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courtesy, but a grave social and political question report of the Central Association, in New York, (foreboding much and threatening more). Massa- April 1, 1897: . chusetts has joined hands with us in offering en * The appeals for help from the women of other couragement and assistance to those other States States, who are just awakening to the fact that where the desire is felt to arrest this retrogressive in order to defeat they must oppose woman sufmovement, and from all over the land come words frage in their own States, have been constant of thanks, of help, of indorsement."

and earnest during the year. The most earnest The following document, which was addressed demand for assistance has been from Illinois, and to the Senators and Representatives of the Massa- your Executive Committee has decided that an chusetts Legislature of 1898, will show that the association in Chicago should be started immediantisuffrage sentiment of that Commonwealth ately. If the suffrage question is gaining strength was organized about the same time with that of anywhere, it is in the West. New York, and will explain their methods and « The first important matter undertaken by indicate their progress:

this association during the summer was accom“We the undersigned, members of the Execu- plished by the presence of Mrs. Crannell, of Altive Committee of the Massachusetts Association bany, at the national conventions at St. Louis Opposed to the Further Extension of Suffrage to and Chicago, in opposition to the suffragists who Women, beg leave to bring to your attention a were petitioning for suffrage planks in the platbrief statement of the work of this association, forms of the Republican and Democratic parties. which has 18 branch committees, representing 146 Mrs. Crannell represented not only New York cities and towns. The association was organized State, but Massachusetts and 14 other States. in May, 1895, after the passage of the Wellman “ During the summer our secretary was busy bill. It took the ground that municipal suffrage with correspondence with people in various would involve a danger to the State for which States, who, learning that New York had a large no compensating advantages were shown; that organization opposed to suffrage, desired inforthe present division of labor between the sexes mation, pamphlets, and advice. The most imporwas founded on the laws of Nature and reason, tant part of this correspondence came from Caliand it affirmed that a higher standard of public fornia, the only State which during the year has duty for both men and women must be brought sent the question of suffrage to the people. It about by advance in education and civilization, was defeated at the November elections by a and would be impeded by the complications aris. large majority—83,000 to 57,000—after a regular ing from municipal suffrage for women.'

campaign organized and carried on by some of * Acting on this belief, a standing committee the best known suffragists, who stumped the of more than 100 representative women from Bos- State in every county, and brought every private ton and other parts of the State was organized. and political influence to bear that they could This committee forms the basis of the association, command. The Legislature has since defeated, and chooses annually an Executive Committee. by a vote of 25 to 2, a bill to resubmit the quesFrom the Executive Committee as a center radiate tion. The other States that have defeated woman the branch committees. Each branch committee suffrage during the year are Montana, by the forms a center for neighboring towns, and keeps Legislature, 41 to 27; Nevada, by the Senate, in frequent correspondence with the Executive 9 to 5; Nebraska, by the Legislature, 56 to 36; Committee. Our growth has been rapid, although Arizona, by the Assembly, 13 to 9; Oklahoma our methods are quiet.

Territory, by the House, 13 to 1l; Massachusetts, * We aim to give an opportunity to women by the House, 86 to 53; Delaware, by the Legiswho agree with us to express their convictions; lature, 17 to 7; Maine, by the Judiciary Committo arouse an interest in the subject among those tee, unanimous against; Iowa and Missouri who have not considered it, or who, perplexed by both defeated the question; Connecticut in both statements and appeals from suffragists, which houses; Indiana, the question of the right of do not convince them, are in an undecided condi- women to vote under the present Constitution tion of mind. All are included in our member- taken to the Supreme Court and defeated; in Kanship-professional women, wage-earners, home sas, where women vote in municipal elections, keeping wives, and mothers. We all have the the lower house killed the bill giving them the same needs for good government, for higher stand right to vote for presidential electors. Outside of ards of public life, and for a deeper recognition our own country, in Nova Scotia, the House voted of the fact that the family remains the most 23 to 5 against it; in England, the House of Comsacred, durable, and potent of human institutions, mons 228 to 157; and in South Australia, where and through it must be sought the replenishment women are allowed to vote on most questions, and improvement of society. By lectures and in the Federal Convention rejected, by a vote of formal meetings, by the circulation of literature 23 to 12, an amendment to allow women to vote expressing our convictions, and by giving a con- for members of the House of Representatives. stant and cordial support to whatever encour. The suffragists have gained their point in Idaho ages the true progress and welfare of women, we by a vote of the State, 12,126 to 6,282. The questry to do our part in the great educational move- tion went to the Supreme Court on the ground ment of the day.

