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courtesy, but a grave social and political question (foreboding much and threatening more). Massachusetts has joined hands with us in offering encouragement and assistance to those other States where the desire is felt to arrest this retrogressive movement, and from all over the land come words of thanks, of help, of indorsement."

The following document, which was addressed to the Senators and Representatives of the Massachusetts Legislature of 1898, will show that the antisuffrage sentiment of that Commonwealth was organized about the same time with that of New York, and will explain their methods and indicate their progress:

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"We the undersigned, members of the Executive Committee of the Massachusetts Association Opposed to the Further Extension of Suffrage to Women, beg leave to bring to your attention a brief statement of the work of this association, which has 18 branch committees, representing 146 cities and towns. The association was organized in May, 1895, after the passage of the Wellman bill. It took the ground that municipal suffrage would involve a danger to the State for which no compensating advantages were shown; that the present division of labor between the sexes was founded on the laws of Nature and reason, and it affirmed that a higher standard of public duty for both men and women must be brought about by advance in education and civilization, and would be impeded by the complications arising from municipal suffrage for women.'

Acting on this belief, a standing committee of more than 100 representative women from Boston and other parts of the State was organized. This committee forms the basis of the association, and chooses annually an Executive Committee. From the Executive Committee as a center radiate the branch committees. Each branch committee forms a center for neighboring towns, and keeps in frequent correspondence with the Executive Committee. Our growth has been rapid, although our methods are quiet.

"We aim to give an opportunity to women who agree with us to express their convictions; to arouse an interest in the subject among those who have not considered it, or who, perplexed by statements and appeals from suffragists, which do not convince them, are in an undecided condition of mind. All are included in our membership-professional women, wage-earners, homekeeping wives, and mothers. We all have the same needs for good government, for higher stand ards of public life, and for a deeper recognition of the fact that the family remains the most sacred, durable, and potent of human institutions, and through it must be sought the replenishment and improvement of society. By lectures and informal meetings, by the circulation of literature expressing our convictions, and by giving a constant and cordial support to whatever encourages the true progress and welfare of women, we try to do our part in the great educational movement of the day.

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"We believe that it should not be thought solely women's work to study this question of suffrage, but that its serious consideration is a duty which men owe to their families and to the State.

"We gratefully acknowledge the support given by previous Legislatures to the claims represented by this association, and we earnestly request a continuance of careful consideration of the views of the opponents of the further extension of suffrage to women." [Signed by the Committee.] The progress of the opposition movement can be best traced by quoting from the next annual VOL. XXXIX.--2 A

report of the Central Association, in New York, April 1, 1897:

"The appeals for help from the women of other States, who are just awakening to the fact that in order to defeat they must oppose woman suffrage in their own States, have been constant and earnest during the year. The most earnest demand for assistance has been from Illinois, and your Executive Committee has decided that an association in Chicago should be started immediately. If the suffrage question is gaining strength anywhere, it is in the West.

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"The first important matter undertaken by this association during the summer was accomplished by the presence of Mrs. Crannell, of Albany, at the national conventions at St. Louis and Chicago, in opposition to the suffragists who were petitioning for suffrage planks in the platforms of the Republican and Democratic parties. Mrs. Crannell represented not only New York State, but Massachusetts and 14 other States. During the summer our secretary was busy with correspondence with people in various States, who, learning that New York had a large organization opposed to suffrage, desired information, pamphlets, and advice. The most important part of this correspondence came from California, the only State which during the year has sent the question of suffrage to the people. It was defeated at the November elections by a large majority-83,000 to 57,000-after a regular campaign organized and carried on by some of the best known suffragists, who stumped the State in every county, and brought every private and political influence to bear that they could command. The Legislature has since defeated, by a vote of 25 to 2, a bill to resubmit the question. The other States that have defeated woman suffrage during the year are Montana, by the Legislature, 41 to 27; Nevada, by the Senate, 9 to 5; Nebraska, by the Legislature, 56 to 36; Arizona, by the Assembly, 13 to 9; Oklahoma Territory, by the House, 13 to 11; Massachusetts, by the House, 86 to 53; Delaware, by the Legislature, 17 to 7; Maine, by the Judiciary Committee, unanimous against; Iowa and Missouri both defeated the question; Connecticut in both houses; Indiana, the question of the right of women to vote under the present Constitution taken to the Supreme Court and defeated; in Kansas, where women vote in municipal elections, the lower house killed the bill giving them the right to vote for presidential electors. Outside of our own country, in Nova Scotia, the House voted 23 to 5 against it; in England, the House of Commons 228 to 157; and in South Australia, where women are allowed to vote on most questions, the Federal Convention rejected, by a vote of 23 to 12, an amendment to allow women to vote for members of the House of Representatives. The suffragists have gained their point in Idaho by a vote of the State, 12,126 to 6,282. The question went to the Supreme Court on the ground that only one half the people voted, but the vote was upheld.

