crop estimate is 2,607,360 bushels. 2,135 colored men. Of the 2,201 remaining in the The acreage devoted to corn was 24 per cent. Penitentiary at the end of the year, 1,080 were larger than that of 1898. The quantity of ferwholly illiterate, 250 could read only, and 871 tilizers sold in the State was 20.6 per cent. less could read and write.

than in the previous year. It was decided in September that the new An effort is making to revive the sugar indusSouthern Federal Prison shall be built just out try-to increase the acreage and establish sugar side the limits of Atlanta. The city paid $25,000 plants. Heretofore the cane grown in the State and the Southern Railway $35,000 for the site has been almost exclusively made into sirup, a a tract of 300 acres. The buildings are expected product much less valuable. to cost about $2,000,000, and to be finished in Speaking of the beautiful green marble, or 1902.

rather serpentine, quarried in Georgia, a Maine Railroads.—The total mileage of railroads in newspaper says: “ The quarry is now over 60 the State Oct. 1, 1899, was 5,531.86, an increase feet deep, and the deeper it gets the better is the in the year of 56.60. The total gross earnings marble. When the first company organized to for the year ending June 30 were $21,087,310.36; work the marble quarry they attempted to get the operating expenses, $14,790,718.85; the total out the stone by blasting with dynamite, which net earnings, $6,296,591.51; the percentage of op- shattered the stone and greatly wasted it. Shorterating expenses to gross earnings, 70.14. There ly afterward the company went into the hands are 51 companies or systems operating in the of a receiver. Last spring a Chicago stock comState. Five of these operate 55.8 per cent. of the pany was organized and went to work with total mileage, and earned 69.9 of the total gross channeling machines. During the summer the carnings. Only 6 companies reported deficits. ragged hole left by the former dynamite method The net earnings this year were $744,285.50 more of working has been shaped out, the walls squared, than in 1898.

the floor leveled, and now blocks of stone of reguBanks.-By a comparison of the Bank Exam- lar sizes, weighing 8 and 10 tons, are taken out.” iner's report for 1898 and that of 1899, it is found Labor.—The operatives in three cotton mills that the number of State banks has increased in Augusta struck in November in consequence from 119 to 139; the total resources from $33,- of a reduction in wages. The owners explained 012,557.58 to $37,577,933.70; the cash on hand that the reduction was necessary on account of from $2,584,004.93 to $2.841,083.76; the deposits the competition of mills in the Carolinas, and from $18,097,635.67 to $21,150,309.15.

they offered to make a schedule giving 6 per cent. Loan Associations.-A decision was rendered more than was given in those mills. The proin the Superior Court at Savannah, March 30, posal was not accepted, the men declaring that in the case of the Georgia State Building and Loan as wood and rents were higher in Augusta the Association against the city of Savannah. The comparison was not fair. The mills were closed city assessed the association $250,000 on its prop- Nov. 30. About 3,000 operatives were involved. erty, including the money that has been loaned Georgia Monument.--A monument to the to shareholders. The association refused to pay soldiers of the State who took part in the battle the taxes, claiming an exemption under the State of Chickamauga was unveiled on the battle law exempting building and loan associations ground, May 4, with appropriate ceremonies. from taxation on capital that is loaned to share- The Legislature of 1897 appropriated $25,000 for holders. When its property was levied on it this object. sought an injunction in the Superior Court. The Ruskin Colony.--This co-operative colJudge Falligant heard the argument and handed ony was established in 1895 on a tract of 1,800 down a decision holding that the law exempting acres in Middle Tennessee. In September, 1899, such associations from taxation on the capital it was removed to Duke, Ware ('ounty, Ga. loaned the shareholders was unconstitutional. About 250 persons comprise the colony. It is

