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when hard times set in they applied to the Chartered Company for assistance. When the Chartered Company repudiated all responsibility the authorities of the Transvaal offered them farms, and a large number were settled on the lands which the Boers had just before taken away from the Makatese after defeating the chief Mpefu and his followers.

The number of mining claims registered on Sept. 30, 1898, was 130,000, spread over a country 500 miles long by 200 miles broad. The Chartered Company receives half the vender's scrip for each mine that is floated. The companies that were crushing ore in 1898, when there were 4 batteries at work, obtained an average of 14 pennyweight to the ton, without cyanide, which would give about 4 pennyweight more, making the ore nearly twice as rich as that of the Witwatersrand. There are veins 40 feet broad, and in the ancient mines, which were abandoned on account of water, the reefs run equally wide and quite as rich.

The revenue of the Chartered Company falls far short of the expenditure, which in 1898 amounted to £783,985, while the receipts were £258,786. The white police force numbers 1,200 men, and costs £259,000 a year. The new Council of Rhodesia, which met for the first time in May, 1899, sanctioned taxes on luxuries, the colonists heretofore having been free from all taxation. Machinery and foodstuffs were exempted, though food imported in tins and most articles in common use are taxed at even a higher rate than such luxuries as plate and jewelry. The people and their elected representatives objected to this mode of taxation, by which the poorer classes pay most and the rich companies, including the Chartered Company, are quite exempt. The settlers called upon the elected members of the Council to resign as a protest against being taxed by a private commercial company. British Central Africa. The area of British Central Africa, or Northern Rhodesia, is estimated at 251,000 square miles, with a population of about 650,000. The resident Europeans number 350. Experiments are being made in coffee growing. Gold is found in the south. The Stevenson road connecting the Nyassa and Tanganyika lakes has been repaired. The British South Africa Company, which has undertaken the development of the region, intends to establish a station on the Tanganyika plateau, which is believed to be healthful, but its representative, Robert E. Codrington, has hitherto remained at Blantyre, in Nyassaland. The telegraph line from the Cape through the British South Africa territory, Portuguese East Africa, and Nyassaland has been continued from Zomba northward to the end of Lake Nyassa, and thence to the south end of Lake Tanganyika.

In the country of the Barotse, on the west side of British Central Africa, the British South Africa Company is represented at the king's capital by Major R. T. Coryndon, as Resident Commissioner. The region between Lakes Nyassa, Tanganyika, Mweru, and Bangweolo is divided into the districts Chambezi, Tanganyika, Mweru, Luapala, and Loangwa. The Europeans are engaged mostly in planting or trading, but the smaller branches of trade are carried on by Banyans. The imports for the year ending March 31, 1897, amounted to £114,000, including £14,000 of specie. The exports were valued at £40,000, showing an increase of £10,000 over 1898. The chief articles were coffee for £24,000, rubber for £10,000, and ivory for £3,000. The coffee brings the highest price of any that is sold

in the London market. Rice and mealies are grown and tobacco cultivation has been begun. The rubber export was nearly ten times as great as in 1898. Revenue increased as well as trade. The hut tax yielded 50 per cent. more than in the previous year. The armed force consists of 1,000 natives, instructed by Sikhs and commanded by British officers of the regular army. The Angonis, who were formerly troublesome, have settled down to peaceful occupations, and laborers for the plantations are obtained without hindrance. A strong garrison is kept in a fort on their plateau. Many hundreds of natives of the lake districts have gone south to work in the mines of Southern Rhodesia. Toward the end of June, 1899, the troops of the protectorate were sent out to punish Angura and Yao chiefs southeast of Lake Nyassa, on the Portuguese border. The Portuguese of Mozambique joined in an expedition against the chief Mataka, who harbored the chiefs Makanjira and Grafi after they were driven over the border, and assisted them in raiding British territory.

