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the independence of the country; the franchise gold fields, a wide measure of self-government to be confined to persons of good character pos- had already been accorded, and the Volksraad sessing a certain amount of property; finally, would doubtless be willing to extend it, so long that there should be some increase of seats in as it did not constitute an imperium in imperio. the districts where the Uitlanders principally At the last sitting the High Commissioner obreside. The President considered this proposal jected to the exclusion from the franchise of tantamount to handing over his country to for the persons who had taken part in the revolueigners. He desired to make any arrangement tionary disturbance of 1895. Three new members regarding the franchise contingent on the British for the gold fields he thought too few. He aimed agreeing to arbitrate differences between the two at immediate representation for the Uitlanders governments, but the High Commissioner insisted to relieve the tension. The situation was grave, on discussing it apart from all other questions and no small measure would any longer be of The President then presented a counter-proposal, use. The President replied that his franchise according to which newcomers who apply for proposal went as far as was possible in the innaturalization, commit no act against the law terests of the people and the state, and in prinor the independence of the republic, possess fixed ciple it was impossible for him to depart from property or an income of £200, and take an it. In regard to arbitration, he suggested a plan oath similar to that of the Orange Free State, that would avoid the intervention of a foreign which does not require formal renunciation of government, to which the British Government previous allegiance, should receive the full fran would not consent under any conditions; this chise five years after naturalization that is, was to refer matters in dispute between the two seven years after their first arrival--on proof governments to three arbitrators, two of them of having registered continuously and obeyed the South African jurists selected respectively by laws; further, that residents since 1890 who be- the two governments, the third to be chosen by come naturalized could become full burghers two the other two, and to be neither a British subject years thereafter, and those who had been resi- nor a citizen of the South African Republic. dents for two years or more could receive im- Sir Alfred Milner said that he would approve mediate naturalization after six months' notice the principle of arbitration if it were possible to and full citizenship at the end of five years. As avoid foreign intermediation; but the President's this plan gave none of the clamorous Uitlanders did not, because the third member of the trithe suffrage under two and a half years, since bunal, who would be the real arbitrator, must be only the adherents of the Boer party were already a foreigner. Before separating the President naturalized, Sir Alfred Milner rejected it as in- made the final proposal to recommend his franadequate. He thought that a man ought to be chise scheme to the Volksraad if the High Comadmitted to full citizenship at once, and not missioner would recommend his request about wait a number of years after abandoning his arbitration to the British Government, with the old citizenship. It would be a considerable time expectation that it should be granted, otherwise before any number of Uitlanders worth men the people of the republic could not be expected tioning could vote for the First Volksraad, and to approve the comprehensive proposal with rethen they would only command one or two seats. gard to the franchise. Sir Alfred Milner declined The old burghers ought not to be swamped, but to enter into any engagement, and the conference as long as the newcomers had no representatives ended, leaving both parties where they were in in the First Volksraad they would as a body re- the beginning main an inferior caste. He suggested giving local When arbitration was first suggested by the self-government to the Rand, but the President Transvaal Government Mr. Chamberlain rejected refused to entertain the idea, as it would be it as incompatible with the Queen's suzerainty. equivalent to setting up another government in Dr. Leyds, the then State Secretary, denied that the country. President Krüger offered later to suzerainty existed. In the preamble of the conrecommend to the First Volksraad an increase vention of Pretoria, which restored self-governin number of its members, whereby the gold ment to the Transvaal in 1881, suzerain rights fields would be represented by 5 members in were reserved to Great Britain, and these were stead of 2, and the new population would in ad. specified in that convention as the incompetency dition exercise considerable influence on elections of the Transvaal to negotiate directly with forin other districts where they were registered. eign powers, the right to maintain a British He stated that persons already naturalized five resident at Pretoria, having control of external years would be immediately entitled to the full and certain internal affairs, and the right of franchise. He pointed out that even in Cape conducting British troops through Transvaal Colony citizenship did not necessarily bring with territory. Commissioners were sent to London it the full franchise; that by naturalization the in 1883 to request modifications of the convennew population obtained the right to vote for tion, and their principal task was to obtain the the Second Volksraad, and could thereby make abolition of suzerainty. At their urgent request their influence felt on questions affecting their Lord Derby omitted the word from the new particular interests, as the First Volksraad sel- convention, declaring it meaningless, though he dom reviewed the work of the Second Volksraad objected to an article specifically revoking suzerwhere it concerns the interests of the mining ain rights. The rights themselves were, however, community; that naturalized citizens have the revoked, except that of vetoing within six months right to serve as jurymen and to select local any treaty concluded by the South African Reofficials. British subjects becoming burghers public with any foreign power. The deputation would be better off than before, he argued, be explained to Lord Derby that the convention of cause in Great Britain and important colonies 1881 was a unilateral document framed