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fatal memories. He has paid the penalty of his date from Roman times, by others from the fifintrepidity, and the Cerberus that guards the teenth century. In the course of ages this had mysterious region of the Pilcomayo has devoured become choked, and when the waters of the lake another victim. According to a telegram re- rose after rains the land surrounding it was ceived by Mr. Francisco Segui, President of the turned into a pestilential swamp. In 1875 there Geographical Society, Ramon Lista lost his way was an unusual deluge of rain, and the movement in the woodlands of Miraflores, and after wander- for a drainage canal was begun soon afterward;
ing during five days, perished from thirst. Two but it was not until 1896 that the work was men who accompanied him were saved."
actually begun. At the lake end the canal is A letter from Georgetown to the London Times 800 feet above sea level and 30 feet wide, with says: “ The award of the international tribunal sloping sides, discharging into a trapezoidal basin appointed under the treaty of Washington to de- 48 feet long. It is carried under the hill and villimit the boundary between British Guiana and lage of San Savino del Lago by a tunnel more Venezuela has given unqualified satisfaction than 3,000 feet long. The waters are finally turned throughout the colony. It is recognized that into the little river Caina, a tributary of the England has gained by having the dispute re- Tiber. With the lake kept at the level intended, ferred to arbitration, and that, had Venezuela 2,470 acres of arable land will be reclaimed. The accepted Great Britain's offer, she would have work cost 658,565 Italian lire. gained more territory than the Paris tribunal Recent bathymetrical surveys of the Italian has awarded her. The boundary, as fixed by the lakes show that Como is the deepest, its maxitribunal, practically follows the Schomburgk mum depth being 1,345 feet; that of Maggiore is line.”
1,220; Garda, 1,134; Lugano, 944; Isso, 820. Europe.—Lake Trasimene, in central Italy, Como is only surpassed in Europe by Hornisdalswhich for centuries has been a source of disease vand, 1,593 feet, and Mjösen, 1,476 feet, in Norway. by reason of having no adequate outlet, is now Asia.-A journey across central Asia has been drained by a canal completed in March, 1898, made by German travelers for the first time. and formally opened Sept. 27 of the same year. Prof. Futterer and Dr. Holderer arrived at ShangThe lake, which is about 50 square miles in ex- hai in February, having been seven months on tent, and surrounded by hills with olive groves the route. They brought with them fine zoölogand castles, had no discharge for its waters ex- ical and geological collections. cept an artificial channel, supposed by some to The upper valley of the Yarkand has been vis
ited by Capt. Deasy, who has explored a territory gree until it reaches the northern border of Daronly in part examined heretofore by Russian and fur. A glance at the map will show that by this English travelers. Although provided with a arrangement the whole of the Bahr-el-Ghazal and passport from Chinese authorities, Capt. Deasy all the old provinces of Egypt west of the Nile found his progress so obstructed that part of his fall within the British sphere that is, we hold proposed route had to be abandoned.
free from French pretensions for the future the A Dutch missionary, Mr. Rijuhart, who was entire basin of the upper Nile right up to the stationed in Tibet, undertook a journey to great lakes. That is the result which we have Lhasa, accompanied by his wife and their in- sought to obtain throughout the negotiations, fant son. It ended disastrously, the child hav- and we appear to have obtained it in the amplest ing died from the hardships of the journey and way. The report of Sir William Garstin on the the party having been attacked by Tibetans. portions of this territory immediately south of The men fled, leaving Mr. Rijuhart and his family Khartoum will cause neither surprise nor disalone. He recrossed a river they had just passed appointment to those who have taken the pains to obtain assistance, as there were tents on the to make themselves moderately acquainted with opposite bank, but did not return. His wife previous accounts of this part of the Soudan. waited several days, and then made her way The country about the White Nile is for a great with great difficulty to Chinese territory, uncer- distance a pestilential swamp, and it may be tain whether Mr. Rijuhart was dead or a prisoner. doubted whether even the genius and persever
In 1898 Mr. Gaedertz, a German engineer, made ance of the Anglo-Egyptian engineers will be able a journey in the Chinese province of Shantung. to improve it materially within a generation. BeFrom the temple-crowned summit of the Yo- yond the points. which he reached lie other porShan a sea of mountains could be seen south- tions of the Soudan of a less unpromising charward. It is proposed to construct a railway acter, but, speaking generally, Sir William Garthrough the region traversed by Mr. Gaedertz, stin is probably not far wrong when he says that who was engaged by a Hamburg syndicate to at present it can be of no practical advantage to examine the proposed route. There are large a civilized power if by practical advantage matetowns on the route. Chau-Tsun is a city of 50,000 rial advantage is intended. But it was not for inhabitants, and the center of the silk trade of the sake of material advantages that we were the province. Po-Shan is in the coal district, determined to acquire the upper part of the Nile and has pottery, glass, and iron works.