British Central African Protectorate.-The district of Nyassaland, declared a British protectorate on May 14, 1891, is administered by a Royal Commissioner, Alfred Sharpe, under instructions from the Foreign Office in London, and the expenses in excess of the local revenue are defrayed by means of a grant in aid from the Imperial Government. The area is 42,217 square miles. The population in 1897 was 844,995 natives, 300 Europeans, and 293 Banyan traders from India. Blantyre, the chief town, has a population of 6,000 natives and 100 Europeans. The local revenue in 1897 was £24,538, of which £8,966 were derived from customs. The expenditure was £65,715. The imports in 1898 were valued at £86,428, against £78,655 in 1897; exports, £27,437, against £23,299. The principal imports are cotton cloth, machinery, agricultural implements, provisions, and hardware. The exports of coffee in 1898 were £22,402 in value. Ivory is the only other important export. Rice, wheat, oats, and barley are grown. A military force of 185 Sikhs and 800 native soldiers is maintained for the suppression of the slave trade. There is also a police force of 200 men. Gunboats are kept on the Zambesi and Shire rivers and on Lake Nyassa.

Portuguese East Africa. The Portuguese possessions, now confined to the east coast north and south of the Zambesi, are divided into the provinces of Mozambique, Zambesia, and Lourenço Marques, the military district of Gaza, and the districts of Inhambane, Manica, and Sofala. The total area is estimated at 301,000 square miles; the total population at 3,120,000. The boundary between Portuguese and British Manica was arbitrated, and early in 1899 the commissioners of the two governments agreed on a rectification of the proposed line, concessions being made on both sides to suit the respective interests. The Mozambique Company, possessing sovereign rights under a royal charter for fifty years from 1891, administers the two last-named districts, and the Nyassa Company has like authority in the region between the Rovuma, the Lurio, and Lake Nyassa. The Government maintains a military force of 4,888 men, of whom 3.246 are natives. The revenue for 1898 was estimated at 4,232,326 milreis, the expenditure at 3,945,765 milreis. The imports at the port of Mozambique in 1897 were valued at £151,823, and exports at £160,571; at Beira the imports were £578,500 in value, and the exports £35,460; at Lourenço Marques the imports were

£784,000, and exports £38,000 in value; at Quilimane the imports for 1895 were valued at £94,537, and exports at £76,344. Gold mining has been attempted by English companies in Manica. The Delagoa Bay Railroad has a length of 57 miles on Portuguese territory, and extends 290 miles into the Transvaal to Pretoria. The Beira Railroad runs for 222 miles on Portuguese territory to the border of Mashonaland. Telegraphs connect Beira with Salisbury and Lourenço Marques with Pretoria. The number of vessels that entered the port of Mozambique in 1897 was 236, of 171,471 tons, of which 57, of 84,328 tons, were German, and 24, of 32,394 tons, British; Beira was visited by 237 vessels, 118 of them, of 131,667 tons, British, and 58, of 86,061 tons, German; Lourenço Marques, by 267 vessels, of 691,000 tons; Chinde, by 69 vessels, of 32,850 tons.

German Southwest Africa.-The total area of the German sphere in Southwest Africa is estimated at 322,450 square miles, with a population of about 200,000 Hottentots, Bushmen, Damaras, and Kaffirs. The number of whites in 1897 was 2,628. The military force numbers 755 officers and men, exclusive of the native troops. The revenue for 1896 was 1,856,860 marks, of which only 156,860 marks were collected in the country and 1,700,000 marks were contributed from the imperial treasury. The expenditure was 1,991,480 marks. For 1899 the revenue is estimated at 6,970,000 marks, including an imperial contribution, and the expenditure at 5,001,000 marks. The chief imports are cotton cloth and provisions. The exports are guano and ostrich feathers. The total value of the imports for 1897 was £244,366, and of the exports £62,337. The German authorities, following the example of Natal and Rhodesia, have taken measures to restrict and hamper the operations of Hindu traders. One edict forbids any more selling of goods to the natives on credit, because the Indian dealers have reduced the coast natives to a state of dependence by means of usurious contracts; and another edict imposes excessively high trading licenses.

