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Arctic Regions.-Nothing definite or satis- concerned, the outer part being in the main as factory has come from Prof. S. A. Andrée, who given on the map. It narrows instead of widenset out for the pole on a balloon voyage July 11, ing toward the inner end, which lies 2° of longi1897. (See Annual Cyclopædia for 1897, page tude farther east than the map indicates. It is 336.) A small cork case was found in Norway in thus much smaller than it is represented, and June, 1899, containing a slip of paper signed the Petermann spitze is probably only two thirds * Andrée," saying that all was well, but by the as high as Payer supposed. The southern branch date it appeared that it must have been thrown of the fiord east of Payer spitze, found to be a out only eight hours after his departure. In sound, and named the Antarctic Sound, from the April, 1898, a report came from a mail carrier in name of the vessel, led to a hitherto unknown Alaska saying that one of his carrier pigeons had fiord, very large, which was called King Oscar's been found, with a message to the effect that he fiord. It stretches southward to Davy Sound, and was on land in northern Alaska, but this seems sends two branches eastward, connecting it with to have been a fraudulent report. In January, the sea. On the western side it sends two branches 1899, came another statement that a heap of into the interior; of these, the southern divides ropes and other material had been seen on an into two branchlets, the northern into three. inaccessible ice floe between Iceland and Green They extend nearly as far west as the interior land in July, 1898, which might have been the of Franz Josef fiord. The fiords were mapped, as wreck of the balloon. Still another unauthenti- was also the interior of Hurry inlet. cated report came from Siberia, where the wreck Walter Wellman, who made an attempt to of a balloon and the bodies of three men were reach the north pole in 1894, set out again in said to have been found in January, 1899. A June, 1898, with a more carefully prepared exbuoy found Sept. 11, 1899, on the north side of pedition. He returned this year, reaching Tromsö King Charles island, northeast of Spitzbergen, 80° Aug. 17, 1899, on the steamer Capella. The party, latitude and 25° east longitude, was opened at in which were a scientific staff and a number of Stockholm, Oct. 2. It was found that the buoy Norwegians, reached Franz Josef Land July 27, was the so-called "north pole buoy ” which the 1898. Three days later they were at Cape Teexplorer was to have dropped when passing the gethoff, latitude 80°, on the coast of Hall island, north pole. A later telegram says: “At the ex- in the eastern section of the group, where they amination of the buoy Capt. Svedenborg, who landed and put up a house for winter quarters, was present at the ascent of the balloon, said that called Harmsworth House, and here the main the ring of the buoy did not seem to be made fast. party wintered. But an expedition was made as The buoy, therefore, could not have been let down far north as 81°, and an outpost was established by means of a cord. It was then opened. First there. A house was built of rocks and roofed of all the copper cover fixed to the rim under- with walrus hides, to which they gave the name neath the buoy was sawed off, and some sea Fort McKinley. This was on Wilczek Land. Two sand fell out. A copper head with a tube of the Norwegians-Paul Björvig and Bert Bentzen, same material attached was then taken out. In the latter of whom had been with Nansen in the side this was some water. The copper tube was Fram-were left there, while the main party rethen sawed off. In the lower part of the tube turned to Cape Tegethoff. In February Mr. Wellwas an India-rubber plug, and on it a little sand. man went northward with 3 Norwegians and 45 Inside the tube was a coating which seemed to dogs, and reached Fort McKinley Feb. 28. Here resemble paper, but which a microscopical ex- he found that Bert Bentzen had died two months amination showed to be the growth of algæ. before, and during all that time his companion, Prof. Nathorst declared that the buoy could not who had made a compact with him that if either have been carried from the pole to King Charles should die the survivor would not bury him till island. Capt. Svedenborg expressed the opinion help came, had kept the body beside himself in that the buoy had been thrown out empty. Prof. the little house. He said he had managed to Montelius said it had not been shown that the keep up his spirits by 'reciting Ibsen's poetry. buoy had been thrown out empty. The upper “Pushing northward through rough ice and part was not further unscrewed. Prof. Nor- severe storms, with a continuous temperature of denskjold said that a search would be made next ten days between 40° and 50° below zero, the year at King Charles island."