basin. Political and military considerations of Mount Kinabalu, in North Borneo, was as an imperative kind gave us no choice in the matcended in April by H. T. Burls, who gives the ter. The Nile is Egypt, and Egypt is the Nile,' height as 12,043 feet. In crevices of the rock and it was vital to us as the trustees of Egypt on the summit small pellucid quartz crystals to hold the Nile from the sea to the great lakes." were found, and Mr. Burls conjectured that large This gives England a continuous line through specimens of the kind had given rise to the legend eastern Africa, except for that part south of the that there was a great diamond at the top, equator where the Congo State and the German guarded by a dragon, which had devoured so possessions meet. An agreement has been made many Chinamen in search of the diamond that by which Germany grants to the African Transthe mountain received the name Kina Balu, mean- continental Telegraph Company the right to ing “ Chinese widow."
carry across its territory the line intended to Mr. R. P. Cobbold returned in the spring from connect Cape Town with Cairo. a thirteen months' journey in the Pamirs, during The railway to Khartoum was to be ready which he was arrested and detained for three for travel in December. The line through East weeks by the Russians, and finally escorted by Africa from north to south can now be carried, Cossacks across the Chinese frontier. Mr. Cob- like the telegraph, mainly through British terribold visited several districts never before ex- tory. plored by Englishmen.
A German steamer has been sent to Lake TanK. T. Stoepel ascended the main northern peak ganyika. of Mount Morrison, in Formosa, in December, In connection with the agreement concerning 1898. The mountain group is called in Japanese Samoa some doubtful boundaries in Africa were Niitakayama-" the new high mountain ”—but settled, given as follow: “ Further articles of by the natives Pataquan.
the agreement provide for the demarcation of the Africa.-The agreement between France and frontier in the Hinterland of German Togoland England defining the spheres of interest of the and the British Gold Coast colony, and for the two powers in eastern Africa draws, according renunciation of German extraterritorial rights in to the London Times of March 23, “a line run- Zanzibar, to take effect when other nations have ning roughly north and south, and pledges Eng- also given up their extraterritorial rights in that land not to acquire either territory or political dependency. The neutral zone of Salaga in West influence west of this line, and France not to Africa has been a bone of contention between acquire them to the east of it. The line begins Germany and England since the square block of on the northern frontier of the Congo State at territory was provisionally declared neutral in the watershed of the Congo and the Nile, and 1888. The agreement now arrived at appears to follows that watershed to 11° north. From this secure for England the largest slice of the zone point to 15° north it is to be traced by a mixed and the territory of Gambaga north of it." commission between Darfur and Wadăi, leaving Mr. W. Willcocks wrote from Cairo Sept. 18: the former to England and the latter to France. “ Egypt is experiencing one of the worst floods The northern section of the line is traced in the of the century, and that branch of the river French note from north to south, instead of which leaves the great equatorial lakes seems to being continued from the northern frontier of have failed completely. This branch (let us call Darfur. It is described as beginning at the inter- it the White Nile) is completely closed by the section of the sixteenth degree east of Greenwich sudd, and the waters are wandering over the with the tropic of Cancer, a point near the south- immense swamps which stretch from latitude 7° ern frontier of Tripoli. It is to be drawn south- to latitude 10°. The failure of this supply in the east until it cuts the twenty-fourth degree east summer of 1900 will be serious." He says the of Greenwich, and it is then to follow that de- waters that leave the great lakes are estimated never to fall below 18,000 cubic feet a second, women are decently clothed in skins, but the men while the discharge at Assuan, in spite of the wear no clothing, unless the extraordinary felted additions of surface and subsoil waters from the head dress, which hangs low over their shoulders, Gazelle, the Sobat, the Blue Nile, and the Atbara, is classed as clothing. A Karamojo warrior, with has within the past twenty-five years twice fallen bis felted hair bag decked with ostrich feathers, as low as 7,000 cubic feet a second. After pass- his iron collar and ivory bangles, is a very striking Lado the White Nile splits up into numerous ing sight. He carries two spears, which can be branches, which lose themselves in the swamps. used either for throwing or stabbing, a knobThe swamps vanquish the Nile.