CHARITIES OF THE UNITED STATES. The object of this article is to show, as nearly as possible, the amount appropriated or expended by each State as a unit and by the largest municipalities as units toward the support and proper care of institutions and individuals under certain specified headings within their respective boundary limits, and also to exhibit, as completely as can be done from available reports, the totals of individuals benefited by such appropriations or expenditures. These headings, grouped together, represent the principal charities recognized officially by State and municipal governments. The classes treated of include: 1. Poor in poorhouses, etc. 2. Destitute children. 3. Sick and injured. 4. Blind. 5. Deaf and dumb. 6. Feeble-minded. 7. Insane. 8. Epileptics.

Some of the minor classes are not mentioned in the foregoing, and several combinations are omitted because they are exceptional. For example, in Colorado there is an institution for deaf and blind. A special appropriation is made in that State also for dependent children, for whom a home is provided, and still another for a soldiers' and sailors' home. Idaho has an appropriation under the special heading, Blind, dumb, and deaf. In several States, notably Indiana and Iowa, special provision is made for soldiers' orphans. In Massachusetts the appropriation for insane includes provision for epileptics and dipsomaniacs. Nebraska sustains a home for the

friendless. West Virginia has established a home for incurables.

State and municipal provision for the criminal classes is not included in this article. Owing to a lack of proper definition with reference to industrial and reform institutions for children, it has been deemed best not to include here items that are given under headings referring to these classes.

It is impossible within the limits of this article to exhibit much more than an outline; but, through the courtesy of State executives, their departmental officers, the general secretary of the National Conference of Charities and Corrections, the Commissioner of Labor in Washington, the special agent in charge of statistics of crime, pauperism, and benevolence for the eleventh census, and others who are interested in the general subject, a sufficiently full showing has been made available to form a statement of great interest. A summary of recent and pending legislation and the latest Federal statistics on the subject of pauperism and benevolence will be found at the end of this article.

Alabama. According to an official statement recently received, there are only two charitable institutions supported by the State-i. e., the Institute for the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind, at Talladega, and the Asylum for the Insane, at Tuscaloosa. From the latest report it is noted that what is known as the Institute for the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind embraces three distinct establishments, divided into numerous departments, including 171 deaf pupils, 100 blind pupils, and 53 negro deaf-mutes and blind. The insane asylum is known as the Bryce Insane Hospital. It will hold 1,100 patients, but the daily average is in excess, being 1,276. The expenditure for this latter institution in 1897-'98 was $145,424. There are no statistics available concerning paupers in county poorhouses. Children of more than ten years of age are not allowed to remain in poorhouses, but are assigned by probate judges to respectable families. There are orphan homes in connection with the churches. All the larger cities of the State have hospitals.

Alaska. No means have been provided in Alaska for the care of orphans, old people, deaf and dumb, blind, or insane persons. Steps have been taken to provide, through Congress, for the establishment of an asylum or sanatorium west of the main range of the Rocky mountains for care and custody of persons legally adjudged insane in Alaska. Orphan children were formerly made slaves, but the Christian missions have largely done away with this cruelty. In the village of Sitka are several men totally blind. They are good fishermen, and earn their living for the most part by fishing. Old people are sadly neglected, unless one should be a woman of high caste who has children. Such are well taken care of.

Arizona. The poor, sick, and injured are cared for in county hospitals; blind and deafmutes are sent to a blind asylum in an Eastern State, expense being paid by the Territory; no provision is made for feeble-minded children; 168 insane patients are maintained entirely by the Territory in the asylum at Phœnix.

Arkansas. Reports have been received from three institutions-viz., the State Lunatic Asylum, the School for the Blind, and the Deaf-mute Institute. The lunatic asylum is at Little Rock, and has a nominal capacity of 650. The daily average number of patients is 550. The State appropriation for two years ending April 1, 1899, was $120,000. It is reported that the number

of applications for admission is steadily increasing. The total enrollment for the blind school, 1897-98, was 265. The appropriations, 1897-'98, amounted, in round numbers, to $61,000. The total enrollment for the Deaf-mute Institute, 1898, was 276. The appropriations, 1897-'98, amounted, in round numbers, to $86,000.