by a enfranchised citizens do not elect the members royal commission in which the Boers were not of the highest legislative chamber. He consid- represented, and that they wanted to replace it ered that his plan would bring about the gradual with a new agreement of the nature of the origifusion of the two sections, but that of the High nal Sand river treaty, thus changing the relation Commissioner would result in an immediate of a dependency by public law and restoring that overmastering of the old citizens. As regards of two contracting powers. the alternative plan of local government for the On their return to the Transvaal the deputation reported that the new convention made an law, which required Indians to reside in stations, end of the British suzerainty and restored full but to which the British Government objected self-government to the republic. Mr. Chamber- because they are British subjects, entitled under lain, in answering Dr. Leyds, on Dec. 15, 1898, the London convention to equal freedom with took the ground that, while the articles of the burghers, although similar laws in the colonies convention of 1884 substituted a fresh definition are allowed, would be a fit subject for arbitraof suzerainty, the preamble of the convention of tion; also the Swaziland convention. Without 1881 remained unchanged. Secretary Reitz, Dr. arbitration the President could not go to the Leyds's successor, on May 9, 1899, reaffirmed the Volksraad with proposals for giving the franchise view of the Transvaal Government that the con- to Uitlanders; but if they could agree on a plan vention of 1881 was entirely abrogated. By the regarding the franchise, and dispose of the quesconvention of 1884, which superseded it, certain tions of the indemnity for the Jameson raid and limited and specified rights were guaranteed to the extension of Transvaal administration to Great Britain without there being any further Swaziland, then in the future, arbitration being mention of self-government, and thus it follows accepted, all questions arising between the Govthat the existing absolute self-government is not ernment and the British subjects who do not derived from conventions, but from the inherent want to become burghers could be arbitrated, and right of the republic as a sovereign international the British Government would no longer interstate. Mr. Chamberlain declared that the claim fere with the internal government of the republic. to be a sovereign international state was not The franchise proposals of Sir Alfred Milner were warranted either by law or history, and wholly considered by President Krüger to be tantainadmissible. He repeated the views of former mount to giving over the country to strangers, ministers that the Sand river convention of 1852 and the suggestion of an advisory board of Uititself was not a treaty between two contracting landers to instruct the Government as to the powers, but a declaration that the emigrant demands and requirements of the Rand populafarmers beyond the Vaal river, who prior to tion to be equal to establishing the rule of forthat were British subjects, would be permitted eigners over the republic. Notwithstanding the to manage their own affairs without interfer- failure of the conference, President Krüger subence; that annexation in 1877 brought the Sand mitted his new franchise proposals, making them river convention to an end; that the convention more liberal than his Bloemfontein memorandum of 1881 restored freedom of action to the Trans- suggested. The income qualification was reduced vaal so far as was not inconsistent with the to £100. The renunciation of former allegiance rights expressly reserved to the suzerain power, was no longer required, nor was the consent of the term suzerainty being chosen as most con- two thirds of the applicant's neighbors. Young venient for describing superiority over a state men born in the country whose fathers are natupossessing independent rights of government sub- ralized were given the same status as their faject to reservations with reference to certain thers, and must register with the field cornet specified matters. He quoted Lord Derby's ex- from the age of sixteen. The President also proplanation in the House of Lords in answer to posed increased representation of the gold fields à statement that the object of the convention in accordance with his promise. The members of 1884 was to abolish the suzerainty of the of the Reform party of 1895 who had not reBritish Crown, that the word suzerainty was ceived dishonoring sentences would not be exvague and not capable of a precise legal defini- cluded from the franchise. The Government in tion, and that, therefore, they had abstained all. its various franchise plans retained the disfrom using it in the new convention; but whether cretionary power to confer full burgher rights you call it a protectorate, or a suzerainty, or the on Uitlanders who have not completed their recognition of England as a paramount power, stipulated term of residence. Popular meetings the substance is retained when the state that were held on the Rand and throughout the reexercises the suzerainty has a right to veto nego- public and colonies, at which the Imperialists tiations into which the dependent state may enter expressed approval of Sir Alfred Milner's posiwith foreign powers. During the interviews at tion, the Afrikanders of that of President Krüger. Bloemfontein the State President put forward Immediately after the conference an exodus other requests besides the one for the arbitra- of women and children and many men began to tion of disputes arising under the convention- take place from Johannesburg, and as the prosthe unfortunate convention, he called it, because pect of an armed conflict grew more imminent the Boers and the English could in no wise un- the flight was attended with panic and disorder. derstand it in the same manner. He desired the The Government franchise proposals were conincorporation of Swaziland, which Sir Henry sidered by meetings of burghers in every disLoch had proposed to allow after seven years, a trict, for, as President Krüger explained at the period to which the Boer Government at that Bloemfontein conference, and gave as his strongtime obiected. He pressed for the payment of est reason for dreading an overwhelming flood indemnity for the Jameson raid, for which the of new burghers, the Constitution of the republic Government had demanded £ 678,000 for material requires that such questions be submitted to the and £1,000,000 for moral or intellectual