kerry, and a very small, light shield made of The work of building a great Nile reservoir hide. Many also wear a small circular wrist above Assuan, to which the consent of the Khe- knife, with which terrible wounds can be inflicted dive was obtained in 1898, was begun Feb. 12, in a rough and tumble. The cutting edges of the 1899, when the corner stone was laid. It will be knife and of the spearheads are carefully promore than a mile long and 80 feet wide at the tected by ingenious sheaths made of leather." base, and the top will be 90 feet above low-water Later the explorers went to Latuka, still farmark. It will be pierced with 180 sluices for the ther west, passing through a mountainous region regulation of the waters, and will raise the level with peaks rising 6,000 to 10,000 feet. of the river for 140 miles above the first cataract. An account is given in The Geographical JourThe reservoir will be done, it is estimated, in nal of Mr. Weatherly's latest expedition to Bangtwo years, but subsidiary works will be required weolo (or, as he says it should be, Bangweulu). before the whole plan is carried out. A large He went to the Johnston falls on the Luapula, area will be added to the productive lands of lower and thence to the northwest corner of Bangweulu. Egypt.
About 10 miles northwest of the last three rivers Capt. Wellby, who is exploring eastern Africa —the Mwampanda, the Lifubu, and the Liposori in the vicinity of Lake Rudolf, has found that the -meet in a great marsh, called Kasamba. These Oms flows into that lake, and a small river called three rivers appear to unite in one, which flows Ruzi flows into the stream called Juba. He into the lake, which, according to Mr. Weathertraveled north about midway between the lake ly's measurements, is 434 miles long. He surand the Nile through a fine wooded country veyed Lake Kampolombo 31 to 4 miles across, abounding in game. The Turkana were found which has connected with it a lakelet, Kangto be a fine race, many of them approaching wena, and opposite its northern half is Chifung. 7 feet in height. They wear their hair in a matted we, a narrow sheet of water. On the voyage mass hanging down the back to the waist, and down the Luapula the explorer saw the Mumbocarry in it their tobacco and various small arti- tuta falls, which, he says, have never before been cles-presumably in the hair bag, such as is worn visited by a white man. “They are due to a by some other African tribes.
great fault cutting the river diagonally, and the Mount Kenia was ascended this year by Mr. mad chaos of the foaming water, the thunder of H. J. Mackinder, reader in geography at Oxford. which can be heard 8 or 9 miles on a still night, The summit was reached at the third attempt, is an indescribably grand sight.” The greater and was found to be more than 17,000 feet high. part of the Luapula above the. Johnston falls is Fifteen glaciers, two very large, were discovered. quite unnavigable for craft of any size, by reason The height of the mountain has been estimated either of sand banks or its shallowness and rapid at 19,000 feet.
current. The Johnston falls are a succession of Col. J. R. L. Macdonald was in command of rapids and cataracts, known to the natives as an exploring expedition that left England in Mambilima. June, 1897, for operations in the neighborhood Steps have been taken to preserve the inscripof Uganda. The work had to be abandoned for tion that was cut into the tree that marked the nine months when the Uganda protectorate was place where Dr. Livingston died. After the intelthreatened by the revolt of the Soudanese troops, ligence was received in London that the tree was and the whole strength of the expedition was so decayed that it must soon fall, Mr. R. Codring. turned in to the support of the Government. In ton was deputed to visit the site of Chitambo's May, 1898, after the loss of 33 per cent. of the village and bring away the section of the tree Europeans, 60 per cent. of the escort, 43 per cent. bearing the inscription. The journey appears to in transport, and 15 per cent. in Swahilis, the have been rather difficult. Å folding boat enexpedition was reorganized. Meantime some abled Mr. Codrington to cross the Loangwa, the work had been done in Uganda toward rectify. Molembo, and the Lohombo. Near Chilenga he ing and filling out the maps. Lake Choga was crossed the Muchinga
crossed the Muchinga range, the path leading to found to be much larger than had been supposed a height of 4,950 feet. The tree, which is of the and to be one of the minor reservoirs of the Nile. kind called mpembu, was found to be hollow and A large lake-Mpologoma-was heard of, but not too old to produce seeds. The inscription has visited, east of Choga. Major H. H. Austin had been partly effaced by borers. It stands: charge of a column to explore the vicinity of Lake Rudolf. Col. Macdonald advanced with another column into Karamojo, west of Lake Ru
DR. LIVINGSTONE dolf and the unknown regions beyond, which were a blank on the map. Mount Debasien is de.