party found new lands north of Freedom island, A dispatch from St. Petersburg in October gave where Nansen landed in 1895. By the middle of an account of a scheme to send to the frozen March all were confident of reaching latitude 87° seas one of Russia's new ice-breaking steamers, or 88°, if not the pole itself. Then began a sucthe Yermak, to force a way through the ice. “On cession of disasters. Mr. Wellman, while leadthe Yermak's first voyage she encountered drifting the party, fell into a snow-covered crevasse, ice in the Baltic. This ice was about 5 feet thick, seriously injuring one of his legs and compelling and there was not the slightest difficulty in get- a retreat. Two days later the party was aroused ting the Yermak through this obstruction, as at midnight by an icequake under them, due to she went comparatively easy at 9 knots, the pressure. In a few moments many dogs were engines working slowly. Before going into the crushed and the sledges destroyed. The members ice the vessel had been slowed down to 10 knots, of the expedition narrowly escaped with their so as to reserve the powers of the engine-room lives, though they managed to save their sleeping staff for the harder work which was to come. bags and some dogs and provisions. Mr. WellThe worst piece of ice encountered was estimated man's condition became alarming, and the Norat 25 feet thick, and the ship went nearly wegians dragged him on a sledge, by forced through this formidable obstruction before she marches, nearly 200 miles to headquarters. After was brought up by it. The greatest depth of reaching headquarters other members of the exfield ice reported by Dr. Nansen is 12 feet.”
pedition explored regions hitherto unknown, and Dr. A. G. Nathorst led an expedition to east- important scientific work was done by Lieut. ern Greenland to search for Andrée, but found Evelyn B. Baldwin, of the United States Weather no traces of him. Some valuable observations Bureau; Dr. Edward Hofman, of Grand Haven, were made. The Franz Josef fiord was found to Mich.; and A. Harlan, of the United States Coast be quite different from its representation on the Survey. The expedition killed 14 bears and many German map, as far as the interior of the fiord is walruses."
Another polar expedition was on its way to 16 of the latter. In July the ice showed signs the north when Wellman's was returning. They of opening. The ship got free on Aug. 2 of this met on Aug. 8. This is led by the Duke of the year. She steamed south, and on the 12th, just Abruzzi, nephew of King Humbert of Italy. It a year from parting with the Hope, she met the left Archangel in the Stella Polare for Franz Diana at Etah. All the supplies landed by the Josef Land, provided with dogs and balloons, and latter were stored, and Peary went to Cape York consisted of a force of guides and sailors besides in her, gathering dogskins and sleds for his exthe duke and three naval officers.
pedition next spring. Last winter was the coldest Lieut. Peary's steamer, the Windward, arrived in the arctic in his experience. The thermometer at Newfoundland on its homeward voyage in dropped to 70° below zero, though there was September. The highest latitude reached was 82o. no snow or storms. Kane Basin did not empty The winter quarters were at Allman Bay, and of ice during the season.” excursions were made thence in various direc- In making an excursion from Fort Conger totions, especially northward, in order to place ward the northern extremity of Grinnell Land stores of provisions. In all, 4,000 pounds of pro- the explorer's feet were badly frost bitten, and visions, including meat for dogs, were left at the seven of his toes had to be amputated in conseprominent headlands along the west side of the quence. This disaster interfered with his plans
for work. Buchanan Strait, so called, was found to be a closed bay. Ellsmere Land and Grinnell Land, as it
seems, form one great island. X Lockwood farthest point
The supposed Hayes Sound May 1853
was found to have no existence.
Capt. Sverdrup, whose plan C.Braunard
was to supplement the explorations of Nansen in Greenland, wintered with the
Fram about 50 miles south LAND
of Peary's ship, at Cocked Hat island, just within Cape
Sabine. The explorations seem Lockwood
to have been confined to Ells
mere Land. The surgeon, Dr. ARTHUR
Svensen, died during their absence.
