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Richmond, Va.: A memorial unveiled in honor of Miss Winnie Davis, daughter of Jefferson Davis, President of the late Confederate States.

11. Pennsylvania: An encounter between police officers and robbers at Titusville results in the killing of two men and the wounding of several others. New Mexico: An attempt to arrest an Indian malefactor results in a fight, in which six Indians and one white man are killed. Cuba: Gov.-Gen. Brooke issues the first Cuban thanksgiving proclamation.

15. Washington: Secretary Gage announces the intended purchase of $25,000,000 in 5-per-cent. Government bonds.

16. It is announced that two of the great women's temperance unions have decided to unite under one organization.

17. Egypt: A monument to De Lesseps, the engineer of the Suez Canal, dedicated at Port Said. Colombia, South America: Sharp fighting between Government troops and rebels, the Government having apparently the best of the campaign. Columbus, Ohio: At the congress of the National Municipal League a programme for general legislation was adopted.

19. Brooklyn, N. Y.: Resignation of the Rev. Richard S. Storrs, pastor for fifty-three years of the Church of the Pilgrims.

22. Egypt: Decisive battle between the AngloEgyptian troops and the dervishes on the upper Nile, apparently destroying the dervish power; their leader, the Khalifa, is slain.

23. The general assembly of the Knights of Labor passes resolutions denouncing President McKinley.

25. Great Britain officially notifies the nations that a state of war exists in South Africa.

27. Washington: Agreement of the United States with the partition of the Samoan Islands as arranged between Great Britain and Germany. Pennsylvania: An anonymous benefactor gives the university of the State $250,000 to erect a laboratory of physics.

30. Columbia, S. C.: Dedication of a State home for negro boys and girls.

The war in South Africa is still in its preliminary stage. Great Britain is making every exertion to press forward re-enforcements and supplies, but her resources are not equal to the emergency, and the Dutch allies have not only carried the war into British territory, but hold all that they have taken, and threaten to advance still farther toward the principal towns in the British possessions. The situation at the end of the month is so critical that the financial markets of the world are notably affected thereby. December 4. Washington: Congress organizes, with David B. Henderson as Speaker of the House. The Supreme Court in the Addystone Pipe case renders an antitrust decision.

5. The President's annual message is read to both houses of Congress. Chicago: Consolidation of the Pullman and Wagner Palace Car Companies. United States and Guatemala: A parcels post treaty signed.

6. Army: Brig.-Gen. Leonard A. Wood, who has rendered distinguished services of a civil character as governor of Santiago province in Cuba, is promoted major general, and a few days later is made Governor General of Cuba.

7. Philadelphia: It is announced that Peter A. B. Widener has purchased a site on which will be erected a school and hospital for crippled children.

9. Lease announced of the Tehuantepec Railroad to a firm of British contractors.

11. Michigan: Opening of the fifteenth annual

convention of the American Federation of Labor at Detroit. New Jersey: Arrest at Newark of representatives of numerous bogus corporations operating under the State laws, and charged with fraudulent use of the mails.

14. The one hundredth anniversary of the death of George Washington is appropriately celebrated in various parts of the United States. The President delivers an address at Mount Vernon.

17. England: The appointment is announced of Gen. Lord Roberts to the chief command of British forces in South Africa, with Gen. Lord Kitchener as his chief of staff.

18. New York: A notable decline takes place in the money market, and several important failures are announced. The banks come to the relief of the financial situation. England: Volunteers for the Transvaal war come forward in great numbers.

19. Philippine Islands: Major-Gen. Henry W. Lawton, U. S. A., killed in action near San Mateo. 24. Rome: The Pope performs the ceremony of opening the Holy Door at St. Peter's.

28. Washington: The bodies of the men who perished in the Maine disaster, having been brought from Cuba, are buried in the Arlington Cemetery with full military honors.

30. Seizures of German and American ships and goods by the British as contraband of war cause protests on the part of owners.

31. Philippine Islands: A native plot to throw bombs and inaugurate an uprising among the natives in Manila on the occasion of Gen. Lawton's funeral is discovered and frustrated by the military authorities.

The year ends with the Filipino forces so effectually dispersed that the whereabouts of their leader, Aguinaldo, is unknown, while his most trusted officers, and even his own family, are held as prisoners. Nevertheless, a formidable guerrilla warfare continues, necessitating the constant employment of troops for arduous service. In South Africa, at the end of December, the Dutch allies held all that they had gained in the British colonial possessions, and still successfully defied all attempts of the British to relieve the three beleaguered garrisons at Ladysmith, Kimberley, and Mafeking. The British losses to date from the beginning of the war, in October, were 1,027 killed, 3,675 wounded, and 2,511 missing or taken prisoners; total, 7,213. The losses of the Dutch allies are not known.