"Within our own State our work has progressed more slowly than we could have wished, owing to changes in the Executive Committee, the work done for other States, and the feeling that there was no need for anxiety this winter, owing to the avowed intention of the suffragists to do nothing here until next year. In May Auxiliary No. 4, Schenectady, was organized, and in February the sixth branch of the central organization.

"The Committee on Publications has had the more important pamphlets and leaflets bound in

volumes, and sent to 50 of the most prominent public libraries in the State, and has received a large number of letters expressing appreciation of the convenience of these volumes for reaching the general public. Our literature has received some valuable additions through the Albany auxiliary, the Massachusetts Association, and the Remonstrants of Illinois. A very large number of leaflets has been sold or distributed by the secretary, especially in other States.

In January a petition was sent to the Legislature praying it not to strike the word male' out of Article II, section 1, of the Constitution, and a set of our pamphlets was sent to every member of the Senate and Assembly. On March 24 Mrs. Francis M. Scott, with several other members of the Executive Committee, appeared before the Judiciary Committee of the Senate to protest against the same change in the Constitution. Mrs. Scott's arguments were listened to with interest, and in spite of the large number of prominent suffragists who appeared in favor of their petition the bill to report the question to the Senate was killed in committee." On April 14, when a number of us appeared, ready to speak for our side in a hearing appointed before the Judiciary Committee of the Assembly, we were informed that there was no need our being heard, as the bill had met the same fate in the Assembly committee that it had in that of the Senate. This, we think, is really a gain, for when we remember that two years ago both committees reported favorably, and that Senate and Assembly both voted in favor of the question going to the people, we have reason to think that our appearance, with a strong, earnest association behind us to oppose the submission of the question to the people, had influence with the committees."

In the annual report for 1898 work among wage-earners was reported which proved that, save in socialistic-labor circles, the working woman in New York does not desire the ballot. "Opposition to woman suffrage was organized in Iowa. Manhattan reported an enrollment of 2,000, Brooklyn of 900, while in the entire State the membership reached into the tens of thousands. No paper for signatures was circulated at meetings among working people or other assemblies gathered to hear our arguments." This report mentions that for 1899 Manhattan had distributed 13,544 pamphlets, Brooklyn 3,720, and Albany auxiliary 20,000. On Feb. 22 of that year a joint hearing was given the association before the Judiciary Committees of the Senate and Assembly. Before December, 1899, there were antisuffrage associations (besides those mentioned) in South Dakota, Washington, California, and Oregon. Oregon has organized to protest against the passing of a suffrage amendment that is to be submitted to the people in June next. In their address to the voters the women say:

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We believe that only a small percentage of the women of our State ask for or desire the ballot. Our school elections prove, as do those of every State in the Union which permits women to vote at such elections, that the great majority of Oregon women do not use the ballot even in school matters, in which they may be presumed to take special interest on account of their children. We believe that the majority should rule in this as in other political matters, and that a small though eager minority of our sex should not force the ballot (and its attendant privileges of sitting on juries and running for offices) upon the far larger number of women who do not desire to vote. We have no quarrel with our suffragist sisters, but we protest against their being

regarded as representatives of the true opinion of Oregon women upon this vital subject. We also believe that the adoption of this suffrage amendment would necessarily lead to serious complications in both the political and social conditions of the State, and that such complications would be harmful to the State in every way." In their address to the women they say: "The entrance of our sex into politics would not raise or purify politics; it would only lower women instead. Woman's influence and woman's sphere are larger now than she can fully use or fill. Our true career lies in developing and enjoying what we already possess, not in grasping restlessly for a vain shadow of power. The hand that rocks the cradle rules the world.'"