In an expedition to east Greenland Lieut. Amdrup explored and mapped the southern half of the coast between
Augmagsalik and Scoresby Parrish Glacier
Sound. At 67° 15' north he
found the remains of a setJohn Evans
tlement of Eskimos. Within
and about the ruined huts Summit of Ice Caps
were skeletons of the unfor4700'
tunates, who, as was conjecLOCKYER L.
tured from the implements Bay
and bits of clothing found, Harptsworth
had migrated to the spot
about thirty years before, Lake Seen by
and probably had died of an Eskimo Hunter's
An account came from TaMti Carey
coma in September, 1899, of
a very successful scientific Sands Glacier
journey in the arctic regions, e Sabine
accomplished with a very simple outfit and with much
smaller means than usually A PORTION OF GRINNELL LAND.
go to the fitting out of arctic
expeditions. The dispatch channel separating Grinnell Land from Greenland. said: “A. J. Stone, corresponding member of the “At Fort Conger, Greely's old headquarters in Museum of Natural History in New York, study. Lady Franklin Bay, Peary found the Greely house ing the geographical distribution of animals, has and its contents just as left by his predecessor just finished a two years' trip about the arctic fifteen years ago, with the table set for the last circle in quest of mammals and information remeal. He also found all the property left by garding various tribes of natives that inhabit that Greely's people, including many relics of pre- section, often without companions save a solitary vious expeditions, all of which he removed with native and a team of dogs. During five months great care and had transported to the Windward. of last winter he covered 3,000 miles of arctic Peary made one trip from Fort Conger to Beechy coast and mountain travel above the arctic cirCape, on the confines of the polar sea. After cuit. This performance breaks all records of prespending April in crossing Ellsmere Land, Peary vious arctic land travels. The best previous efworked south in May and June, hunting walrus fort was that of McClintock, who traveled 700 and musk oxen, securing 100 of the former and miles in one hundred and forty-five days.
"In his quest for information and search for and an abundance of penguins. The antarctic rare mammals Mr. Stone was very successful. land they found to be entirely mountainous, abLeaving here in July, 1897, he went up the solutely glaciated, covered with snow and ice. Stickeen river into the Laird river country. While In some places where the cliffs were too precipihe was there his native guides deserted him, and tous for ice and snow to lodge were found lichen he was left alone in the midst of the Hell Gate and moss." Indians, who endeavored to steal his outfit. He The British expedition under Borchgrevinck, stopped on the way down Mackenzie river to mentioned above, was organized by Sir George traverse a large area of the Rockies in the vicin- Newnes, and sailed in The Southern Cross for ity of the arctic circle. From Fort McPherson, Cape Adare in December, 1898. Terrific storms the Hudson Bay Company's most northern trad- were encountered. Three of the party ascended ing post, he again crossed the Rockies, went down the glacier to a height of 700 metres. At the foot the delta of the Mackenzie river, and traveled of the mountain they discovered a great vein of west along the arctic coast to Hereshall island. quartz, presumably containing gold. In FebruLater he explored the Mackenzie delta thorough-ary the ship returned to Australia. ly, thence reaching Yukon by way of the Porcu- A German expedition for deep-sea exploration pine river."
on board the Valdivia, under the leadership of * Explorations have been made in Iceland by Prof. Chun, returned from antarctic waters April F. W. W. Howell, who made the first crossing of 30, having left Cape Town Nov. 13, 1898. The the Lang Jökull this autumn with his party, two following paragraph from the official report gives of whom were from Merton College, Oxford, and an idea of the general results of the soundings: two Icelanders of Reykjavik. Dr. Thoroddsen has “ The great depths encountered since leaving completed his explorations in Iceland, which have Bouvet island [the Valdivia passed along the extended over many years.