Products.--The cotton crop for the year is un- organized as a stock company. The entrance fee usually small, being estimated at not more than is $500 for each family, and before a family can 8.900,000 bales for the entire cotton belt; that of enter the colony it has to be passed on by a vote Georgia at about 1,000,000 bales. The acreage of all persons in the body. It seems that the in Georgia was 3,288,000. The State Commis- trouble arose over the dissatisfaction of a few sioner of Agriculture advises the farmers to re- who wanted to draw out and take out their stock. duce the acreage of cotton and raise more of In the course of the trouble the colony was such other crops as the land will grow. He says: thrown into the courts by the dissenters, and the “For thirty-three years we have relied on cotton result was that it went into the hands of a realone with which to purchase everything else. ceiver. Those who still have faith in the prin. During that time we have made not less than ciples on which the colony is founded thought 20,000,000 bales, worth at a moderate estimate best to sell their interest in the property in Tenfully $800,000,000. What has become of this vast nessee and remove to Georgia.


Lawlessness. On the night of Jan. 21 a mob child lying unconscious from a cruel blow, and went to the home of John Rustin, near Col- now the last child, a babe, to be gashed to death quitt, in Miller County, killed him and his son unless- The woman must decide at once. The and wounded his daughter. The intention had uplifted axe was ready to fall. Maternal instinct evidently been to exterminate the family. The forgot all else, and she cried, 'Save my little father lived long enough to give the names of ones!'" The negro was captured a few days five of the murderers whom he recognized. The later, taken to Macon, and put aboard a train for motive was easily seen-one of the assailants Atlanta. He was recognized at Griffin by some was out on bail after having been arrested on one, who sent word to Newnan that he was on a warrant charging him with ruining the daugh- the train. When that station was reached he ter of the murdered man, and the girl recognized was taken out at the suggestion of the crowd him as the one who fired the shot that wounded that had gathered and delivered to the sheriff, her. The Grand Jury found indictments against by whom he was put into jail, but afterward seven of the mob, and upon trial the father of turned over to the mob. Ex-Gov. Atkinson and the young man was the first to be convicted and Judge A. D. Freeman, who lived in Newnan, adsentenced to hard labor for life in the Peniten- dressed the crowd, imploring them to leave the tiary.

negro's punishment to the law; but their words Feb. 5 was a day of wild excitement in Augusta. had no effect. He was taken to the house of A member of a Minnesota regiment was killed by Mrs. Cranford's mother, where he was identified, a barkeeper; the comrades of the dead man de- then to a place a mile and a half from the town, termined to avenge his death, and about 75 of where he was chained to a tree and, after being them broke camp and set out on that errand, horribly mutilated and tortured, was burned in but they were rounded up by troops of the regu- the presence of 2,000 persons. Before this he had lar cavalry and placed under arrest.

confessed the murder, but said he was hired by A mob of 300 men broke into the jail at Lees- Lije Strickland, the negro preacher, who gave burg and took out 3 negroes, whom they shot. him $12 to kill Mr. Cranford. The next morning, The prisoners were concerned in a robbery and April 24, the body of Strickland was found hang. assault upon a woman near the town in Decem- ing from a tree near Palmetto. He had protested ber, but had been caught only two days before his innocence, and there appears to have been the lynching.

no evidence against him except that of Hose, There was a riot at Griffin in March, caused who in his confession made other statements that apparently by a regiment of negro immunes who were known to be false. Major W. W. Thomas had been mustered out and were passing through tried to save Strickland's life when the mob were on their way home. They fired pistols from the taking him away. He left them with the undercars; the local militia were called out, and a standing that they would take the man to jail brakeman on the train was mortally wounded. at Fairburn, but he was led away to his death.

On a charge of having set incendiary fires in In May and June there was trouble in Griffin Palmetto in February 9 negroes were awaiting from a band of “regulators," who were in a their preliminary trial in an improvised jail in scheme to drive the negroes out of the place. that place, when in the early morning of March They took colored men from their houses and 16 the guards were overpowered by a mob of beat and cut them. Five were arrested and inmasked men, variously estimated from 15 to 150, dicted. a number of the men were drawn up in line in A dispatch from Covington, Ga.. July 27, said: the room, the negroes were made to stand in a “Three Mormon elders, who have been preaching row, and two volleys were fired into them. Four their peculiar doctrines in this section for the were killed and one mortally wounded, while two past few weeks, were mobbed last night by 30 were slightly hurt and one escaped injury. Troops masked men near Newton factory, in Jasper were ordered to the town and remained about ten County, and their present whereabouts are undays.