The main points of the antisuffrage argument are the following:

Recognition of a fundamental difference between men and women, which reveals the fact that their Maker has appointed them to different tasks of equal dignity and value. Recognition of the fact that the suffrage theory, carried to its natural, inevitable conclusion, would array woman against man, and that such a catastrophe could only end in destruction of every principle of human hope or progress. Recognition of the fact that woman suffrage is based on principles that are at war with a republican form of government, and would, if attempt were made to put the ballot into woman's hand to any serious extent, endanger the freedom whose first object is now the protection of woman. Recognition of the fact that woman's progress has been steadiest and most in accord with Christian civilization where she has not had the ballot and has least desired it. All these positions the women who are carrying on a steady, unassuming work of opposition say they are prepared to maintain by argument and illustration.

The secretary of the Central Association is Mrs. George Phillips, No. 445 West Twenty-first Street, New York.

The first published book opposed to woman suffrage was Horace Bushnell's Woman Suffrage: The Reform Against Nature (New York, 1869). A later and much more comprehensive treatise on the subject is Helen Kendrick Johnson's Woman and the Republic (New York, 1897). Pamphlets opposing the extension of suffrage to women have been written by Goldwin Smith, Francis Parkman, Abram S. Hewitt, Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer, Francis M. Scott, Rossiter Johnson, Helena De Kay Gilder, Edward Drinker Cope, and others, and have been printed and circulated by the association.

ARCHEOLOGY. American.-The American Archæological Institute has been very ef ficient in encouraging exploration of antiquities in Italy and Greece, and has co-operated with the American schools at Rome and Athens, under whose direction much information has been systematically collected and verified respecting many of the ancient cities and their life and art. For the sake of drawing these three institutions into closer union meetings of their councils or executive committees have been arranged to be held at the same time, or together. Such meetings were held, May 11 to 13, at Columbia University. The Archæological Institute adopted measures intended to revive interest in American archæological exploration, which had been conducted with less vigor within a few years past than before.

Indian Remains on the North Pacific Coast. Researches carried on by Harlan I. Smith in connection with the Jesup expedition