edge of the ice to a point near Enderby Land] Antarctic Regions.-The Belgian expedition must be looked upon as one of the most surpristo the antarctic returned in March, 1899, having ing results of the expedition. Of the 17 soundleft Antwerp Aug. 16, 1897. The following is ings taken on the southward voyage, no less than from an account given to a representative of 11 showed depths between 2,700 and 3,300 fathReuter's agency by Dr. Arctowski, geologist of oms, and only 1-in the immediate neighborhood the party:
of Bouvet island—was under 1,700 fathoms. This “The Belgian expedition entered the antarctic series of soundings, the first of such completecircle from the opposite direction to that in which ness in antarctic waters, very greatly modifies the British expedition under Mr. Borchgrevinck our conceptions of the form of the ocean bed in is now working, Lieut. Gerlache with the Belgica the far south. Only 15 soundings had previously going via Cape Horn and the South Shetland been made south of 50° south; the Valdivia added Islands, while the British expedition started from 29, and showed that, instead of being a relatively Hobart for Victoria Land. Dr. Arctowski said shallow basin, the southern Ocean is of very their first object was to make a voyage in the great depth. In one respect, indeed, the great antarctic, but beyond this there was on starting depths did not lend themselves to the carrying no definite programme. It was intended to ex- out of the plans of the expedition. Twelve hours amine the various scientific conditions. On leav- are necessary to make a successful haul of the ing Staten their object was to go direct to the dredge at depths approaching 3,000 fathoms-a south and to explore in the region of Grahams- very long time in the uncertain weather of these land and Palmer Land, on which no landing had latitudes, where a sudden change might mean loss been made since their discovery in the early part of gear and danger to life.” The ocean floor beof the century. On Feb. 13, four weeks after tween Enderby Land and Kerguelen is deeply furleaving Staten island, they left the newly discov- rowed, depths of 1,300 fathoms alternating with ered land which they had named Danco Land, and those of 2,000 to 3,000 fathoms. in three days sighted Alexander I Land. On the Bouvet island, one of three sighted by Bouvet, 28th the Belgica ran into the antarctic ice pack. Lindsay, and Norris, is described: “The sharp The temperature fell, and the Belgica stuck fast. outline of a steep island clothed in antarctic ice For a whole year she remained immovable, and and desolation showed clear about 7 nautical for the first time human beings prepared to spend miles distant. The first impression of this land, a winter in the antarctic. They had expected to which had remained unseen for seventy-five years, winter in the south polar region, but they had and eluded three expeditions, was that of a steep hoped to do so on land. They were, however, and lofty slope on the west and north, on which unable to find land on which to establish a depot, a magnificent glacier descended to sea level, and and had to remain on the ship. They spent the a vast snow field above sinking gently to the winter in scientific work. All of them suffered a south and ending with an ice wall at the sea; the good deal during the antarctic night, owing to summit of the island was covered with clouds. defective circulation and heart trouble. All pulled The island fell steeply to the sea, and at a disthrough except Lieut. Danco, who succumbed to tance of 3 to 4 nautical miles depths of 200 to heart failure in June of last year, and his re- 300 fathoms were found, in which 5 hauls of the mains were buried beneath the ice. The only dredge were made with the result of an extraorother member of the expedition to lose his life dinarily rich collection of animal life. Every was Carl Wiencke, a Norwegian sailor, who was group of marine organisms, except fishes and lost overboard between Staten island and the ant stalked crinoids, was represented. The center of arctic. At the beginning of the present year they Bouvet island is in latitude 54° 26.4' south and began to cut a channel through the ice for the longitude 3° 24.2' east. Its length from west to Belgica, and after much hard work they cut a east is 5.1 nautical miles, and from north to passage 900 metres in length. Unlike the arctic, south 4.3. A photograph shows a wide, sharply the antarctic has no land animals. The only indented crater wall sloping gently to the sea on signs of life they found on land were very small the south and east. The other sides are much insects, which were discovered among the pen- steeper, the northeast cape being a prominent guin rookeries. In the water there was plenty of cliff. The highest point of the rim of the crater life. There were far more seals than in the north (3,067 feet) was named Kaiser Wilhelm peak; polar regions, a great quantity of small whales, the northernmost of the 5 projecting angles of the island was named Cape Valdivia. The whole sums equal to those raised by private subscription island is covered with one vast glacier, which up to £45,000. reaches sea level on the gently sloping southern America.-Several expeditions for exploring and eastern sides, where it forms an ice wall 400 Alaska have been sent out by United States aufeet high. Both Bouvet and Lindsay had re- thorities-four by the geological survey and two ported trees on the island, but no trace of vegeta- by the army authorities. The Coast and Geodetic tion could be seen from the Valdivia. Animal life Survey examined the Yukon delta, finding a depth also seemed to be extremely sparse. Cape pigeons of water in one of the southern channels, herewere the most abundant birds; other antarctic tofore little known, sufficient to allow the passage forms were not common. It is noteworthy that of ocean vessels. the white petrel, deemed by Ross the surest sign Near the close of 1898 the discovery was reof the proximity of ice, was first seen by us ported of a mountain more than 20,000 feet high while cruising off Bouvet island.” Fragments of —therefore higher than St. Elias-on the right granite, gneiss, and schist were found, which had bank of the Suchitna river, in Alaska. The leader been broken off and brought away by icebergs. of the party from the Geological Survey making
