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objects. Both tombs were less rich than might have been anticipated judging from the care exercised in their construction. A third tomb built between these two, of much less elaborate finish, was extremely rich in funerary furniture, and contained the skeleton of a woman holding a bronze mirror in her left hand, and in her right heavy cymbals of the same metal. The left wrist was hidden under a bracelet of pearls, scarabei, and little images. On the right arm were several silver and ivory rings. The figures were loaded with silver rings and a gold ring with four cynocephali engraved on the bezel. The left ear bore a golden pendant, with a tau cross. On the neck was a large necklace of massive gold, made of forty differently shaped parts, symmetrically disposed on either side of a central piece representing a turquoise crescent, resting upon a disk of jacinth. Besides these were another silver necklace, an aryballus, a figured Corinthian alabaster, a large enameled flask covered with gold leaf, a


statue of polychrome faïence in the Egyptian style, disks of painted ostrich eggs, shells filled with purple paint, vases, and a lamp.

Cyclopean Ruins on the Muira River.-Dr. Karl Peters reports the discovery of cyclopean ruins near the great Kraal Inja-ka-Fura, on the Muira river, a southern tributary of the Zambesi. They are situated on a hill running parallel with the western of the two mountains through which the Muira cuts its way, and which the author calls after his own name, Mount Peters. The ruins consisted of ancient ground

walls, an ancient cyclopean wall, partly fallen to pieces, running "in a mighty circle round the slope of the hill to the right and left, and forming with the hill what is designated as a courtyard; and a ground wall worked into the natural rock that formed a sort of flat floor, and which had formed part of a building. The stones of this ground wall were heart shaped and worked with a pick. The whole of the ruin was built after the general ancient Semitic pattern. The ruin is ascribed to the old conquerors, who chose here in the Fura massive a very commanding position for their fort. A second ruin was found a few days later by Dr. Peters's companion, Mr. Leonard Puzey, west northwest of the first, on another head of the same ridge looking over the plain in the same direction. Bronzes from Benin.-In the course of the punitive expedition by the British Government to the city of Benin to avenge the massacre of British subjects a number of remarkable bronze panels were discovered. Having been sent home to England by Sir Ralph Moore, the majority of them have been presented by Lord Salisbury to the British Museum. The designs upon the plaques are apparently of native origin, but testify to contact with Europeans. A number of figures of Europeans are represented, and in such situations as imply friendly relations with the negroes, whether in sport or on occasions of ceremony. The native traditions as to the origin of these works as collected by Sir Ralph Moore and Mr. Roupell are to the effect that when the white men came a man came with them who made brass work and plaques for the king, stayed a very long time, had many wives but no children, and was given plenty of boys to teach. The panels are supposed to have been made about the middle of the sixteenth century. Other metal objects in the round are included in the collection. Among them are two human heads, over each eyebrow of which are four vertical cicatrices, and two bands between, which, with the pupils of the eyes, have been inlaid with iron. A number of carved tusks and other objects of ivory exhibit superior workmanship, but are associated with Portuguese emblems.

Japan. Dolmens in Japan.-A careful examination of the rude stone monuments of Japan and of the sepulchral chambers termed dolmens has led Mr. W. Gowland to conclude (Transactions and Proceedings of the Japan Society, Vol. IV, Part III, 1899) that they were built by the ancestors of the present Japanese. The aboriginal inhabitants were apparently the Ainos, who occupied the whole country until they were driven back to the north by a more powerful race. Whence came the invaders from whom the present Japanese have descended is not known, and the dolmens afford little information on this question. No dolmens have been found in China, and those which occur in Korea differ entirely from those in Japan. In fact, Mr. Gowland points out, it is not until, in passing westward through Asia, the shores of the Caspian Sea are reached that dolmens similar to the Japanese kind are found, and for more closely allied forms the search must be extended to western Europe. The approximate date of the end of the dolmen period is regarded as lying between 600 and 700 A. D., and of its beginning about the second century B. C. Mr. Gowland shows that "the period during which the dolmens were built in Japan was characterized, from its beginning to its close, by a well-developed civilization and a culture which had advanced far beyond the limits of barbarism, and was, in fact, the birthtime of


the ornamental arts; that the builders of the dolmens were the ancestors of the present Japanese; that during this period the clans of the race had driven out the aborigines from the richest portion of the country, had become a settled and united people, and had made great progress in both the arts and industries."