NATIONAL EXPORT. This exposition, the first of its kind ever held in this country, was opened in Philadelphia Sept. 14, and continued until Dec. 2, 1899.

Origin. Several years ago representative men of the business interests of Philadelphia organized a Commercial Museum, which has been in active operation since 1897. Its objects are to foster and promote, by practical and systematic efforts, and by new, original, and effective methods, the foreign trade of America. Through the heads of its various departments it is in constant communication with more than 20,000 correspondents abroad, through whom it keeps in touch with every phase of international commerce. The museum contains collections consisting of, first, manufactured articles arranged in lines of manufacture; and, second, raw products, which are displayed so as to show the geographical distribution and the development of the subject. It is possible from these collections to show the consuming capacity of any country by the exhibition of the goods that are most salable there, and also to show its producing capacity. A pan-American commercial congress



was held under the auspices of this museum in 1897, which resulted in the placing of orders for American manufactures amounting to several million dollars, and since that time the holding of an exposition has been the ambition of the museum authorities. The preliminary steps that were taken for that purpose in October, 1897, were abandoned temporarily, owing to the war with Spain in 1898, and it was therefore not until December, 1898, that a bill giving the exposition the sanction and support of the National Government was passed by the House of Representatives, although before that time a bill had been put through the Senate. The National Government gave $300,000 to the exposition, contingent upon an equal amount being raised from other sources. Accordingly, $200,000 was appropriated by the Philadelphia City Council, $50,000 by the State Legislature, and $50,000 was raised through private subscription. Later an additional $50,000 was appropriated by Congress for the purchase of samples of foreign goods to enable domestic manufacturers to acquire a knowledge of the style of goods wanted by foreigners, so as to compete successfully in their production.

Officers. The officers of the Philadelphia Exposition Association conducting the National Export Exposition were: P. A. B. Widener, president; W. W. Foulkrod, John Birkinbine, and Sydney L. Wright, vice-presidents; B. W. Hanna, secretary; Sydney L. Wright, treasurer. The foliowing were the officers of administration: William P. Wilson, director general; Edmund A. Felder, assistant director general; J. F. Weissinger, chief clerk; W. A. Raborg, chief clerk, .department of exhibits; W. A. Sullivan, superintendent of terminal service; Frank W. Harold, chief of the department of publicity and promotion; William Buergermeister, German editor; William E. Cash, chief of the departments of admissions and concessions; William Harper, chief of the department of foreign samples; C. A. Green, superintendent of the department of foreign samples; John Birkinbine, engineer in chief; A. M. Greene, Jr., mechanical engineer; C. C. Billberg, electrical engineer; J. H. Stewart, assistant engineer; Edwin Elliot, assistant to engineer in chief; and Charles P. Hunt, captain of the guard.

Grounds and Buildings.-The grounds were on the west bank of Schuylkill river, and included a tract of 56 acres deeded to the Philadelphia museums by the city of Philadelphia, together with a tract of 6 acres secured for temporary use. The main entrance was at the north end of the grounds, on South Street. The exposition was easily accessible from all parts of the city by street-car and steam railways going directly to the entrance.

The main building was 1,000 feet long and 400 feet wide. It included three pavilions, two stories high, and an auditorium with a seating capacity of 5,000. The building covered 9 acres, and the area of floor space aggregated 12 acres. The main entrance was in the north pavilion, which opened into a lobby 60 by 90 feet, beyond which and between the north and central pavilion was the auditorium, 200 feet long and 140 feet wide. On either side of the auditorium were arcades for exhibits, 78 feet wide by 300 feet long. In the auditorium the sessions of the International Commercial Congress were held and concerts were given. The pavilions were of brick and structural steel, and were each 90 by 380 feet. Each was two stories high. The second floor of the northern pavilion was devoted to the offices

of the exposition; the second floors of the other pavilions were given up to exhibits. These constitute the permanent part of the structure, and are destined to become the home of the Commercial Museum. Each entrance to the main building was flanked with pedestals, on which were groups of statuary, representing various industries, and the pediments over the entrances of all of the buildings contained heroic figures, symbolizing various aspects of manufacture and commerce. The walls of the main building were covered with a coating of white staff, and the cornices were of the same material. Around the roof ran an iron balustrade of rich design, and from the numerous staves floated the flags of the nations represented in the International Commercial Congress. The design of the building was by Wilson, Brothers & Co., assisted by G. W. and W. D. Hewitt.