to the north Pacific coast of America were directed to the archæology of southern British Columbia and to the investigation of the shell heaps of the coast of Vancouver island and of the adjacent mainland. The Salishan Indians now living in the interior of British Columbia, particularly in the valleys of the Thompson and Fraser rivers, exhibit many traits that ally their culture with that of the tribes of the east and differentiate it from that of the coast people. None of the native peoples in British Columbia make pottery, and no pottery has been found in archæological work. The archæological remains occur in the light sand of the valleys and hillsides, where the wind is continually shifting the dry sand from place to place. Hence no definite age can be assigned to the specimens secured. Judging from the complete absence of European objects in many of the localities explored, it is inferred that the remains found there antedate contact with the whites. Numerous circular depressions are found, indicating the sites of ancient underground houses. Bits of skin garments are preserved. Portions of the clothing and bags that were made of the bark of the sage brush remain in the driest places. Beaver-teeth dice like those used by the present Indians, diggingstick handles made of antlers similar to those in use to-day, charred berries, fish bones, and skin scrapers made of stone were unearthed. The graves were found in groups and also singly. The bodies were buried upon the side, with the knees drawn up to the chest, were wrapped in a fabric made of sage-brush bark, and were covered with mats of woven rushes. Over the forehead and around the neck were strings of beads, of copper, or of Dentalium shell. At the side, in a pouch also made of sage-brush bark, were usually found such objects as pieces of glassy basalt, points chipped out of the same material for arrows and knives, a pair of grooved stones, which were used for smoothing and straightening arrow shafts, a set of beaver-teeth dice, bone awls and needles, quantities of red ocher, copperstained clay, and red earth, used for paint. A number of war clubs and several small animal figures carved in bone were found. The handles of the clubs were sculptured to represent human heads with plumed headdresses. Several specimens, such as the stone mortar and the tubular pipe, recall the types found in Oregon and California. Ethnological investigations have shown the affiliation of the recent culture of this region to that of the Rocky mountain region. These archæological evidences suggest to Mr. Smith that this similarity was even greater in the past. The most extensive remains of the early in habitants of the coast are shell heaps. Their general distribution may be judged by the fact that more than 150 were noted in the region, less than 100 miles square, on the shore of the north end of Vancouver island and the mainland opposite. In general they are located at the mouths of fresh-water streams, and are several hundred yards in length by 5 or 6 feet in depth, while a few are miles in length and some are as much as 9 feet deep. Stumps more than 5 feet in diameter standing on them indicate a considerable antiquity for the lower layers, but few of the layers being more than an inch or two in thickness. The archæological specimens found in them include points and barbs rubbed out of bone, bone choppers for preparing cedar bark, pebbles with battered ends, such as are used in a game resembling quoits, and a copper ornaments. The scarcity of archæological specimens is accounted for by the fact that the people de

pended very largely upon cedar products, which soon decay. The shell heaps of the delta of the Fraser river, while in general resembling those of the coast, present several marked differences. Much more black soil, charcoal, and ashes occur among the layers. The shells are considerably more decayed and mixed with the black soil; numerous skeletons of two distinct types of men are found among the layers. The proportion of specimens to the extent of the shell heaps is vastly greater than in the other localities. Α stump of Douglas fir more than 6 feet in diameter stood on one of the heaps where the layers, there reaching a depth of more than 8 feet, contained human remains. This tree indicates an age for the top layers of more than five hundred years, and the bottom layers must be very much older. There is no apparent difference in the character of the specimens found in the recent and in the older layers. The general style of the objects is similar to that of those made by the present tribes on the coast. The two types of skeletons belonged apparently to coexistent people, as they were excavated from the same layers. The fact that bodies were found in shell heaps indicates that the customs of this people must have differed from those of the people who formed the shell heaps on northern Vancouver island, or that the former people was subject to other influence. The bodies were usually lying on the side, with the knees close to the chest. Except in rare instances, but few, if any, objects accompanied them.

Cairns were observed, consisting of irregular piles of bowlders, from 10 to 20 feet in diameter, thrown over the body. In most cases the body was surrounded by a rectangular vault, formed by placing the straight sides of four or five bowlders toward the body, and covering the cyst thus made with one or two slab-shaped rocks. Over this the rough pile of the cairn was reared. A few copper ornaments were found buried in cairns. The skeletons were usually much decayed.

Relics of the Cliff Dwellers.-The discovery of extensive ruins of the cliff dwellers and prehistoric peoples scattered over considerable tracts in southern Colorado is reported by Mr. Cecil A. Doane, a deputy United States surveyor. They are situated in districts which have been little visited by scientific archæologists. In one place, west of the La Plata river, an area of about 6,000 or 7,000 acres were dotted with the ruins of the stone houses, most of them small (family houses), of a people who apparently lived by agriculture. Yet no evidences of irrigation were observed. Traces of similar former habitation were found in localities where the surface is now covered with a dense growth of sage brush and piñon or cedar trees, through which it is often difficult to make way. ruined walls of what must have been a very large structure-massive and measuring 45 by 90 feet-were discovered in surveying a forest. Large piñon trees were growing within the walls. In another locality were found houses of cliff dwellers, built high up the rocks, and accessible now only by ropes, reaching down from the tops of the cliff's.