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC, a federal republic in South America. The legislative power is vested in the Congress, consisting of a Senate of 30 members, 2 from each province and the federal district, and a House of Representatives, numbering 86, 1 to every 20,000 inhabitants. The President and Vice-President are elected for six years by popular vote. One third of the Senators and one half of the Representatives are elected every two years. Gen. Julio A. Roca was inaugurated as President on Oct. 12, 1898, and Norberto Quirno Costa as Vice-President. The Cabinet of ministers appointed by the President was as follows: Minister of the Interior, Dr. Felipe Yofre; Minister of Foreign Affairs and Worship, Dr. Amancio Alcorta; Minister of Finance, Dr. José M. Rosa; Minister of Justice, Dr. Oswaldo Magnasco; Minister of War, Gen. Luis Maria Campos; Minister of Marine, Commodore Martin Rivadavia; Minister of Agriculture, Dr. Emilio Frers; Minister of Public Works, Dr. Emilio Civit.

Area and Population.-The area of the republic is 1,778,195 square miles. The population increased from 1,736,922 at the census of 1869 to 3,954,911 at the census of May 10, 1895. The population at the latter date consisted of 2,088,919 males and 1,865,992 females. These figures do not include 30,000 uncivilized Indians, 60,000 unenumerated, and 50,000 Argentinians residing or traveling abroad. Buenos Ayres, the capital, has 753,000 inhabitants; Rosario, the next largest town, 94,025. The number of immigrants in 1897 was 72,978; of emigrants, 31,192. Of the immigrants, 21,431 were females. The total included 38,745 Italians, 13,059 Spaniards, 7,813 French, and 1,876 Germans. The total number of foreignborn residents in 1895 was 886,895, of whom 492,636 were Italians, 198,685 Spanish, 94,098 French, 21,788 English, 17,143 Germans, 14,789 Swiss, 12,803 Austro-Hungarians, 2,269 Portuguese, and 32,184 of other nationalities.

Finances.-The revenue in 1897 was $30,466,322 in gold and $61,035,853 in paper; expenditure, $29,214,763 in gold and $93,427,502 in paper. For 1898 the revenue was estimated at $34,759,146 in gold and $52,918,000 in paper, and the expenditure at $22,100,182 in gold and $97,881,111 in paper. The budget estimate of revenue for 1899 was $32,423,500 in gold and $67,540,600 in paper. Of the gold revenue, $28,099,800 come from customs. The estimated receipts in paper are $18,000,000 from alcohol, $8,849,400 from tobacco, $13,868,400 from other taxes, $5,900,000 from sanitary works, $2,000,000 from land taxes, $7,314,600 from stamps and licenses, $4,543,900 from posts and telegraphs, $4,120,000 from sales and leases of land, $2,000,000 from bank profits, and $944,000 from other sources. The total expenditure for 1899 was estimated at $29,070,173 in gold and $75,782,687 in paper. The items are $17,299,711 in paper for the interior and Congress, $237,441 in gold and $249,792 in paper for foreign affairs, $6,872,114 in gold for finance, $22,746,732 in gold and $11,249,408 in paper for the debt, $10,331,466 in paper for justice and public instruction, $14,027,582 for war, $11,256,614 for marine, $6,086,000 in gold and $4,400,000 in paper for public works, and $96,000 in paper for new ministries. For 1900 revenue

was estimated at $45,981,000 in gold and $67,122,000 in currency; expenditure at $32,947,000 in gold and $95,447,000 in currency. The external debt in July, 1898, amounted to £61,900,352 sterling, not counting £9,994,098 new bonds to be issued. Of these, £6,746,030 were for conversion of the Buenos Ayres provincial debt, £1,378,968 for conversion of the debt of Buenos Ayres city, and £1,819,100 for commutation of railroad guarantees. The internal debt amounted to $189,162,500 payable in gold and $45,838,067 in paper in 1896, since when a popular loan of $39,000,000 has been raised to increase the army and navy and $6,000,000 of bonds have been issued to discharge a debt for education. The floating debt is about $39,000,000.