The Implements, Vehicles, and Furniture Building was of the Flemish style of architecture, and had 72,000 square feet of floor space. The outside dimensions were 450 by 160 feet. Inside the finish was similar to that of the main exhibition hall-olive-green pillars and roof trusses, the ceiling finished in the natural color of the wood, and the walls painted in light tints. Four aisles ran lengthwise and six across the building, giving visitors an opportunity to see everything without hindrance. Broad walks and driveways surrounded it, and on the west was an automobile speedway. It was designed by Wilson, Brothers & Co.

The Transportation Building was 450 feet long and 75 feet wide. It was carefully designed by Wilson, Brothers & Co., and was adapted for the exhibits of locomotives and railroad rolling stock, electric cars, and equipment for electric railways. Its trackage, available for exhibits of rolling stock, was connected with the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad, of the Pennsylvania Railroad system.

Amusement Features.-These were grouped on the north end of the grounds, close to the entrance, on an avenue 800 feet long, called the Esplanade. The special attractions were a Chinese village; an Oriental theater, coffee house, and smoking room; an old plantation, Hagenback's trained animals, a glass works in full operation; Chiquita, the Cuban midget; Jim Key, the educated horse; the flag house of Betsy Ross Memorial Association, Edison's electric fairyland, and a cinematograph. Also throughout the life of the exposition two concerts were given daily in the auditorium by eight of the bestknown bands and orchestras in the country, including the United States Marine Band and Damrosch's orchestra. Two concerts were given by the combined banjo, mandolin, and guitar clubs of Philadelphia, and on German day the combined singing societies of Philadelphia were heard in concert.

Opening Exercises.-At Mayor Ashbridge's office in City Hall were gathered, on the morning of Oct. 14, Admiral Sampson and the officers of his fleet, Gov. Stone and his staff, and the officials of the National Export Association, the Commercial Museum, and the Franklin Institute. These, with other distinguished guests, were escorted to the grounds by the marines of the North Atlantic squadron and the United States Marine Band. After the assembling in the auditorium, the first vice-president, Mr. W. W. Foulkrod, delivered an address, turning the exposition over to the Governor of Pennsylvania. He was followed by Director-General Wilson, on the plan and scope of the exposition, who said:


"The purpose of this exposition is to show the foreign consumer what the American can make, and how cheaply and how well he can make it." Gov. Stone, in behalf of the State, then accepted the exposition, and handed it over to the mayor of Philadelphia, saying in part: We are selling our goods in every country on the globe, for the reason, and the only reason, that we sell a better article for less money than any other country can sell. The time has come for us to hoist our flag and proclaim it to the world, and that is the purpose of this exhibition. We invite the world's buyers to be the judge. We want the world's trade, and our demand is supported alone

tion of your most sanguine hopes of the success and influence of this undertaking." This concluded the exercises.

Exhibits. As indicated by the scope of the exposition, the exhibits were confined for the most part to those American products for which a market is sought in foreign countries-electric devices, food products, new articles, and other things in the manufacture of which the United States excels. Of all these the exhibits were of decided interest. The American varieties of automobiles attracted considerable attention. Of conspicuous importance was the special collection of articles gathered for the exposition. Side by side

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by the merits of our products." Mayor Ashbridge then accepted the exposition from the Governor, and then Congressman William P. Hepburn, of Iowa, chairman of the House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, delivered an address. The benediction was pronounced by Archbishop Ryan, of Philadelphia. and at its conclusion a telegraph instrument was moved to the front of the stage and communication was obtained with the White House in Washington. First Vice-President Foulkrod informed President McKinley that the exposition was ready to be declared open. The President at once sent the following message: "The opening of the National Export Exposition marks another important and most gratifying advance in the extension of our trade and commerce, and the promotion of more cordial relations in these respects with other nations. Accept for your self and your associates my hearty congratulations and best wishes for the abundant realiza

were shown, for example, the various forms of head gear worn in different parts of the world. Each display of this character was marked with a card showing where it was made, the cost of production, and the selling price. By a study of such samples a cloth manufacturer, for instance, could see at once what styles and qualities of print cloth are desired in the Philippines, and whether they are sold there at a price that he can meet in competition. This feature of the exposition was unique, and commanded much attention.

Commercial Congress. This was convened on Oct. 12, and was opened by former Senator George F. Edmunds, representing the trustees of the Commercial Museum. He introduced the Hon. David J. Hill, Assistant Secretary of State. who, in behalf of President McKinley, extended to all the delegates assembled, and to all the foreign representatives who participated in the conference, the most cordial welcome of the United States. Subsequently addresses were

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