A number of well-preserved mummies found by a prospector in a sealed cliff dwelling in the upper Verde cañon had well-developed skulls, covered with fine, silky hair, and were bandaged with cotton and woolen cloths of various degrees of fineness, some of it embroidered in open work. The whole was wrapped in a matting of bear grass. Kernels of corn and bone implements were found with them. Small copper bells were dis

covered in a cliff house on upper Salt river. Accounts of this whole region agree in representing the cliff dwellings and mounds representing the ruins of former buildings as occurring in very large numbers.

An Ancient Crown.-A part of a golden crown in the collection of Mr. E. J. Molera, of San Francisco, was taken from an ancient tomb near the Indian village of Tula. It was rescued from Indians, who were opening the tombs for the sake of the treasures they contained, after it had been broken into pieces and some of the pieces had been melted. When whole the crown was a plain circle of gold, beaten to a thickness of one eighth of an inch, two and a half inches broad, with a straight edge below, but rising in front with a domelike curve to a height of nearly five inches. The front and a part of one side are all of it that has been preserved, and this bears the stamp of Leopoldo Batres, inspector of monuments for the republic of Mexico. In the same grave from which this crown was taken a necklace and a lip stone were found. The lip stone is a crystal of remarkable brilliance and workmanship, and the necklace, composed of similar crystals, is also highly finished.

A City on a Hilltop.-In exploring a hill called Xochicalco, which rises between 300 and 400 feet above the surrounding plateau, about two days' horseback journey from Cuernabaca, Mexico, Prof. W. H. Holmes observed that the surface had been remodeled on all sides so as to present a succession of terraces faced with stone. The work was so constructed as to furnish approaches by series of staircases of stone. All the level places were marked by traces of ancient houses, with surrounding courts or plazas, within which large buildings had been erected. One of these buildings or temples was in a good state of preservation, and was situated within a plaza between 300 and 400 feet square. It rested upon a stone base between 60 and 70 feet square at the bottom and rising to about 20 feet in height, was capped by a heavy cornice standing out like a brim, and was adorned with elab orate sculptures. The hill was further marked with many subterranean chambers or caverns, some extending 150 feet back, of which those explored by the author were walled and plastered.

England. New Discoveries at Silchester. The excavations at the Romano-British site of Silchester had been carried on systematically, at the time the report for 1898 was made, for nine years, and had resulted in the exploration of considerably more than half of the 100 acres within the walls. Operations in 1898, as described by Mr. W. H. St. John Hope before the Society of Antiquaries, had been confined to the southwest corner of the city, where an area of 8 acres had been dealt with. This area had been found to contain two insula, which had been numbered XIX and XX, and a large triangular space south of them, which appeared to belong in part to Insula XVIII, excavated in 1897. Insula XIX presented the unique feature of being completely inclosed by walls. tained a small house and two other minor buildings, as well as a well-planned house of the largest size, built round a courtyard, and having attached to it what seemed to be the remains of a tannery. The winter rooms of the house were warmed by a series of hypocausts. Beneath the courtyard were laid bare the traces of a still older house. Insula XX contained two small houses and a number of other buildings. The interest in the remains of the older house lying in the courtyard of the large house in Insula XX con

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sisted in the fact that they showed a building of half-timber construction. Such construction was not entirely unknown at Silchester, as indications of modern partitions in masonry-built houses had been detected, but entire buildings of this kind had not as yet been found on the site. The design of a finely enriched mosaic pavement in one of the chambers differed from the general run of Romano-British mosaics, in which variously disposed lines of braidwork form the most conspicuous portions. In this composition the noticeable features are delicate arabesques, resembling friezes found among the wall paintings of Pompeii, and a huge scroll of black leafage on a white ground, strongly resembling the leaf borders to be seen on Greek painted vases dated about 300 B. C.