MAY 4, 1873 scribed as a magnificent rocky mountain rising to several well-marked peaks, the highest of which
. . . . . . ZA MNIASERE is 9,700 feet above the sea. Mount Moroto rises 10,000 feet.
UCHOPERE The Karamojo people are of great stature, and have the reputation of being very warlike. Col. Macdonald says: “ The women have perhaps more fence was built round the stump of the tree, latitude allowed them than in most African tribes, a space for 60 yards around was cleared, and a as marriage is not merely a matter of barter. sealed bottle buried within the fence. If the girl objects to marrying her suitor, her During the exploration of the Zambesi and its refusal is absolute and settles the matter. The tributaries by the expedition under Dr. Karl Peters ancient ruins were found by Leonard a chief, who conversed intelligently about their Puzey near the Muira, a southern affluent, in customs in the forest and the number of the Portuguese territory. They consisted mainly of tribesmen. Both men and women, except for a great circular walls, rising in places where they tiny strip of bark, were quite nude. The men were least broken to a height of 12 to 15 feet. were armed with poisoned arrows. The chief Dr. Peters says: “The whole of the ruin is built told me the tribes were nomadic, and never slept after the general ancient Semitic pattern. The two nights in the same place." Most of these cyclopean wall skirts the hill about halfway be- people have the normal negro features, some to tween the bottom and the top; on the top of the an exaggerated degree, although the color is debuildings the hoarding place and likely the temple scribed as inclining rather to various shades of were standing. The remains of a ground wall brown and red, or chocolate, than black along the edge of the top lead me to believe that The Ngoko, a western branch of Sauga river, a second wall formerly ran around the platform which forms a part of the boundary between itself. To explore the ruin properly it will be German and French territory in western Africa, necessary to send a scientific expedition with a was explored this year by Dr. Pleyn. The Ngoko proper outfit for such excavations. The débris is formed by the junction of the Bumba and the has to be removed, and this, I am sure, will take Ja, respectively 100 and 150 yards wide at the considerable time. Why the old conquerors chose confluence. The Bumba is a swift stream, with this spot for their fort is easy to see. The Muira rapids and a fall, which stopped the progress of touches the bottom of the hill, so water was the explorers. It is in about 2° 30' north latihandy. A second river we have discovered at tude and 14° 30' east longitude. Ascending the the back of the ruin. From the top they had Ja, the larger stream, Dr. Pleyn found at first an outlook over the wide plain before them, a few small villages; then for four days he passed while they had the bulk of the Fura massive at through an uninhabited country. Wooded hills their back. From their own fort they commanded bordered the river, some of them rising 2,000 feet the plain as well as the mountain. I have called above it. Then a lakelike expansion of the river the hill on which the ruin stands after its dis was reached, and above it a narrow gorge with coverer, “ Puzey Hill.?”
several rapids. Up to this point the stream is Besides gold, Dr. Peters claims to have dis- navigable for large river steamers. Above it not covered mica, saltpeter, and diamonds in a dis- even the canoes could be used; but the river was trict practically uninhabited at an altitude of examined to some distance above, where it again 8,000 feet, and, he believes, easily capable of culti- broadened to about 150 yards. Rubber abounds vation. He thinks Fura and Ophir are forms in the forests that cover the country, and eleof the same name, and that this may be the phants are numerous. They are hunted by wanOphir of Scripture.