that only one half the people voted, but the vote * We believe that it should not be thought was upheld. solely women's work to study this question of “ Within our own State our work has prosuffrage, but that its serious consideration is a gressed more slowly than we could have wished, duty which men owe to their families and to the owing to changes in the Executive Committee, State.

the work done for other States, and the feeling * We gratefully acknowledge the support given that there was no need for anxiety this winter, by previous Legislatures to the claims represented owing to the avowed intention of the suffragists by this association, and we earnestly request a to do nothing here until next year. In May. continuance of careful consideration of the views Auxiliary No. 4, Schenectady, was organized, and of the opponents of the further extension of suf- in February the sixth branch of the central orfrage to women.” [Signed by the Committee.] ganization.

The progress of the opposition movement can “ The Committee on Publications has had the be best traced by quoting from the next annual more important pamphlets and leaflets bound in


volumes, and sent to 50 of the most prominent regarded as representatives of the true opinion public libraries in the State, and has received a of Oregon women upon this vital subject. We large number of letters expressing appreciation also believe that the adoption of this suffrage of the convenience of these volumes for reaching amendment would necessarily lead to serious comthe general public. Our literature has received plications in both the political and social condisome valuable additions through the Albany aux- tions of the State, and that such complications iliary, the Massachusetts Association, and the would be harmful to the State in every way." Remonstrants of Illinois. A very large number In their address to the women they say: “ The of leaflets has been sold or distributed by the entrance of our sex into politics would not raise secretary, especially in other States.

or purify politics; it would only lower women “In January a petition was sent to the Legis- instead. Woman's influence and woman's sphere lature praying it not to strike the word ‘male' are larger now than she can fully use or fill. Our out of Article II, section 1, of the Constitution, true career lies in developing and enjoying what and a set of our pamphlets was sent to every we already possess, not in grasping restlessly for member of the Senate and Assembly. On March a vain shadow of power. The hand that rocks 24 Mrs. Francis M. Scott, with several other mem- the cradle rules the world.'” bers of the Executive Committee, appeared before The main points of the antisuffrage argument the Judiciary Committee of the Senate to protest are the following: against the same change in the Constitution. Recognition of a fundamental difference beMrs. Scott's arguments were listened to with in- tween men and women, which reveals the fact terest, and in spite of the large number of promi- that their Maker has appointed them to different nent suffragists who appeared in favor of their tasks of equal dignity and value. Recognition petition the bill to report the question to the of the fact that the suffrage theory, carried to Senate was killed in committee. On April 14, its natural, inevitable conclusion, would array when a number of us appeared, ready to speak woman against man, and that such a catastrophe for our side in a hearing appointed before the could only end in destruction of every principle Judiciary Committee of the Assembly, we were of human hope or progress. Recognition of the informed that there was no need our being heard, fact that woman suffrage is based on principles as the bill had met the same fate in the Assembly that are at war with a republican form of gov. committee that it had in that of the Senate. This, ernment, and would, if attempt were made to put we think, is really a gain, for when we remember the ballot into woman's hand to any serious exthat two years ago both committees reported tent, endanger the freedom whose first object is favorably, and that Senate and Assembly both now the protection of woman. Recognition of voted in favor of the question going to the people, the fact that woman's progress has been steadi. we have reason to think that our appearance, est and most in accord with Christian civilization with a strong, earnest association behind us to where she has not had the ballot and has least oppose the submission of the question to the desired it. All these positions the women who people, had influence with the committees.”