Two important expeditions are to undertake the discovery, G. H. Eldredge, proposed to call it the exploration of antarctic regions. They are Bulshae, a word spoken in exclamation by the to be sent out simultaneously by England and Indian guide when he first saw the peak. Germany. In an address at the International The volcanoes of the eastern Aleutian Islands Geographical Congress at Berlin, in September, are spoken of by Mr. J. Stanley-Brown as preSir Clements Markham, President of the Royal senting an interesting field for exploration. Geographical Society of London, outlined the Mount Shishaldin, on Umniak island, is a splengeographical work that will be before the expedi did snowy peak, nearly 9,000 feet high, now in a tions. He considered the region as divided into state of gentle eruption. Another mountain on four quadrants—two on the Australasian side the same island has about the same size and has and two on the Cape Horn and Cape of Good a crater. On Akutan island is also an active volHope side. The first quadrant, from 90° east to cano, and other partially active ones are in the 180°, includes Victoria Land, and he gave it the vicinity. name Victoria. It presents for examination, he D r. Francisco P. Moreno, who began exploring says, Adelie and Sabrina Lands, supposed to form the Andean regions of the Argentine Republic the coast of a continuous continent. Besides this in 1882, has continued his work almost without question is the one whether the land from Cape intermission since that time. From 1882 to 1895 Ādare, in 71° 18' south, to Cape Washington, in he explored the region from parallel 23° to 34°; 74° 37' south, is continuous with the Victoria in 1896 he returned to Patagonia by the slopes Land of Mounts Erebus and Terror, or whether it of the Cordillera and the interior to Lake Buenos is an island. The second quadrant, 180° to 90° Ayres, in 46° 30'. In 1897 his work was in the west, he calls the Ross quadrant, since Cook and Patagonian region between the Straits of MaRoss alone have penetrated it beyond the seven- gellan and parallel 51°, and in examination of tieth parallel. It contains the continuation of several of the western fiords as far as Puerto the ice barrier, and a principal aim of the ex- Montt, in latitude 42°. In 1898 he ascended the pedition would be to ascertain its extent and the Santa Cruz river for the second time, and travoutline of the continental land on the Pacific side. ersed the territory along the eastern slopes as The third quadrant, from 90° west to the meridian far as Lake Nahuel Huapi and Puerto Montt. of Greenwich, includes the winter quarters of In a paper read before the Royal Geographical Gerlache, islands seen by Bellingshausen, Biscoe, Society in May, 1899, he gave results of his oband Larsen, and the part of the southern ocean servations, illustrated by very beautiful photoin which Weddell penetrated to 74° 15' south. graphs. He says that Patagonia does not merit This Weddell quadrant “invites discoveries of its bad reputation; that it has a vast field worthy peculiar interest, including the southern side of of active effort, and a healthy soil capable of Graham Land if it proves to be an island, and supporting a large population. Noting the corstill more valuable discoveries if it is found to respondences between the configuration of North be a promontory extending from continental America and that of South America, he says that land." The fourth quadrant, from the meridian the broken plains and the plateaus of New Mexico of Greenwich to 90° east, is the least known. In and Arizona find their analogy in the Argentine it the seventieth parallel never has been crossed, northern plateaus and in the table-lands of Pataand distant land on the antarctic circle has only gonia ; that “the ice-bound plains of Canada find been sighted—namely, Enderby Land and Kemp modest companions in the extreme south, and Land. This he calls the Enderby quadrant, the picturesque fiords and white mountains of though he suggests that it might receive the Alaska" are copied in those of Patagonia. He name Valdivia, after the German ship mentioned describes the lakes along the eastern side of the above, which sailed along near Enderby Land great mountain axis in a depression parallel to in 1899. This quadrant was entered by Biscoe the Cordillera. Some of these lakes discharge in 1831, when he discovered Enderby Land. Capt. their waters into “ the monotonous Atlantic Cook just crossed the antarctic circle in 1773, rivers; others reach the Pacific in impetuous toras did Moore in 1845 at nearly the same place, rents, which cut through the whole mass of the and the Challenger in 1874. All to the south of Cordillera.” He says: “ This phenomenon of a the antarctic circle in this quadrant is absolutely dividing line of waters flowing into opposite unknown. It is suggested that two of these four oceans, which partly rise in plains and glens divisions—the Weddell and Enderby-might be hardly higher than the level of the sea, and which taken for the work of the German expedition, overcome such formidable obstacles as the Anand the other two for the English.