The actual revenue in 1898 reached $35,000,000 in gold and $49,000,000 in currency. The receipts for 1899 showed in the beginning of the year an increase of nearly 25 per cent., owing to a new tax on alcoholic liquors, and the revised estimate made the total $47,000,000 in gold and $62,000,000 in paper. Congress in 1898 authorized a sterling loan of £6,000,000, for which, however, satisfactory proposals could not be obtained. In regard to the provincial debts, the National Government has offered to pay the interest on all national bonds acquired by the provinces when the loans were first made. Of the heavily indebted provinces, Entre Rios and San Luis concluded an agreement with their European creditors in January, 1899. The National Government sought to induce Santa Fé and Cordoba to do the same, and before the end of the fiscal year the debts of all the provinces were arranged. At the opening of Congress, on May 1, President Roca urged in his message the necessity of placing the currency on a sound basis by making notes convertible for gold, so as to avoid the fluctuations that have injured the general commerce in the past; and to accomplish this he proposes to accumulate a strong gold cash reserve, by this means gradually improving the value of the currency until it reaches par. The amount of inconvertible paper currency in circulation on June 30, 1899, was $292,000,000.

The debts of the various provinces were converted and assumed by the Federal Government on similar terms to those made originally in respect to the debt of Buenos Ayres. The Federal Government, for example, handed over to the creditors of Entre Rios $14,000,000 of 4-per-cent. gold bonds for the purpose of canceling the outstanding provincial obligations, and to the creditors of Cordoba $11,000,000 of 4-per-cent. bonds to extinguish $27,000,000 of provincial 43-percent. bonds, recovering from each province the sums required for the annual service of the debt in a similar manner to that provided for in the case of Buenos Ayres. The assumption of the provincial debts, in addition to the extraordinary obligations incurred in anticipation of war, has increased the liabilities of the Government in ten years from $120,000,000 in gold to $469,000,000. The amount of the external and internal debt of the National Government on June 30, 1899, not including $25,000,000 of floating debt, but including the settlement of the claims of the Transandine Railroad Company and the bonds for the Cordoba and other provincial debts not yet delivered, was $443,991,768 in gold, requiring for the annual payment of interest and sinking fund $27,760,211 in gold, equal to $7 per capita, and requiring over 38 per cent. of the total federal revenue. Notwithstanding the improved financial outlook, the best terms that the Government could arrange for the new loan of £6,000,

000, which was finally concluded in May, were an issue price of 90, less 1 per cent. commission, with interest at 6 per cent. în gold and a sinking fund of 1 per cent., the loan being secured on the alcohol tax. The external obligations of the provinces, which have now been assumed by the National Government, were originally contracted under the free banking law of Nov. 3, 1887. The proceeds of the various loans were deposited in gold in the care of the National Government, which issued 4-per-cent. gold bonds for the amount; and these were delivered to the conversion bureau, where they were retained as security for the note issue of the various provincial banks. The gold was sold by President Juarez Celman, and thus the security for the 41-per-cent. bonds disappeared. The National Government for a long time repudiated responsibility for the bonds, placing its argument on the ground that it had acknowledged liability for

the note issues.

The Army and Navy.-The authorized strength of the regular army is 29,513 officers and men. The actual strength in 1898 was 945 officers and 12,073 men. The National Guard embraces all able-bodied citizens, and numbers about 480,000. Young men are called into camp every year from the age of twenty for the period of two months, and receive a careful military training.