known to the people here." From later informaAnother horrible tragedy, possibly connected tion it appears that they were not harmed, but with the one just described, took place near Pal. were taken to the county line and warned to metto a little later. Threats, it is reported, were leave. made against white men who had been active Three negroes were killed by a mob at Saffold, in securing evidence against the incendiaries or Early County, July 22, for being concerned in who for some other reason were obnoxious to a robbery and assault. They confessed the crimes, the worst class of negroes, several of whom were and said five others were in the gang. One of supposed to be in a conspiracy to murder these these was taken and hanged July 25. Troops men. One Sam Holt or Hose, sometimes known were sent to Bainbridge that day to guard the as Tom Wilkes, committed a horrible crime on jail, in which was a negro held for a similar the family of Mr. Cranford, by whom he had crime. been employed. The crime is thus described by A negro accused of a criminal assault was in a correspondent of the New York Herald, who danger of lynching by a mob at Darien about went to Georgia to investigate the affair: “On Aug. 26. There was an uprising of negroes, and that fatal day he crept into the house in bare a race war was threatened. Troops were sent feet, axe in hand, while the father, mother, and promptly, the danger was averted, and the actwo children were at the table. It was a moment cused was afterward brought to trial and acof speechless horror to the wife, for she saw the quitted. murderer, saw the uplifted axe, but before she Seven men were indicted at Greenville, Aug. 29, could warn her husband the weapon flew to the charged with kidnaping and whitecaping a negro mark, swung by the frenzied arm of Hose, and who had refused to work for one of them. He buried itself up to the handle in his head. When asserted that they took him from his home and the victim had fallen Hose hewed and hacked beat him unmercifully with buggy traces and him as one hews a piece of timber. Holt held whips. Several crimes of a similar nature were the baby by the heels with his left hand; the axe reported to have occurred in the neighborhood was in his right hand, and he threatened to cut off about the same time. its head unless the mother submitted to his damn- Gov. Candler appealed to all good citizens of able wishes. The dead husband on the floor, one the State," white and black, to join hands and do all in their power to prevent crime and put an tion. It provided that no person should be alend to mob violence. He said: “The ordinary lowed to vote in Georgia unless he should be processes of the law are amply sufficient to pun able not only to read and write any paragraph ish all crimes. Our judges are pure and incor of the State Constitution, but also to “underruptible. Our juries are composed of our most stand” and “give a reasonable interpretation” intelligent, upright men, who seldom make mis- to any paragraph of it. The election officers were takes."

to be the judges of the voter's understanding and Political.-A conference of the Populist lead- interpretation of the paragraphs of the Constituers in the State was held in Atlanta in August. tion proposed to him as tests. This provision, The object of the meeting was said to be " to standing alone, gave the election officers power ascertain the strength of the party, and see just to disfranchise any voter, white or black, in their how the people of the State stood in regard to it. discretion. But the rights of most white voters The principal affairs discussed, with the excep- were protected by a proviso that no person who tion of party standing in the State, were the was entitled to vote on or before Jan. 1, 1867, declaration against fusion, the arrangement for in the State in which he then resided, and no complete State organization in every militia dis- lineal descendant of any such person should be trict, and the indorsement of the presidential disfranchised, even if he could neither read, write, candidate."

understand, nor interpret any paragraph of the By unanimous action the members declared for State Constitution. This was defeated by a vote "middle-of-the-road ” populism and against fu- of 137 to 3 in the House. sion with either of the older parties. They ap A bill for absolute prohibition of the manufacproved the candidacy of Wharton Barker för ture, sale, keeping for sale, giving away, or furPresident and Ignatius Donnelly for Vice-Presi nishing intoxicating liquors, except as medicine dent, and decided to nominate a full State by orders of physicians, passed the House by a ticket.