California. A very determined effort was made before the Legislature of 1899 to establish a State board of charities and correction. The bill introduced passed both houses, but was refused by the Governor. A bill for the disestablishment of the Home for Adult Blind, and bills for the further improvement of the Home for the Care and Training of Feeble-minded Children, and especially for the epileptic colony, newly estab lished under the care of said home, also passed both houses, but were vetoed by the Governor. Two new hospitals have been opened-one supported by a charitable Hebrew organization, but absolutely nonsectarian as to its patients; the other was organized by representatives of several Protestant churches, the Masonic order, and Odd Fellows, called the Christian Hospital Association, and is designed to care for people of a good class not able to pay usual hospital rates. Aged and infirm poor are maintained by their respective counties in hospitals, poor farms, and almshouses. In most counties the healthy poor are not separated from those who are sick or injured. From the counties reporting, 9,375 of these two classes have been maintained during the year 1898. In the San Francisco Almshouse the number reached 1,000.

Destitute children are maintained chiefly in orphanages supported by the State. A few are allowed in poorhouses in distant counties. During the half year ending June 30, 1898, 863 orphans, 5,160 half orphans, 536 abandoned children, and 186 foundlings were supported, at a cost to the State of $204,701.91.

The two State institutions for the care of the blind are the Home for Adult Blind, in Oakland, and the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind Asylum, in Berkeiey. There were 237 inmates in the latter institution for 1898. From the former we could obtain no information. In 1897 there were 100 inmates.

No separate State institution is maintained for deaf-mutes, they being received into the home at Berkeley with the blind. The Catholic Sisters of St. Joseph have opened during the past year a home for deaf-mutes, and have some 60 pupils. Idiotic and feeble-minded persons are kept in a home at Eldridge. The number of inmates, 1898, was 576. This included those in the school, custodial and industrial departments. The sum of $199,700 was allowed by the last Legislature for two years' support.

There are five insane asylums in the State. The State Insane Asylum is at Stockton. Its nominal capacity is 1,000 males and 500 females. The average number of inmates is 1,564. The expenditure for this asylum, 1897-'98, was $193,733. The Napa State Asylum for the Insane has a nominal capacity of from 900 to 950. According to the latest available report, 1894-'95, the number of patients treated during that fiscal year was 1,689. The expenditure for that year is reported as being $198,862. The report of the Agnew State Hospital, at Agnew, shows a nominal capacity of 1,000. The number of patients treated, 1897-'98, was 1,109, the daily average being 914. The expenditure for the year was $121,169.

The City and County Hospital, San Francisco, is a general hospital. Total receipts, $91,394; total expenditures, $91,394; number of beds, 437; daily

average number of beds occupied, 378; number of in-patients, 4,401; number of out-patients, 772; cost per in-patient per day, 67 cents.

Information concerning charitable institutions supported by cities in this and other States is given in the second part of the article, which is devoted exclusively to municipal establishments under the general heading of Charity.

Colorado. From the official report, 1897-'98, concerning State charities, it is gathered that the appropriation for deaf and blind for that year was $5,000. This amount was for one institution, having 115 patients. An expenditure of $50,318.52 is shown for one insane asylum. Twenty thousand dollars was appropriated toward the support of dependent children. An appropriation of $40,000 is credited to soldiers and sailors, and $3,000 for upkeep of the State Board of Charity.

The appropriation mentioned above for dependent and neglected children was a special one, intended to defray the cost of a permanent site and building. The lunacy act of the State has been revised, rendering its provisions similar to those of New York, and including insistence on the deportation of pauper insane not residents of the State. Appropriations by the Legislature for maintenance and improvements recommended by the State Board of Charities and Correction were very liberal, considering the condition of the State treasury.

The appropriations for 1900 were as follow: State Home for Dependent Children, $15,000; State Insane Asylum, $30,000; State School, for Mute and Blind, $22,000; State Soldiers' and Sailors' Home, $20,000.

Besides these legislative appropriations, a regular tax of one fifth mill goes to the State School for Mute and Blind, and a one-fifth-mill tax is appropriated for the support of the State Insane Asylum. Appropriations in addition to the foregoing are made for improvements, for the erection of new buildings, and for the purchase of a permanent site for the State Home for Dependent Children.