dean Cordillera, piercing its crystalline axis and The English Government declined to undertake the enormous mass of rocks that have accumuthe enterprise, and funds amounting at that time lated upon this axis, constitutes, in my opinion, to £40,000 had been raised by subscription; of a fact which is unique in the world." This longithis, £25,000 was given by Llewellyn W. Long- tudinal depression contains the most fertile lands staff, a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, of Patagonia. The Government is constructing and the Government afterward decided to grant a railway, starting from the port of San Antonio, which is on the Gulf of San Matias, in the other travelers in this region were Oscar von northeastern part of Patagonia, and running Fischer and Franz Steeger, engineers sent by the westward to the Pacific. In June it will be Chilian Government to open a road from the opened as far as the junction of the Limay and valley of the Cochamo by the upper course of Neuguen rivers with the Negro on its way to the Manso to the Valle Nuevo. Three passes were Nahuel-Huapi, the most lovely lake in South explored, two in the region of perpetual snow, the America. Surveys and plans are making for irri- other, the one most suitable for the road, covgation works, that will easily change the desert ered with snow in winter. aspect of a large portion of the country. Dr. News has been received of the discovery by Moreno has charge of the museum at La Plata, Dr. Steffen of three large rivers flowing into the establishment of which is due to him. (See Baker channel on the western coast of Pataengraving in Annual Cyclopædia for 1898, page gonia, the largest of which, called Rio Baker, 19.)
he ascended about 45 miles, when a waterfall The first report of the second Princeton expedi- stopped navigation. An affluent was ascended tion to Patagonia was published in November, and found to be the outlet of Lake Cochrane. The
1898. The expedition explored the country in- other rivers were called Rio Bravo and Rio de la land and northward 800 miles from the Straits Pascua. The former seems to be fed from glaof Magellan, adding much to our knowledge of ciers on Mount Cochrane. the geography of the country, and discovering The expedition to survey the Pilcomayo was, at the base of the Andes a beautiful lake 30 miles it is reported, massacred by Indians of the Chaco, in length, not previously reported, which might on the borders of the Argentine Republic and be called Lake Princeton. In addition to consid- Paraguay. This region has been peculiarly diserable collections of the arts and manufactures astrous to explorers seeking the sources of the of the tribes inhabiting these regions, a splendid river. A Buenos Ayres paper of Dec. 6, 1897, series of photographs was secured and a fairly said: “Misfortune and disaster have overtaken complete dictionary of the Yahgan language com- all those who have had the temerity to approach piled. The chief work of the expedition was the Pilcomayo and lay hands upon the mysterigeological.
ous veil that hides its sources from view; in witDr. Paul Krüger, in a recent expedition to ness thereof are the bleached bones of the illChilian Patagonia, discovered that the Futaleufu fated Crevaux expedition, the fatal ending of river, which he found in 1898 not to be connected Capt. Page, and the nonsuccess of Fontana, with the Corcovado, as had been supposed, is Storm, and others. Under the shadows of these identical with the Yelcho, a great river having a somber precedents the intrepid explorer Ramon large delta with many channels and a very rapid Lista organized an expedition, and started for upper course.
the mysterious region round which cling so many