The navy contains the old armored cruiser Almirante Brown; the small coast-defense vessels Libertad and Independencia; 5 new belted cruisers of 6,880 tons, the Garibaldi, San Martin, Pueyrredon, Gen. Belgrano, and Rivadaria, built in Italy for the Italian and Spanish governments, each armed with 2 10-inch guns mounted for an elevation of 40°, besides 10 6-inch and 6 4.7inch quick-firing guns; the protected cruiser Nueve de Julio, of 3,575 tons displacement, capable of making 22 knots with natural draught; the second-class cruiser Buenos Aires, of 4,500 tons, which has made more than 23 knots without forced draught; 5 converted cruisers, obtained from the Italian and Spanish commercial marine; and the destroyers Corrientes, Missiones, and Entre Rios, built in England, with a contract speed of 26 knots. Their sister, the Santa Fé, has been lost.

Navigation.-The number of vessels entered from abroad during 1897 was 10,363, of 6,064,064 tons, of which 6,827 were steamers, of 5,522,973 tons, and 3,536 were sailing vessels, of 541,091 tons.

The merchant marine in 1898 numbered 86 steamers, of 31,976 tons, and 157 sailing vessels, of 39,695 tons.

Commerce and Production.-The cultivable area is estimated at 240,000,000 acres, of which only 15,000,000 are now tilled. There are 5,500,000 acres devoted to wheat, the crop of which in 1897 was 1,500,000 tons. Sugar cane occupies about 82,000 acres. Vineyards in 1895 covered 71.135 acres, producing 42,267,000 gallons of wine, 10,582 tons of raisins, and 478,800 gallons of alcohol. The number of cattle in 1895 was 21,702,000; of horses, 4,447,000; of sheep, 74,380,000; of goats and other animals, 3,885,000.

The gold value of imports in 1897 was $98,289,000, and of exports $101,169,000. The imports of animal products were $2,425,759; of vegetable products, $12.896,503; of beverages, $7,728.705; of textile goods and apparel, $30,449,912: of oils and minerals, $3,215.057; of chemicals, $2,985,231; of colors and dyes, $626,000; of timber and wood manufactures, $4.985,698; of paper, $2,642,984; of hides and leather, $904,638; of iron and iron

manufactures, $16,986,023; of other metals, $2,508,530; of glass and crockery, $8,011,029; of various articles, $1,922,879. The exports of animals and animal products were $74,044,525; of agricultural products, $23,336,369; of forest products, $1,918,241; of mineral products, $164,989; of products of the chase, $587,863; of various articles, $1,117,312. The export of beef and mutton was 91,374 tons; of wool, 205,571 tons; of sheepskins, 37,077 tons; of wheat, 101,845 tons; of corn, 374,942 tons. The imports of gold and silver in 1897 were $663,378, and the exports $4,936,088. The business of exporting live stock and meat to the European markets, especially England, has grown so rapidly in the course of the last six years that sheep and cattle have latterly been bred for their flesh rather than for wool and hides, as was formerly the practice. The Argentine exports of live animals now compete successfully with those of the United States and Canada, and the trade in frozen mutton compares favorably with that of Australia and New Zealand. The rich pastures of the river Plate are succulent during the whole winter, and are never dried up in summer like the grazing lands of Australia. The importation of fine bulls and rams from England and France has greatly improved the breed of cattle and sheep. The first shipments of live animals were made in 1889. The shipments for the first six months of 1899 were 116,000 steers and 341,000 sheep, besides 805,000 frozen carcasses. This includes the trade with Brazil, but not the large herds driven over the Andes for sale in Chili. The average weight of bullocks exported to Europe is 1,500 pounds. This market and the Liebig factory of extract of beef on the river Uruguay absorb the native breed of cattle to the extent of about 300,000 animals yearly, which are worth only a third of the price of the better bred cattle. The old longhorned breed is only raised in the remote districts, and even there a slight intermixture of Durham or Hereford blood is found. In the principal grazing districts breeders have not only graded up their cattle till they are all three quarters or seven eighths Hereford or Durham, but have greatly increased the capacity of the land for fattening stock by sowing alfalfa. The land adapted for this forage crop is practically unlimited, and with the extension of its cultivation at the present rate the country in the course of five years will be able to support 50,000,000 head of cattle, and double this number in five years more. The herds are allowed to graze in the alfalfa fields, and some rancheros prepare them for export by feeding corn. Animals unsuitable for export are converted into dried beef for the Brazilian and Cuban markets in the saladeros, in which 1,360,000 were slaughtered in the first six months of 1899. Butter and cheese are not yet manufactured on a large scale, but considerable shipments of butter have been made to Brazil and more recently to Europe. The number of sheep in the country is at least 85,000,000, consisting of the merinos and merino grades that formerly preponderated everywhere, and Lincolns, Oxfords, Leicesters, and other mutton sheep now bred for export in the live state and as frozen mutton. The bulk of the wool is shipped to the Continent of Europe, but the coarse long grades are worked up in the carpet factories of the United States. Horses and mules have not been bred extensively, but in the last three years the British Government has purchased the remounts for its cavalry in South Africa in Buenos Ayres. New regulations for the shipment of live stock, published on May 25, 1899, provide