are carrying on a steady, unassuming work of In the annual report for 1898 work among opposition say they are prepared to maintain by wage-earners was reported which proved that, argument and illustration. save in socialistic-labor circles, the working The secretary of the Central Association is Mrs. woman in New York does not desire the ballot. George Phillips, No. 445 West Twenty-first Street, “ Opposition to woman suffrage was organized in New York. Iowa. Manhattan reported an enrollment of The first published book opposed to woman 2,000, Brooklyn of 900, while in the entire State suffrage was Horace Bushnell's Woman Suffrage: the membership reached into the tens of thou- The Reform Against Nature (New York, 1869). sands. No paper for signatures was circulated at A later and much more comprehensive treatise on meetings among working people or other assem- the subject is Helen Kendrick Johnson's Woman blies gathered to hear our arguments.” This re- and the Republic (New York, 1897). Pamphlets port mentions that for 1899 Manhattan had dis- opposing the extension of suffrage to women have Tributed 13,544 pamphlets, Brooklyn 3,720, and been written by Goldwin Smith, Francis ParkAlbany auxiliary 20,000. On Feb. 22 of that year man, Abram S. Hewitt, Mrs. Schuyler Van Renssea joint hearing was given the association before laer, Francis M. Scott, Rossiter Johnson, Helena the Judiciary Committees of the Senate and As- De Kay Gilder, Edward Drinker Cope, and others, sembly. Before December, 1899, there were anti- and have been printed and circulated by the assuffrage associations (besides those mentioned) sociation. in South Dakota, Washington, California, and ARCHÆOLOGY. American.-The AmeriOregon. Oregon has organized to protest against can Archæological Institute has been very efthe passing of a suffrage amendment that is to ficient in encouraging exploration of antiquities be submitted to the people in June next. In their in Italy and Greece, and has co-operated with the address to the voters the women say:

American schools at Rome and Athens, under “ We believe that only a small percentage of whose direction much information has been systhe women of our State ask for or desire the tematically collected and verified respecting many ballot. Our school elections prove, as do those of the ancient cities and their life and art. For of every State in the Union which permits women the sake of drawing these three institutions to vote at such elections, that the great majority into closer union meetings of their councils or exof Oregon women do not use the ballot even in ecutive committees have been arranged to be held school matters, in which they may be presumed at the same time, or together. Such meetings to take special interest on account of their child were held, May Il to 13, at Columbia University. dren. We believe that the majority should rule The Archæological Institute adopted measures in this as in other political matters, and that a intended to revive interest in American archæsmall though eager minority of our sex should ological exploration, which had been conducted not force the ballot (and its attendant privileges with less vigor within a few years past than of sitting on juries and running for offices) upon before. the far larger number of women who do not de- Indian Remains on the North Pacific sire to vote. We have no quarrel with our suf- Coast.-Researches carried on by Harlan I. fragist sisters, but we protest against their being Smith in connection with the Jesup expedition to the north Pacific coast of America were di- pended very largely upon cedar products, which rected to the archæology of southern British soon decay. The shell heaps of the delta of the Columbia and to the investigation of the shell Fraser river, while in general resembling those heaps of the coast of Vancouver island and of the coast, present several marked differences. of the adjacent mainland. The Salishan Indians Much more black soil, charcoal, and ashes occur now living in the interior of British Columbia, among the layers. The shells are considerably particularly in the valleys of the Thompson and more decayed and mixed with the black soil; Fraser rivers, exhibit many traits that ally their numerous skeletons of two distinct types of men euiture with that of the tribes of the east and are found among the layers. The proportion of differentiate it from that of the coast people. specimens to the extent of the shell® heaps is None of the native peoples in British Columbia vastly greater than in the other localities. A make pottery, and no pottery has been found in stump of Douglas fir more than 6 feet in diameter archæological work. The archeological remains stood on one of the heaps where the layers, occur in the light sand of the valleys and hill- there reaching a depth of more than 8 feet, consides, where the wind is continually shifting the tained human remains. This tree indicates an dry sand from place to place. Hence no definite age for the top layers of more than five hundred age can be assigned to the specimens secured. years, and the bottom layers must be very much Judging from the complete absence of European older. There is no apparent difference in the objects in many of the localities explored, it is character of the specimens found in the recent inferred that the remains found there antedate and in the older layers. The general style of the contact with the whites. Numerous circular de- objects is similar to that of those made by the pressions are found, indicating the sites of an- present tribes on the coast. The two types of cient underground houses. Bits of skin garments skeletons belonged apparently to coexistent peoare preserved. Portions of the clothing and bags ple, as they were excavated from the same layers. that were made of the bark of the sage brush The fact that bodies were found in shell heaps remain in the driest places. Beaver-teeth dice indicates that the customs of this people must like those used by the present Indians, digging have differed from those of the people who stick handles made of antlers similar to those formed the shell heaps on northern Vancouver in use to-day, charred berries, fish bones, and island, or that the former people was subject skin scrapers made of stone were unearthed. The to other influence. The bodies were usually lying graves were found in groups and also singly on the side, with the knees close to the chest. The bodies were buried upon the side, with the Except in rare instances, but few, if any, objects knees drawn up to the chest, were wrapped in a accompanied them. fabric made of sage-brush bark, and were covered Cairns were observed, consisting of irregular with mats of woven rushes. Over the forehead piles of bowlders, from 10 to 20 feet in diameter, and around the neck were strings of beads, of thrown over the body. In most cases the body copper, or of Dentalium shell. At the side, in a was surrounded by a rectangular vault, fornied pouch also made of sage-brush bark, were usu- by placing the straight sides of four or five bowlally found such objects as pieces of glassy basalt, ders toward the body, and covering the cyst thus points chipped out of the same material for made with one or two slab-shaped rocks. Over arrows and knives, a pair of grooved stones, this the rough pile of the cairn was reared. A which were used for smoothing and straightening few copper ornaments were found buried in cairns. arrow shafts, a set of beaver-teeth dice, bone awls The skeletons were usually much decayed. and needles, quantities of red ocher, copper- Relics of the Cliff Dwellers.--The discovery stained clay, and red earth, used for paint. A of extensive ruins of the cliff dwellers and prenumber of war clubs and several small animal historic peoples scattered over considerable figures carved in bone were found. The handles tracts in southern Colorado is reported by Mr. of the clubs were sculptured to represent human Cecil A. Doane, a deputy United States surveyor. heads with plumed headdresses. Several speci- . They are situated in districts which have been mens, such as the stone mortar and the tubular little visited by scientific archæologists. In one pipe, recall the types found in Oregon and Cali- place, west of the La Plata river, an area of fornia. Ethnological investigations have shown about 6,000 or 7,000 acres were dotted with the the affiliation of the recent culture of this region ruins of the stone houses, most of them small to that of the Rocky mountain region. These (family houses), of a people who apparently archæological evidences suggest to Mr. Smith lived by agriculture. Yet no evidences of irrithat this similarity was even greater in the past. gation were observed. Traces of similar former

The most extensive remains of the early in- habitation were found in localities where the habitants of the coast are shell heaps. Their surface is now covered with a dense growth of general distribution may be judged by the fact sage brush and piñon or cedar trees, through that more than 150 were noted in the region, less which it is often difficult to make way. The than 100 miles square, on the shore of the north ruined walls of what must have been a very end of Vancouver island and the mainland op- large structure-massive and measuring 45 by posite. In general they are located at the mouths 90 feet-were discovered in surveying a forest. of fresh-water streams, and are several hundred Large piñon trees were growing within the walls. yards in length by 5 or 6 feet in depth, while a In another locality were found houses of cliff few are miles in length and some are as much dwellers, built high up the rocks, and accessible as 9 feet deep. Stumps more than 5 feet in now only by ropes, reaching down from the tops diameter standing on them indicate a consider- of the cliffs. able antiquity for the lower layers, but few of A number of well-preserved mummies found the layers being more than an inch or two in by a prospector in a sealed cliff dwelling in the thickness. The archæological specimens found upper" Verde cañon had well-developed skulls, in them include points and barbs rubbed out of covered with fine, silky hair, and were bandaged bone, bone choppers for preparing cedar bark, with cotton and woolen cloths of various degrees pebbles with battered ends, such as are used in of fineness, some of it embroidered in open work. à game resembling quoits, and a copper orna. The whole was wrapped in a matting of bear ments. The scarcity of archeological specimens grass. Kernels of corn and bone implements were is accounted for by the fact that the people de- found with them. Small copper bells were discovered in a cliff house on upper Salt river. Ac- sisted in the fact that they showed a building counts of this whole region agree in representing of half-timber construction. Such construction the cliff dwellings and mounds representing the was not entirely unknown at Silchester, as indiruins of former buildings as occurring in very cations of modern partitions in masonry-built large numbers.