An important measure has been passed in the State Legislature, whereby a penalty is imposed for the commitment to or retention in county temporary homes for dependent children of any demented or idiotic children or children suffering from incurable or contagious diseases. An effort was made to provide for the commitment of such children to the care of the boards of management of the county homes, in order to have them under responsible supervision, but not to place them in the homes with other children, and the matter is still under consideration. A bill to transfer the cost of support of children in the county homes from the State, where it now rests, to the towns from which the children are committed, will probably be defeated. Another bill has been introduced, providing that no complaint should be brought for the commitment of a child to a county home until after it had been investigated and approved by the town committee.

Only a portion of the counties have poorhouses or poor farms, relief being given at the homes and the sick being cared for in private hospitals. The approximate population of dependent paupers is about 250 in the State. In the Soldiers' Home, March 1, 1899, 146.

In the State Home for Dependent Children, March 1, 1899, 64; in private orphanages, 500 (approximate number); in county institutions, none.

There are 25 hospitals in the State, nearly all under private auspices, having an average population of about 500.

The State Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Blind on March 1, 1899, had 114 in


There is no institution in the State, either public or private, for feeble-minded children. Statistics show a population of 250 such.

The insane in the State Hospital, March 1, 1899, numbered 473; at Dr. Work's sanatorium at Pueblo, March 1, 1899, 56; in the county hospital, Denver, 15; none in county poor farms or jails. Connecticut.-From the official report for the year ending Sept. 30, 1898, it is ascertained that the following appropriations were granted by the Legislature: Blind, 1 institution, $52,000; deaf and dumb, 1 institution, $40,000; insane, 3 institutions, $297,000; hospitals, 14 institutions, $117,000; almshouses, 8 institutions, $129,000. A temporary home is provided in each of the 8 counties for the shelter of dependent and neg. lected children between the ages of four and eighteen until suitable family homes can be found for them. The average number of inmates in the county homes is 680.

The sick and injured poor are cared for in a number of city hospitals at the expense of the towns that send them and of the State, which furnishes appropriations for most of these hospitals. Fitch's Home for Soldiers, at Noroton, has an average number of 470 inmates.

The State has about 70 blind beneficiaries, of whom 20 are supported at the Perkins Institution, South Boston, and about 50 at the Institute and Industrial Home for the Blind in Hartford.

The State supported during the past year 108 deaf pupils, of whom 74 were at the American School for the Deaf, at Hartford, and 34 at the Mystic Oral School.

Feeble-minded children are cared for and instructed at State expense at the Connecticut School for Imbeciles, Lakeville. Average number, 170.

The Connecticut Hospital for the Insane, at Middletown, has an average of about 1,900 inmates, but is considerably overcrowded. The Retreat for the Insane at Hartford has an average of 150 patients. The number of insane persons in the State is increasing gradually, but it has not yet been shown that the increase is out of proportion to the increase in population.

Bridgeport Hospital is a general hospital. Total receipts, $28,792; total expenditures, $28,598; number of beds, 90; daily average number of beds occupied, 65; number of in-patients, 819; number of out-patients, -; cost per in-patient per day, $1.21.

New Haven Hospital is also a general hospital. Total receipts, $55,327; total expenditures, $57,145; number of beds, 165; daily average number of beds occupied, 118; number of in-patients, 1,154; number of out-patients, -; cost per inpatient per day, $1.33.

Delaware. The last Legislature made the following appropriations: Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, $1,800; Babies' Hospital, $500; State Insane Hospital, $92,000.

The average of poor in poorhouses is about 350 adults and 10 children (temporarily) in the three county almshouses. The aged poor in homes average 72.

The various homes and orphanages provide for all the destitute children of the State. All are private charities, aided by small appropriations from the Legislature and the Levy Court.

Sick and injured are provided for in county almshouses and in the Delaware and Homeopathic Hospitals. Patients attended in hospitals, 500; dispensary cases, 3,000.

There are no institutions for blind and deafmutes. Appropriations from the Legislature permit three from each county to enter schools elsewhere.

Appropriations from the Legislature permit five from each county to enter the Feeble-minded School at Elwyn, Pa.

The State Hospital for the Insane has 165 men and 120 women patients. The new building erected last year has proved a valuable addition and aid in caring for and in the proper treatment of cases. The bacteriological department introduced by legislative enactment this last year is considered of marked importance.