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Communications.-There were 9,270 miles of railroad in operation in 1897. The capital was $510,643,296 in gold, of which $56,331,063 represented national, $83,859,062 provincial, $113,311, 995 guaranteed, and $257,141,178 private lines. There were 16,044,389 passengers and 9,001,559 tons of freight transported in 1897.

The length of telegraph lines is 25,345 miles, with 59,060 miles of wire. Of the total, 11,023 miles, with 23,572 miles of wire, belong to the Federal Government; 7,070 miles, with 18,717 miles of wire, to railroads; 4,428 miles, with 7,462 miles of wire, to telegraph companies; and 2,824 miles, with 9,309 miles of wire, to other concerns. The number of messages in 1896 was 4,953,887.

The post office in 1896 forwarded 177,641,000 pieces of mail matter, of which 24,947,340 were international. Postal and telegraph receipts were $30,069,799; expenses, $27,169,020.

Political Affairs. The long-standing dispute between the Argentine Republic and Chili over the boundary line in Patagonia was by mutual agreement submitted on Sept. 22, 1898, to the arbitration of the British Government. Another question of boundaries arose in respect to territory in the north, the district of Puña de Atacama, formerly a part of Bolivia, which Chili claimed by right of conquest during the war against Peru and Bolivia and the Argentine Republic by virtue of cession by Bolivia subsequent to that war. This dispute was referred to an international commission, with William I. Buchanan, the United States minister at Buenos Ayres, as arbitrator, which met on March 20, 1899, and in three days concluded the delimitation, recognizing part of the Argentine and part of the Chilian boundary lines, and dividing the disputed territory between the two states. A colony of Welsh settlers, who have built irrigation works, has done more for the agricultural and pastoral development of the Argentine part of Patagonia than the Argentine people have themselves. The success of this foreign colony has impelled the Argentine Government to undertake the construction of railroads giving access to the interior of Patagonia. The federal authorities also recognize the necessity of establishing colonization laws which will prevent the alienation of large blocks of land in this territory, and will encourage immigration and settlement by facilitating the acquisition of small farms. When the war cloud that has hung over the country for many years was lifted by the definite agreement with Chili for the settlement of the boundary dispute the military agent in Europe, who was contracting for Krupp cannon, was instructed to change the order, and take railroad material instead. Having averted the danger of war and stopped the large expenditures for war material that for several years have been the cause of heavy additional taxation and the piling up of debt at home and in Europe, President Roca has an opportunity of studying the reduction of