houses had been detected, but entire buildings Ăn Ancient Crown.-A part of a golden of this kind had not as yet been found on the crown in the collection of Mr. E. J. Molera, of site. The design of a finely enriched mosaic San Francisco, was taken from an ancient tomb pavement in one of the chambers differed from near the Indian village of Tula. It was rescued the general run of Romano-British mosaics, in from Indians, who were opening the tombs for which variously disposed lines of braidwork form the sake of the treasures they contained, after the most conspicuous portions. In this composiit had been broken into pieces and some of the tion the noticeable features are delicate arapieces had been melted. When whole the crown besques, resembling friezes found among the was a plain circle of gold, beaten to a thickness wall paintings of Pompeii, and a huge scroll of of one eighth of an inch, two and a half inches black leafage on a white ground, strongly rebroad, with a straight edge below, but rising in sembling the leaf borders to be seen on Greek front with a domelike curve to a height of nearly painted vases dated about 300 B.C. five inches. The front and a part of one side are This mosaic was shown at an exhibition of all of it that has been preserved, and this bears Silchester relics held at the rooms of the Socithe stamp of Leopoldo Batres, inspector of monu- ety of Antiquaries, Burlington House, in May. ments for the republic of Mexico. In the same Among the miscellaneous articles exhibited in grave from which this crown was taken a neck connection with it were a mutilated amphora, lace and a lip stone were found. The lip stone without top or feet, found in the same house; is a crystal of remarkable brilliance and work- a pot ornamented by the potter making indentamanship, and the necklace, composed of similar tions with his thumbs in the wet clay; pieces crystals, is also highly finished.

of plaster painted to imitate various kinds of A City on a Hilltop.-In exploring a hill marble; a quern, both the upper and lower stones called Xochicalco, which rises between 300 and of which were found in situ, and an upper quern 400 feet above the surrounding plateau, about stone still retaining its wooden handle; a pair of two days' horseback journey from Cuernabaca, manacles or handcuffs, with a large lock; a wellMexico, Prof. W. H. Holmes observed that the preserved set of hooks, such as might be used surface had been remodeled on all sides so as to for slinging barrels; a little sconce to screw into present a succession of terraces faced with stone. the wall and hold a candle; a "hipposandal," The work was so constructed as to furnish ap- the purpose of which is in doubt; ornaments; proaches by series of staircases of stone. All coins; and a brick or tile, upon which before it the level places were marked by traces of an was baked some workman had scrawled with cient houses, with surrounding courts or plazas, within which large buildings had been erected. France. Caves of Brassempony.--Among One of these buildings or temples was in a good the finds of 1897 in the caves at Brassempony, state of preservation, and was situated within France, recorded by MM. Ed. Piette and J. de a plaza between 300 and 400 feet square. It Laporterie were a horse's head engraved on a rested upon a stone base between 60 and 70 feet vertebra, a seal in champleré, a young bovine square at the bottom and rising to about 20 feet animal raising its foot against an aurochs, two in height, was capped by a heavy cornice stand- other equine figures, the head of a doe engraved ing out like a brim, and was adorned with elab- in champleré on a two-pointed instrument of orate sculptures. The hill was further marked reindeer horn, a number of bones with lines cut with many subterranean chambers or caverns, in them after the manner of runes, and bone some extending 150 feet back, of which those ex- arrowheads with simple linear characters. The plored by the author were walled and plastered. authors remark that man had hardly been in