District of Columbia.-The bill to create a board of charities for the District of Columbia, which was carried over from a previous session of Congress, was crowded out, and failed to receive final consideration. The Fifty-sixth Congress will be asked to consider it. A bill to create a municipal hospital was introduced, but could not be given an advanced position, and consequently failed to receive consideration. Five sectarian child-caring institutions were dropped from the list of assisted institutions. A heavy deficiency in current appropriations for care of dependent children under official guardianship was met by adequate appropriation. An appropriation of $65,000 was secured for new buildings for an official institution long neglected.

Poor in almshouse, 229; dependent children, 824; in hospitals, 339; blind, 21; deaf-mutes, 36; feeble-minded, 47; insane, 964.

Two important charitable organizations have recently been established in the District-one, a private voluntary corporation, having for its object the better care of the adult blind; the other, a semipublic corporation, formed, at the solicitation of the local government, for the purpose of receiving such contributions as citizens may make for the relief of the poor in their own homes, and such income from invested funds as has heretofore usually been distributed to the poor by the metropolitan police. This corporation, known as the Citizens' Relief Committee, is the result of several years of careful work for the reformation of the troublesome matter of outdoor relief, and it is believed that it will furnish an agency for the distribution of such relief wholly trustworthy, and having for its particular duty the giving of outdoor relief.

Florida. It is reported in the statement of the Superintendent of Public Instruction issued this year that $10,000 was appropriated for 1898 in aid of the Deaf and Blind Institute. This establishment, according to the last report, provided for 33 deaf and 9 blind white pupils and 18 deaf and 2 blind negro pupils. The superintendent of the Florida Asylum for the Insane, in his last report, says that the State appropriation granted for 1899 was $70,000. An equal amount has also been set aside for 1900. The expenses of the institution for the year ending Dec. 31, 1898, were $56,850.55. The nominal capacity is


Georgia. No official statements procurable. It is learned from unofficial sources that the State Lunatic Asylum, Milledgeville, has a nominal capacity of 2.400; daily average number, 2,247.

Idaho. The State appropriations for charities for the two years ending January, 1901, is reported as $102.000. Of this total, $12,000 was set apart for blind, dumb, and deaf. The appropriation for insane patients amounted to $80,000. The sum of $10,000 for the Soldiers' Home is included in the total amount given. The latest available report from this State shows that a

measure has become law requiring that the indigent must be supported by the relatives of the same as far as their ability will permit.

The State maintains the insane asylum located at Blackfoot. It has a nominal capacity of 170; daily average, 166. The Soldiers' Home, Boisé City is supported in part by the State, which avails itself of the federal provisions for such purposes. Some of the counties maintain poorhou es. The blind, deaf-mute, and feeble-minded children are educated at the expense of the State, under the direction of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, who places these defectives in the schools or homes for defective youth of the adjoining States.

Illinois. The State appropriations for charitable institutions, 1899-1900, amounted to $4,285,361.12. This amount was divided up as follows: Blind, $102,967; deaf and dumb, $217,700; insane, $3,355,894.12; orphans, $138,100; hospitals for eye and ear, $74.200; miscellaneous charities, $396,500. The chief event of the year in the field of charities and correction has been the passage of the bill to regulate the care and treatment of dependent, neglected, and delinquent children. For a year past the subject has been vigorously agitated. The State Conference of Charities of 1898 devoted its entire time to this subject. The Board of Public Charities considered the subject carefully. The State Federation of Women's Clubs and many of the local women's clubs discussed it. The Chicago Bar Association adopted a unanimous resolution in favor of suitable legislation, and appointed a committee to draft a bill. The committee consulted with representatives of the children's institutions and the various organizations interested, and finally produced a bill which, after considerable amendment, became a law.

The purpose of the bill is expressed in its last section, as follows: "This act shall be liberally construed, to the end that its purpose may be carried out, to wit: that the care, custody, and discipline of a child shall approximate, as nearly as may be, that which should be given by its parents; and, in all cases where it can be properly done, the child be placed in an approved family home, and become a member of the family by legal adoption or otherwise."