taxes, the improvement of the police, and the question of the administration of justice, which he described in his message as having fallen into such discredit that the material progress of the country demands better guarantees for life, property, and general rights. Another problem is that of an immigration policy that will attract people from Europe to the vast fertile areas that are adapted in every way for settlement. The Federal Government is hampered in its efforts to bring about reforms in the police and the ju diciary by the limitations to its powers over these institutions set by the national Constitution, which gives absolute autonomy in local affairs to the fourteen states of the republic, which are extremely jealous of their rights, and resent any interference of the national authorities in matters belonging to the local administration. The intervention of the Federal Government is legal only for the prevention of a disturbance of public order or for the purpose of remedying any infraction by one state government of the constitutional rights of another. After the provincial elections of March 26 in Buenos Ayres the President saw fit to intervene in a local quarrel to put an end to a deadlock. Dr. Irigoyen, the Governor, refused to recognize the candidates who were declared elected to the provincial Legisla ture, declaring that their election was obtained by fraudulent practices. The local Chambers, however, asserted that the Governor had no authority to decide the matter, and, after scrutinizing the returns, declared the various candidates legally entitled to their seats. Dr. Irigoyen then placed the legislative hall in the care of the police, with orders that no person be allowed to enter. As all sittings of the Chamber were thereby forcibly suspended, the federal authorities decided to take possession of the capital for the purpose of inquiring into the merits of the quarrel and restoring a republican form of government. The federal commissioner charged with the investigation decided that the elections were void on account of fraud, and on May 26 issued a decree ordering a fresh ballot. One of the first measures brought before Congress was a bill to facilitate judicial procedure. Owing to the antiquated constitution of the judiciary, the federal and the provincial courts were clogged with tens of thousands of cases awaiting trial or judgment. The increase in the revenue resulting from new taxation and the expansion of the import and export trade, with the cessation of warlike expenditures, prompted the mercantile community, which is largely composed of foreigners, to begin an agitation for the reduction of taxation. The total revenue-national, provincial, and municipal-amounts to about $250,000,000 a year, or $62 per capita. The surtax of 10 per cent. on the customs tariff, imposed to provide ways and means to prepare for the eventualities of a war with Chili, was continued in force, and new taxes had recently been placed on alcohol and other articles of consumption. The merchants of Buenos Ayres in a monster petition prayed for the reduction of duties, the revision of tariff valuations, the fixing of taxes for a term of three years, and the reform of the commercial code, especially in regard to the laws of insolvency. A commercial treaty with the United States was negotiated and signed in July, according to the provisions of which Argentine wool, hides, and sugar are admitted at minimum tariff rates into the United States in return for reciprocal advantages extended by the Argentine Republic to American canned goods, cereal food preparations, and lumber.

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ARIZONA, a Territory of the United States, organized Feb. 14, 1863; area, 113,020 square miles. The population, according to each decennial census, was 9,658 in 1870; 40,440 in 1880; and 59,620 in 1890. Capital, Phoenix.

Government. The following were the Territorial officers during the year: Governor, N. 0. Murphy; Secretary, Charles H. Akers; Treasurer, F. W. Pemberton; Auditor, G. W. Vickers; Adjutant General, H. F. Robinson; Attorney-General, C. A. Ainsworth; Superintendent of Education, R. L. Long; Geologist, W. P. Blake; Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Webster Street; Associate Justices, Richard E. Sloan, Fletcher M. Doan, George R. Davis; Clerk, Lloyd Johnston-all Republicans.

Finances and Valuations.-The following items are taken from the Governor's message to the Legislature of 1899: The assessed valuation of the taxable property is $31,473,540. The rate of taxation differs in the counties, but the average rate throughout the Territory is $3.50 on the $100, 80 cents of which is for Territorial purposes solely. The bonded and floating debt, Dec. 31, 1898, was $2,680,000. Deducting from this county and city funded indebtedness, leaves a bonded Territorial debt of $1,045,972.43; adding the floating debt, $255,112.73, makes a total Territorial debt of $1,301,085.16; less cash in hands of Treasurer, $161,950, leaves a net Territorial indebtedness of $1,139,135.16.

The total city and county funded indebtedness amounts to $1,634,027.57. The Territory still has bonds outstanding bearing a higher rate of interest than 5 per cent., amounting to $281,000. These can be funded into fifty-year 5-per-cent. refunding bonds. Unless Congress renews the refunding act, no more bonds can be sold to take up unpaid warrants since Jan. 1, 1897.