England. New Discoveries at Silches- stalled at Brassempony under a relatively clemter.—The excavations at the Romano-British ent climate when he invented sculpture. The site of Silchester had been carried on sys- first deposits met with, at the base, in the alley, tematically, at the time the report for 1898 was and in the largest part of the great gallery, conmade, for nine years, and had resulted in the tained human statuettes, and not a single animal exploration of considerably more than half of figure. In this respect the discoveries differ mathe 100 acres within the walls. Operations in terially from those at Mas d’Azil, which are at1898, as described by Mr. W. H. St. John Hope tributed to the same period. before the Society of Antiquaries, had been con- Rome. Relics of the Republic and Kingfined to the southwest corner of the city, where dom.--It was usual in the earlier excavations of an area of 8 acres had been dealt with. This area the Forum to stop when the first remains of a had been found to contain two insula, which had pavement were met, without seeking further to been numbered XIX and XX, and a large tri- find what more ancient remains might be beneath angular space south of them, which appeared to it. Discoveries of any great value regarding the belong in part to Insula XVIII, excavated in early history of Rome could hardly have been 1897. Insula XIX presented the unique feature expected under this method, because all the strucof being completely inclosed by walls. It con- tures of the Forum and the Comitium, with the tained a small house and two other minor build- surrounding edifices, were seriously injured or ings, as well as a well-planned house of the completely destroyed by the fire of Carinus, largest size, built round a courtyard, and having A. D. 283, and were repaired and reconstructed attached to it what seemed to be the remains of under Diocletian and Maxentius. Excavations a tannery. The winter rooms of the house were could, however, have been carried on deeper withwarmed by a series of hypocausts. Beneath the out destroying what might exist at the level by courtyard were laid bare the traces of a still older digging in the gaps and free spaces between the house. Insula XX contained two small houses surface ruins. This plan has been adopted in and a number of other buildings. The interest the most recent explorations under the superin the remains of the older house lying in the intendence of Signor Boni, in which the object courtyard of the large house in Insula XX con- has been kept in view of reaching the early imperial, republican, kingly, or even prehistoric the top of the stone is broken, so as to make strata whenever it was possible to do so with every line incomplete alternately at the begin. out injuring the later or higher structures; ning and the end. The characters in which the and some interesting discoveries have been made inscription is cut are those of the earliest italic of ancient remains under and in front of the derivation from the Chalcidian alphabet. Anpronaos of the temple standing on the site of other evidence of its great antiquity is given by the very ancient statue of Saturn (which was the three vertical dots by which the words are erected after the great fire of Carinus) where separated. This peculiar style of interpunctuathe ruins of the three former structures have tion is to be found only in inscriptions (Attica, been found. A difference of level of 1.8 milli- Laconia, Elis, Argos, Etruria) dating from the metre exists between the Comitium of the kings end of the seventh and the beginning of the and that of the late empire. At the lower or sixth centuries B. C. The stela, Prof. Lanciani older level were discovered a platform of tufa says, shows how exact the early Roman annalists from the lautumiæ 3.64 millimetres wide, 2.66 and historians were when they speak of “leges millimetres deep, on which stood two oblong ped. Regiæ” and public treaties engraved on stone in estals, which proved to be those of the lions men- a language that could not be understood. All tioned by Varro and Dionysius; a conical ped- these documents were supposed to have been lost estal, also of tufa, 0.77 millimetre in diameter, in the Gaulish fire, and this is the only one known standing on a slightly curved plinth, on the west that partially escaped destruction then. Prof. side of the platform; an inscribed stela, slightly Luigi Ceci, of the University of Rome, reads pyramidal in shape, measuring 0.47 millimetre by the inscription and supplies the missing words 0.57 millimetre at the base, and irregularly as follows: broken about the middle of its original height; 1. Quoi Ho[rdas weigead, ueigetod 8]AKROS and a tufa platform, which may possibly repre- T8]ESED. sent the original rostra. These four relics are 2. sordas. sakros sedi. all differently ornamented, and have all been pur- 3. seid IASIAS REGEI Losiba adferad ad rem posely injured and broken by the violence of man. d]EVAM. The deed of destruction was afterward expiated 4. QUOS Rser per mentorem KALATOREM HAPby a sacrifice, the remains and traces of which read endo ada]GIOD, IOUX MENTA CAPIAD, form a layer of votive offerings about half a

DOTA vsovead). metre in thickness.