dering tribes, but the resident population is very Major Gibbons, who ascended the Zambesi, scanty. found some inaccuracies in existing maps of the The Committee on Colonial Agriculture in Berlin region. Mr. J. E. Moore, another explorer, found sent a mission in charge of Herr Schlechter to the greatest depth of Lake Nyassa to be 430 West Africa to study the cultivation of the rubfathoms. Near the junction of the Lulua and ber plant in that region. He found that the forKasai rivers Mr. Verner, an American mission- ests where it once abounded in Lagos now show ary, found a series of lakes, formed by the ex- but few of the trees, and he believes that its pansion of tributary rivers. He named one Laps- day is over there unless measures are taken by ley pool, after the founder of the mission, and the authorities to preserve it. He collected seeds another after United States Senator Morgan, who for introduction into the Cameroons. was United States representative in Brussels M. Perregaux has made explorations in Ashanti. when the Congo State was recognized. Dr. Cu- A singular story, given in dispatches from West reau has surveyed the Nile-Congo watershed. M. Africa to the French Cabinet Council, is given Wauters has completed a map of the Congo in the London Times of Sept. 20, 1899, an abState. Herr Von Elpons, commandant of the stract of which follows: "Čapt. Voulet, of the German station at Langenburg, ascended Mount French marines, who had acted with Capt. ChaRungwe, the highest summit of the region north- noine, a son of Gen. Chanoine, Minister of War west of Lake Nyassa, the height of which he in the Brisson Cabinet, in the Gurunsi-Mossi found to be 10,200 feet.
country in 1897, desired to explore with his forAlbert B. Lloyd, an English traveler, spent mer comrade the country between Say and Lake three weeks in 1898 in the forest in the heart Chad assigned to France by the last agreement of Africa inhabited by the pygmies described by with England. They were authorized to underDu Chaillu and Stanley. For the first five days take this expedition in July, 1898. In October he was without sight of a pygmy; but suddenly they were at Jenne, in the Massina country. he became aware of their presence by mysterious From this point Capt. Chanoine started to cross movements among the trees, which he at first the region inclosed in the great bend of the river, attributed to monkeys. Finally he came to a while Capt. Voulet descended the stream by way clearing and stopped at a village where there of Timbuctoo. The parties met at Sansanne was a great number of the pygmy people. “They Hausa, about 90 miles above Say, early in Janutold me," he says, “ that unknown to me they ary, and, after spending two months in reorganhad been watching me for five days, peering izing their forces, they left for Lake Chad in through the growth of the forest. They appeared March. A lieutenant attached to the mission, very much frightened, and even when speaking named Peteau, lodged charges of cruelty against covered their faces.” Such was their timidity the officers in command with the French authorithat it was difficult to get good photographs; ties, and a preliminary inquiry was directed. The but Mr. Lloyd finally succeeded in obtaining a details have not been made public, but a prima. considerable number, showing the little people facie case against Capt. Voulet and Capt. Chaboth singly and in groups. The measurements noine appears to have been made out to the satismade by Mr. Lloyd show not one over 4 feet in faction of the French resident and the commanheight. The men have long beards, reaching half- dant of the eastern Soudan. As a result of the way down the chest. “They are,” adds Mr. inquiry, Col. Klobb was directed to proceed from Lloyd, "fairly intelligent. I had a long talk with Kayes, where he was then stationed, to join the mission, take over the command, investigate the a few hundred yards from the camp. Their bodies charges, and, if these were proved, to place Capt. were afterward found by the post commander at Voulet and Capt. Chanoine under arrest. In the Say. On the same day a soldier who had exexecution of these orders Col. Klobb, who was pended 124 cartridges in a skirmish had his brains accompanied by a young lieutenant named Meu blown out, by order of Capt. Voulet, for having nier and a small escort, marched to Sinder, on wasted his ammunition. On Jan. 13 the mission the Niger. On July 10 he received news of the burned Sansanne-Hausa, a city of 10,000 inhabitmission, and dispatched four men of his escort ants and an active commercial center. On the with a message to its chiefs. The message was 14th 3 spahis, a regular soldier, and 2 auxiliaries delivered on the evening of July 12, and on the charged a native, who, in defending himself, following morning Capt. Voulet, according to the wounded the regular. The auxiliaries, being account of the survivors, sent the messengers armed only with lances, did not dare to pursue back to Col. Klobb with a letter, bidding them at the native. For this negligence they were shot the same time inform the colonel that he was without trial as soon as they returned to camp, about to move to the next village to obtain by order of Capt. Chanoine. An entire village water. Col. Klobb showed the letter to Lieut. was burned. At Libore, on the 17th, 2 prisoners Meunier, and at once sent a second communica- were brought in and taken before Capt. Voulet, tion to Capt. Voulet, who