Education. In February the enrollment at the Territorial University was 130, not including some who are pursuing special studies. The classrooms and dormitories are not large enough for the present attendance.

The Normal School at the same date had 180 pupils, and it graduated 32 in June. A new normal school is located at Flagstaff, in the northern part of the Territory.

The Indian School near Phoenix has about 600 pupils. The Government appropriates to it $140,000. Three new buildings have been added recently. The superintendent's report gives the scholastic population of the tribes immediately adjacent to the school as 8,170. In addition to pupils from these tribes, advanced students are drawn from other Indian schools in Arizona, California, and Nevada.

The New Capitol.-Ground was broken in February for the foundation of the new Capitol. It is to be 84 by 184 feet, and three stories in height. The legislative halls and chambers for the Supreme and Federal Courts will occupy the upper floor.

Fort Whipple.-The Secretary of War issued an order in November for the immediate restoration of Fort Whipple, so that troops may be stationed there as soon as possible. The troubles in the Navajo country had made the people of the Territory anxious to have this important station well manned. It is the only post in the Territory that has railroad communication with the outside world.

Railroads.-The Arizona and Utah road was completed Aug. 16 amid great rejoicing at the camp of Chloride, which the new line brings into closer touch with its markets.

The Territorial Board of Equalization fixed the

valuation of the nine railroads this year at a total of $5,246,018.17.

Public Lands.-The report of the Surveyor General shows that the area of public lands, together with the reserve land appropriated to the Territory, at the close of the year was: Surveyed, 10,887,865 acres; unsurveyed, 41,337,590 acres; total, 52,225,461 acres. There was 99,445 acres granted for Indian reservation patents. The number of mineral and mill-site patents during the year was 36. The report says:

The special deposits made by individuals for office work and stationery in connection with the survey of mineral claims for the year ending June 30, 1899, amounted to $3,945; mineral surveys ordered, 89; locations embraced in said order, 166; mill sites, 4; mineral orders amended, 20; mineral surveys approved, 50; mineral surveys pending, 60; mineral plats prepared, 209; transcripts of mineral surveys, notes, reports, etc., 50.

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"There is a large immigration to Arizona on account of her valuable and almost undeveloped mineral resources. This has created a large home market for agricultural products, and made it possible for a profitable increase in the number of people engaged in agricultural pursuits.

"The lands when irrigated are wonderfully productive, but on account of the cost of transportation of farm products it does not pay to ship them a great distance."

It was announced in June that the decision of the United States Supreme Court in the Algadones land grant case would have the effect of opening for entry a great portion of a very rich valley in Yuma County, which has been held back from prosperity for many years by the uncertainty as to this final decision, which is now rendered in favor of the Government.


The following dispatch was published in April: "Special-Agent Holsinger, of the Interior Department, is about to bring suit for the recovery from a number of mining companies for the value of immense quantities of mesquite wood. estimates that 20,000 cords of mesquite have been cut from the Gila valley in the vicinity of Solomonville and Safford during the last few years, and all of it illegally. It is also charged that the Papago Indians and Mexicans supplying Tucson with wood are daily violating the law. A man may cut mesquite legally for firewood for his personal use, but for anything more extensive he must apply to the Land Office at Washington."

Water Storage. The greatest storage basin in the world is to be built in the mountains, 60 miles from Phoenix. The United States Government has granted to the Hudson Reservoir and Canal Company this basin, known as the "Tonto Basin," to be used as a storage reservoir. The company proposes to build a dam at the head of the cañon, where the river emerges from the basin, thus creating a lake, which will cover 18 square miles to a depth of 100 or 200 feet. It will be necessary to build a dam 200 feet high and some 600 feet in length at the top, although the cañon is only 200 feet wide from the first 100 feet from the bottom. The Territory of Arizona has granted the company the use of the channel of Salt river in which to convey the waters thus stored to the valley, and the stored waters will therefore be turned back into the channel as needed, and conveyed through the cañon for 30 miles to the head of the valley, where the first diverting dam is found. To construct

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