The bill is outlined as follows: A "juvenile court" is established in the city of Chicago, to be presided over by a circuit judge chosen by his fellow-judges. Confinement of children under twelve years of age in county jails or police stations is prohibited. Probation officers are au thorized, but without public compensation. Children are brought before the court by summons instead of warrant.

"Dependent children "-i. e., those dependent on the public, homeless, abandoned, begging, peddling, performing, cruelly treated, having vicious parents, etc., having been adjudged dependentmay be committed to the guardianship of an individual, a society, or an institution, with power to dispose of by adoption or indenture.

"Delinquent children "-i. e., offenders against State laws or municipal ordinances may be committed to an institution or to the care of a probation officer or to an accredited association.

The law provides that it shall be unlawful to confine any in the same building or in the same yard or inclosure with adult convicts, or to bring any child into any yard or building in which adult convicts may be present.

Associations receiving children under this act are subjected to the supervision and inspection of the State Board of Public Charities, and must VOL. XXXIX.-9 A

report as required by the board. County boards of visitation may be appointed by county judges to inspect institutions and societies receiving children under this act.

Associations incorporated in other States must furnish the Board of Public Charities with such guarantee as they may require that they will not introduce children "having any contagious or incurable disease, or having any deformity, or being of feeble mind or of vicious character, and that they will remove from the State any child which may become a public charge within five years after having been brought in."

The following details have been made available concerning 13 charitable institutions supported by the State. The figures given are for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1898. The expenses shown are what is known as ordinary expenses." The number of inmates given represent those remaining on June 30, 1898: Northern Insane Hospital: inmates, 1,059; expenses, $152,093.16; Eastern Insane Hospital: inmates, 2,216; expenses, $305,187.49; Central Insane Hospital: inmates, 1,187; expenses, $158,099.67; Southern Insane Hospital: inmates, 962; expenses, $121,499.79; Western Insane Hospital: inmates, 354; expenses, $16,599.14; Asylum for Insane Criminals: inmates, 152; expenses, $29,935.50; Institution for the Deaf and Dumb: expenses, $97,112.41; Institution for the Blind: expenses, $45,874.26; Asylum for Feebleminded Children: inmates, 699; expenses, $105,634.51; Soldiers' Orphans' Home: inmates, 306; expenses, $58,926.45; Eye and Ear Infirmary: inmates, 101; expenses, $28,769.61; Soldiers' and Sailors' Home: inmates, 1,399; expenses, $145,120.95; Soldiers' Widows' Home: inmates, 23; expenses, $7,053.02.

Indiana. The sum expended by the State in behalf of charitable institutions for the year ending October, 1898, was $901,009.66. This amount was divided up as follows: Blind, $31,235.04; deaf, $64,627.77; insane, $549,559.24; soldiers' and other orphans, $93,637.99; Soldiers' Home, $78,110.61; for feeble-minded, $83,839.01.

The Legislature made specific appropriations to the Central Hospital for Insane to the amount of $178,000, of which $49,000 was to provide for two dining rooms for men and one for women, and $110,000 for a hospital. These changes will increase the capacity of the institution by 205. Specific appropriations were made to the Northern Hospital for Insane, amounting to $85,000, $80,000 of which is to be used to erect new buildings, one for men, the other for women, with a capacity of 100 each. The Eastern Hospital for the Insane received $75,200, out of which are to be built two hospital cottages, one each for men and women, to accommodate 30 beds each, costing $33,000, and one cottage for men with a capacity of 48, costing $28,900. The Southern Hospital for Insane received specific appropriations amounting to $66,000, including $40,000 for the erection of a wing to accommodate 132 patients.

An appropriation was made to build and furnish a dwelling house for the superintendent of the Institution for the Deaf, by reason of which it will be possible to readjust the disposition of inmates so as to accommodate 40 more. For the School for Feeble-minded $47,000 was appropriated specifically, $42,500 of which is to be used for the erection of two custodial cottages, one to accommodate 100 girls, the other 100 boys.

During the past year societies for organizing charity have been formed in Franklin and Alexandria. In the latter place work among tramps is receiving particular attention. A Home for

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