This mosaic was shown at an exhibition of Silchester relics held at the rooms of the Society of Antiquaries, Burlington House, in May. Among the miscellaneous articles exhibited in connection with it were a mutilated amphora, without top or feet, found in the same house; a pot ornamented by the potter making indentations with his thumbs in the wet clay; pieces of plaster painted to imitate various kinds of marble; a quern, both the upper and lower stones of which were found in situ, and an upper quern stone still retaining its wooden handle; a pair of manacles or handcuffs, with a large lock; a wellpreserved set of hooks, such as might be used for slinging barrels; a little sconce to screw into the wall and hold a candle; a "hipposandal," the purpose of which is in doubt; ornaments; coins; and a brick or tile, upon which before it was baked some workman had scrawled with the tip of his finger the word "satis."

France. Caves of Brassempony.-Among the finds of 1897 in the caves at Brassempony, France, recorded by MM. Ed. Piette and J. de Laporterie were a horse's head engraved on a vertebra, a seal in champlevé, a young bovine animal raising its foot against an aurochs, two other equine figures, the head of a doe engraved in champlevé on a two-pointed instrument of reindeer horn, a number of bones with lines cut in them after the manner of runes, and bone arrowheads with simple linear characters. The authors remark that man had hardly been installed at Brassempony under a relatively clement climate when he invented sculpture. The first deposits met with, at the base, in the alley, and in the largest part of the great gallery, contained human statuettes, and not a single animal figure. In this respect the discoveries differ materially from those at Mas d'Azil, which are attributed to the same period.

Rome. Relics of the Republic and Kingdom.--It was usual in the earlier excavations of the Forum to stop when the first remains of a pavement were met, without seeking further to find what more ancient remains might be beneath it. Discoveries of any great value regarding the early history of Rome could hardly have been expected under this method, because all the structures of the Forum and the Comitium, with the surrounding edifices, were seriously injured or completely destroyed by the fire of Carinus, A. D. 283, and were repaired and reconstructed under Diocletian and Maxentius. Excavations could, however, have been carried on deeper without destroying what might exist at the level by digging in the gaps and free spaces between the surface ruins. This plan has been adopted in the most recent explorations under the superintendence of Signor Boni, in which the object has been kept in view of reaching the early im

perial, republican, kingly, or even prehistoric strata whenever it was possible to do so with out injuring the later or higher structures; and some interesting discoveries have been made of ancient remains under and in front of the pronaos of the temple standing on the site of the very ancient statue of Saturn (which was erected after the great fire of Carinus) where the ruins of the three former structures have been found. A difference of level of 1.8 millimetre exists between the Comitium of the kings and that of the late empire. At the lower or older level were discovered a platform of tufa from the lautumia 3.64 millimetres wide, 2.66 millimetres deep, on which stood two oblong pedestals, which proved to be those of the lions mentioned by Varro and Dionysius; a conical pedestal, also of tufa, 0.77 millimetre in diameter, standing on a slightly curved plinth, on the west side of the platform; an inscribed stela, slightly pyramidal in shape, measuring 0.47 millimetre by 0.57 millimetre at the base, and irregularly broken about the middle of its original height; and a tufa platform, which may possibly represent the original rostra. These four relics are all differently ornamented, and have all been purposely injured and broken by the violence of man. The deed of destruction was afterward expiated by a sacrifice, the remains and traces of which form a layer of votive offerings about half a metre in thickness.