vote of 93 to 65, but was defeated in the Senate Legislative Session.—The annual session of by a vote of 26 to 14 after a debate lasting three the Legislature extended from Oct. 26 to Dec. 16. days. The author of the bill, Mr. Willingham, The Governor devoted several paragraphs of his asks to have the measure made an issue to be message to crime and mob violence. He is re- voted upon at the Democratic primaries. One ported to have said that the unusual amount of of the strongest arguments against the bill was crime by lawless negroes and the consequent that showing how much the school fund would vengeance by mobs is due, in part at least, to in- sufler by the loss of the liquor tax—about $150,termeddling in newspaper articles and incendiary 000. The counties now have local option. letters, which serve to aggravate the trouble. GERMANY, an empire in central Europe

The bills introduced numbered 392, and the composed of the federated German states. The resolutions 145. More than 200 were passed. King of Prussia is German Emperor, and in this

The Tax Commission, whose appointment was capacity has supreme charge of political and provided for by the Legislature of 1898 to con- military affairs, with power to make war and sider the question of taxation, reported at this conclude peace, except that for an offensive war session, recommending an income tax, a collat he must have the consent of the federated states eral-inheritance tax, and the imposition of a spe- and princes. There are two legislative bodies cial State tax on all quasi-public corporations; with concurrent powers--the Bundesrath, reprealso the creation of a State board of tax com- senting the federated states, and the Reichstag, missioners, with large powers over local assess- representing the German people. The acts on ments and exclusive authority to assess railroad, which they agree become law upon receiving the telegraph, telephone, and express companies. The Emperor's assent and being countersigned by the House disposed of the proposed measure by refer- Chancellor of the Empire. The Bundesrath has ring it to the Governor for transmission to the 58 members, appointed by the governments of next Legislature, as it could not receive proper the federated States. The Reichstag has 397 consideration at this session.

members; 1 to 124,500 of population, elected by A law was made prohibiting the sleeping-car universal manhood suffrage and by secret ballot. eompanies operating in the State from furnishing In the Bundesrath Prussia is represented by 17 berths to negro passengers, except in coaches used members, Bavaria by 6, Saxony and Würtemexclusively for negroes.

berg by 4 each, Baden and Hesse by 3 each, MeckAn act, intended to enable farmers to hold their lenburg-Schwerin and Brunswick by 2 each, and cotton and other crops for better prices, permits the other states each by a single member. In warehousemen to give bond in amount equal to the Reichstag there are 236 members from Prusthe capacity of their warehouses, and to issue sia, 48 from Bavaria, 23 from Saxony, 17 from negotiable warehouse receipts.

Würtemberg, 15 from Alsace-Lorraine, 14 from It was provided that the State militia shall Baden, 9 from Hesse, 6 from Mecklenburgbe reorganized. All commissions of officers in the Schwerin, 3 each from Saxe-Weimar, Oldenburg, service are to expire Feb. 1, 1900, when new offi- and Brunswick, 2 each from Saxe-Meiningen, cers shall be elected by the companies. The field Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, and Anhalt, and 1 from each officers are then to be elected by the line officers. of the other states. Commissions are to expire regularly at the end The German Emperor is Wilhelm II, born Jan. of three years.

27, 1859, who succeeded his father, Friedrich III A bill was passed providing for a State board of Prussia, on June 15, 1888. The heir apparent of examiners in osteopathy; but it was vetoed, is Prince Friedrich Wilhelm, born May 8, 1882. having been opposed by the Atlanta physicians The Chancellor of the Empire at the beginning on the ground that graduates of the only school of 1899 was Prince Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst, apof osteopathy were practically without knowledge pointed Oct. 29, 1894. The following secretaries of materia medica.

of state were in charge of the various departAmong bills defeated was one for biennial ses ments: Minister of Foreign Affairs, B. von Bülow; sions of the Legislature and a franchise act simi- Secretary of the Interior and Representative of lar to the one passed as a proposed constitu- the Chancellor in the Reichstag, Graf Posadowtional amendment in North Carolina. This also sky-Wehner; Secretary of the Imperial Marine, was proposed as an amendment to the Constitu- Rear-Admiral Tirpitz; Ministry of Justice, Dr.

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