5. [Ini]M ITE RI K[oised nounasias i]m. In digging through the rude pavement and the 6. QUOI HAVELOD NEQU[am sied dolod mallon, embankment of rubbish beneath it on the line

DIOVE ESTOD. [quoi VOVIOD (sacer Diove separating the Comitium from the Forum, Cava estod). liere Boni came upon an inclosure about 12 feet

His Latin translation is: long and 9 feet wide, screened by a marble parapet on three sides, and paved with slabs of black 1. Qui fordas consecret, consecrato sacellum verTenarian marble. This inclosure with its pave sus [or, ad sacellum]. ment is believed to be one of the structures re- 2. Sordas (viz., qui sordas consecret, consecrato] stored by Diocletian and Maxentius, and there. . seorsum a sacello. fore to have been considered by them impor- 3. Idibus regi liba adferat ad rem divinam viz., tant to preserve. An association is suggested of

of ad sacrificium]. it with a passage in Festus, reading, “Niger 4. Quos Rex per augurem Kalatorem induhapeat lapis in Comitio locum funestum significat." The (viz., consecratum admittat] adagio (viz., same author says that the spot had been selected

carmine] precibus auspicia capiat, dona vofor the burial of Romulus, the founder of the tiva voveat. city, but, as the hero had been bodily carried up 5. Itemque rei (divinæ] curet Nonis ibi. to heaven by his father, Mars, the 'funeral plot 6. Qui auspicio nequam sit dolo malo, Ilovi esto. had been given up to Faustulus " nutricius suus."

Qui voto (viz., nequam sit dolo malo] sacer Dionysius asserts (I, 87) that near the rostra,

Iovi esto. but within the area of the Comitium, a stone lion Prof. Lanciani remarks as the most salient linof archaic workmanship was supposed to mark guistic specialty of this document “ the great the site of the grave of Faustulus. Varro speaks number of words-great in comparison to the of two stone lions guarding, as it were, the grave total—that do not appear in the Latin language." of Romulus in the same corner of the Comitium. Its date is assigned by him to about the middle The remains of the pedestals of both of these of the sixth century BC. It is therefore one cenlions have been found. These discoveries are re- tury older than the Prænestine fibula of Manios garded by M. Rudolfo Lanciani as “ showing how (Corpus Inscriptionum XIV, 4123), and two cenwrong we have been in disbelieving every particu- turies older than the vase of Duenos. Prof. Ceci lar of Roman traditional history previous to the observes, in communicating his version of the inPunic wars, and the inscriptions on the monu- scription to the Italian Minister of Public Inments associated with them, comprising the old- struction, that while he will not say that the disest written documents of Roman history, as the covery of the stela marks the downfall of the most important ever found in Rome." The in modern hypercritical school, especially German, scription on the stela has been studied by Signor“ one thing is certain, it will shake the faith of G. F. Gamurrini, who finds that it was cut in the many who believed blindly in the word of the very early style, called BovotpoPndov, in which Niebuhr and Ihne, and will revive the hopes of the lines run alternately backward and forward, the few who trusted to the authority of Livy, from right to left and from left to right, or, as and had faith in the historical foundation of early the etymology of the word indicates, like the Roman traditions." turning of the oxen in plowing. This style of Explorations were also made in the Basilicas writing was given up by the Greeks before the Æmilia and Regia, and along the Sacra Via. end of the sixth century b.c. The lines in the Greece. New Law concerning Antiquities. present inscription, however, are perpendicular -It having been found that the recognition of instead of being horizontal. They cover the four the landowner's right of property in archæo principal faces of the stone, with an extra line logical finds implied in the old law opened the on one of the flattened corners. Unfortunately, way for abuse, and that extensive thieving was

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