received it on the even- who ordered them to be shot. At the same time ing of July 13. Capt. Voulet immediately called 2 soldiers brought 2 freshly cut hands to the chief his native noncommissioned officers together and of the mission. From that time forward the told them that the colonel was coming to set practice of cutting off the hands of the massafree the prisoners he had given his men. He cred natives became general. All the men who asked them whether they would obey the colonel brought these sanguinary evidences of murder to or fire upon him. They said they would take the officers' mess table were rewarded. On the their orders from the captain, and then went 24th Capt. Chanoine lost by surprise 6 spahis among their men and instructed them to fire when killed in an engagement. Pursuing the aggressors, they got the command. Capt. Voulet sent a he came across the inhabitants of a neighboring second letter and a third, in which he declared village, who had taken refuge in the brushwood. that he would not give up his command; that He made 20 prisoners, cut off the heads of 10 of he had 600 rifles under his orders; and that he them and had them stuck on poles. During the would treat his superior officer as an enemy if march of the mission Sergeant Major Laury and he continued to advance. Col. Klobb gave orders some of the soldiers armed with staves struck that if the mutineers fired their fire was not to those who did not march quickly. The carriers, be returned. When the two forces were about recruited by chance, were in many cases old and 150 yards apart, Capt. Voulet being the only feeble. Some fell out, and the soldiers cut off officer present with the mutineers, he called out their heads. Sometimes Sergeant-Major Laury to Col. Klobb that he knew well enough who executed them himself with his revolver. All was before him and that there was no mistake, these acts were committed in a peaceful country but that he would fire if the colonel advanced. where the inhabitants were not hostile to the The colonel answered that he would advance, but mission." that in no circumstances would he fire, and he A journey by M. Fourneau through the less repeated his orders to this effect in the hearing known lands of French Congo led from Wesso, of Voulet. The chief of the mutineers formed on the upper Sauga, Feb. 14, 1899, to the Gabun, up his men and ordered them to fire three volleys June 10, through at first a sparsely populated, and then to fire independently. Col. Klobb and swampy region abounding in elephants; afterLieut. Meunier were both wounded—the latter ward through a wilderness, where rubber trees fatally-at the first discharge. The second volley were abundant, and among villages of the Bakilled the colonel, but not until he had again kotas. They reached the divide between the forbidden his men to return the fire and ordered Congo and Ogowé systems, examined the Mamthe survivors to report at the nearest French bili, an affluent of the Mossaka, the Ivindo, the post. Capt. Voulet seems to have completed Abombe, the Jadie, the Niona, and the Bokowe. his butchery by a bayonet charge. Happily, the M. Fourneau favors the establishment of a rapidbush was at hand, and the native escort of the transit route from the Gabun either to the Sauga murdered officers knew how to avail themselves by way of the valley of the Jadie or to the Mosof it. By Aug. 3 the survivors had made their saka by way of the valley of the Mambili. way back to Garu, on the Niger, where they were A journey across the Sahara south of Algeria met by Lieut. Cornu, whose dispatch has just was undertaken by F. Foureau as explorer and reached Paris."
Count Lamy as military commander, and at last The cruelties charged against Voulet and Cha- accounts was proceeding successfully, though noine, which led to the sending of Col. Klobb, fears for its safety had been entertained. The are so horrible as to be almost past belief. Fol. expedition consisted of 180 Algerian soldiers, belowing is a part of the statement credited to an sides the officers, and carried 1,000 camels. From officer who had left their mission: “On Jan. 8, southern Algeria the way led by Temassinin, 1899, a native who was met by some soldiers de- across the Tassili plateau, the western portion of clared that he did not know the road toward which is 5,700 feet in height. The region is essenthe east. He was brought before Capt. Voulet, tially volcanic. The divide between Atlantic and who ordered his head to be cut off. Reconnoiter. Mediterranean waters is 4,690 feet high. The ing parties sent out on the night of Jan. 8 were route by way of the Air oasis, which was taken ordered to capture his village, kill all the natives by the expedition, is said not to have been tray. who resisted, bring away the rest as captives, ersed before since 1849, when it was taken by and take the heads. On the morning of Jan. 9 Barth. At last accounts the explorers had reached a reconnoitering party returned to camp with Lake Chad. 250 oxen, 500 sheep, 28 horses, and 80 prisoners. Dr. F. Weisgerber has made a journey through Some of the soldiers having been killed or wound- the interior of Morocco, visiting places rarely or ed, Capt. Voulet said that an example must be never seen by Europeans; and Dr. Theodor made. He ordered 20 women, mothers with young Fischer explored the valley of the Tensift river children and babes, to be killed with lances at in Morocco, heretofore almost unknown.