In digging through the rude pavement and the embankment of rubbish beneath it on the line separating the Comitium from the Forum, Cavaliere Boni came upon an inclosure about 12 feet long and 9 feet wide, screened by a marble parapet on three sides, and paved with slabs of black Tenarian marble. This inclosure with its pavement is believed to be one of the structures restored by Diocletian and Maxentius, and therefore to have been considered by them important to preserve. An association is suggested of it with a passage in Festus, reading, Niger lapis in Comitio locum funestum significat." The same author says that the spot had been selected for the burial of Romulus, the founder of the city, but, as the hero had been bodily carried up to heaven by his father, Mars, the funeral plot had been given up to Faustulus "nutricius suus." Dionysius asserts (I, 87) that near the rostra, but within the area of the Comitium, a stone lion of archaic workmanship was supposed to mark the site of the grave of Faustulus. Varro speaks of two stone lions guarding, as it were, the grave of Romulus in the same corner of the Comitium. The remains of the pedestals of both of these lions have been found. These discoveries are regarded by M. Rudolfo Lanciani as "showing how wrong we have been in disbelieving every particular of Roman traditional history previous to the Punic wars, and the inscriptions on the monuments associated with them, comprising the oldest written documents of Roman history, as the most important ever found in Rome." The inscription on the stela has been studied by Signor G. F. Gamurrini, who finds that it was cut in the very early style, called Bovστpopηdóv, in which the lines run alternately backward and forward, from right to left and from left to right, or, as the etymology of the word indicates, like the turning of the oxen in plowing. This style of writing was given up by the Greeks before the end of the sixth century B. C. The lines in the present inscription, however, are perpendicular instead of being horizontal. They cover the four principal faces of the stone, with an extra line on one of the flattened corners. Unfortunately,

the top of the stone is broken, so as to make every line incomplete alternately at the beginning and the end. The characters in which the inscription is cut are those of the earliest italic derivation from the Chalcidian alphabet. Another evidence of its great antiquity is given by the three vertical dots by which the words are separated. This peculiar style of interpunctuation is to be found only in inscriptions (Attica, Laconia, Elis, Argos, Etruria) dating from the end of the seventh and the beginning of the sixth centuries B. C. The stela, Prof. Lanciani says, shows how exact the early Roman annalists and historians were when they speak of "leges Regiæ " and public treaties engraved on stone in a language that could not be understood. All these documents were supposed to have been lost in the Gaulish fire, and this is the only one known that partially escaped destruction then. Prof. Luigi Ceci, of the University of Rome, reads the inscription and supplies the missing words as follows:

1. QUOI HO[rdas weigead, ucigetod 8]AKROS [8]ESED.

2. SOR[das, sakros sed].



[eid]IASIAS REGEI LO[iba adferad ad rem d]EVAM.

QUOS R[er per mentore]M KALATOREM HAP[ead endo ada]GIOD, IOUX MENTA CAPIAD, DOTA V[oread].

5. [Ini]M ITE RI K[oised nounasias i]. 6. QUOI HAVELOD NEQU[am sied dolod mal]OD, DIOVE ESTOD. [qu]OI VOVIOD [sacer Diove estod].







His Latin translation is:

Qui fordas consecret, consecrato sacellum versus [or, ad sacellum].

Sordas [viz., qui sordas consecret, consecrato] seorsum a sacello.

Idibus regi liba adferat ad rem divinam [viz., ad sacrificium].

Quos Rex per augurem Kalatorem induhapeat [viz., consecratum admittat] adagio [viz., carmine] precibus auspicia capiat, dona votiva voveat.

Itemque rei [divinæ] curet Nonis ibi.

Qui auspicio nequam sit dolo malo, Iovi esto.
Qui voto [viz., nequam sit dolo malo] sacer
Iovi esto.

Prof. Lanciani remarks as the most salient linguistic specialty of this document " 'the great number of words-great in comparison to the total-that do not appear in the Latin language.” Its date is assigned by him to about the middle of the sixth century B. C. It is therefore one century older than the Prænestine fibula of Manios (Corpus Inscriptionum XIV, 4123), and two centuries older than the vase of Duenos. Prof. Ceci observes, in communicating his version of the inscription to the Italian Minister of Public Instruction, that while he will not say that the discovery of the stela marks the downfall of the modern hypercritical school, especially German,

one thing is certain, it will shake the faith of the many who believed blindly in the word of Niebuhr and Ihne, and will revive the hopes of the few who trusted to the authority of Livy, and had faith in the historical foundation of early Roman traditions."

Explorations were also made in the Basilicas Emilia and Regia, and along the Sacra Via.

Greece. New Law concerning Antiquities. It having been found that the recognition of the landowner's right of property in archæological finds implied in the old law opened the way for abuse, and that extensive thieving was

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