dam- people, and makes the will of the majority when ages. The second part of the claim Mr. Cham- formulated in memorials the supreme law, to berlain had declined to consider. The actual which the Volksraad must bow. At these meetexpenses and losses the British Government ac- ings the franchise project was either approved cepted responsibility for, and these the British or left to the judgment of the Volksraad. War South Africa Company would be required to preparations went on actively on both sides. pay; but when an itemized statement was fur- Even during the conference President Krüger denished on request the company's secretary ques- manded an explanation of the strengthening of tioned most of the details and demanded vouch- garrisons on the Natal border. Sir Alfred Milers. The company having proposed to submit ner too wanted to know why Afrikanders had the claim for material damages to arbitration, been armed with new rifles, and the President Mr. Chamberlain, on May 13, 1899, made a propo- explained that when it was found at the time sition to that effect. The President in his plea of the Jameson raid that many were unarmed for general arbitration suggested that the coolie guns were provided for them, and then all wanted new guns; that the burghers had always been Natal. When questioned in the House of Comarmed, but their armaments had been suffered mons, Mr. Chamberlain said they were sent for to fall into neglect. The Free State Volksraad the defense of Natal at the request of the Gov. voted money for equipping burghers and increas- ernor, and that preparation was being made for ing the defenses. The Cape ministers told Sir all contingencies. Fortifications were erected at Alfred Milner that they thought the franchise Ladysmith, and British troops encamped on the proposal of President Krüger practical, reason- frontier. In Rhodesia Col. Baden-Powell enlisted able, and a considerable step in the right direc- a regiment of volunteers. Offers of military contion, and that nothing had arisen to justify tingents were sent to London from Australia, active interference in the affairs of the Trans- Canada, and other colonies; even colored troops vaal. Mr. Fischer, a member of the Orange Free were offered by Malay rajahs and by the West State Cabinet, and Mr. Hofmeyer, after consulta- African colonial authorities. The Indian Governtion with Mr. Schreiner, went to Pretoria to ment was asked how many troops it could spare, urge President Krüger to modify his proposals and a force of 12,000 was got ready to embark so as to admit persons resident before 1892 im- for South Africa. Lieut.-Gen. Sir William Butler, mediately to full citizenship, and to give the who when acting temporarily as High Commisoption of obtaining the full franchise after seven sioner had described the Transvaal troubles as years without naturalization five years pre- the work of the South African League, and said viously. Accordingly, on July 13, the President the question was capable of peaceful adjustment, submitted to the Volksraad a new draft law em- was removed from the chief command of the bodying these changes, with the provision that forces in South Africa, and Lieut.-Gen. Sir Fredto obtain the full franchise after a domicile oferick Forrestier-Walker appointed in his place. seven years, past residence also being taken ac- The Transvaal Government replied on Aug. 19 count of, the intention to become naturalized to the note of Aug. 2 with an offer to comply must be notified from the beginning. The Gov. with Sir Alfred Milner's irreducible minimum by ernment also proposed to give an extra seat each making five years' residence instead of seven a to Zoartpansburg and Pretoria, as well as 4 to requisite for full citizenship, and to increase the the Rand. Sir Alfred Milner would not accept representation of the gold fields to 10 members these concessions as satisfactory, having taken in the First Raad, with the assurance that their the position that his own proposal was the irre. proportion should never fall below one fourth, ducible minimum. When Mr. Reitz proposed a with a like addition in the Second Raad if descheme for general arbitration Sir Alfred Milner, sired; the new electors to have the same right while condemning the plan as unworkable and as of voting for the President and Commandant involving foreign interference, took the position General as the old electors; also to accept any that nothing should be considered until the griev- amendments or simplifications that the British ances of the Uitlanders were redressed. Mr. agent might suggest. This offer was made conChamberlain, in a dispatch dated July 27, re- ditional on the abandonment by Great Britain ferred to the position of Great Britain as the of assertion of suzerainty and on its agreeing to paramount power in South Africa and the re- submit questions in dispute to arbitration, exsponsibilities arising out of the conventions, cluding any foreign element, but not reckoning which he regarded the republic as having vio- the Orange Free State under this exclusion; the lated in raising the period of residence necessary present intervention regarding the franchise not for citizenship from one year by successive stages to be regarded as a precedent, and Great Britain to fourteen years, which was a complete reversal in future to abstain from interfering with the of the conditions of equality between the white internal affairs of the republic. The Transvaal inhabitants subsisting when the British Govern- Government suggested that if its alternative proment granted internal independence in 1881. The posals were accepted the Raad would be dissuccessive proposals of President Krüger for ex- solved, and, after consulting the people, the new tending the franchise to Uitlanders he admitted law would go into force within a few weeks, the to be each more liberal than the preceding one, object being to avert war in South Africa, which and he proposed the appointment of delegates would have far-reaching results. by the Chief Commissioner and the State Presi- In answer to this, Mr. Chamberlain wrote on dent to inquire into the matter, to be followed Aug. 27 that the British Government had absoafter they had made their reports by another lutely repudiated the view of the political status conference. A proposal for arbitration he would of the Transvaal taken by the Transvaal Governbe willing to consider, but not the suggestion ment, claiming the status of a sovereign state, of a foreigner for president of the tribunal, nor and would consider no proposal made conditional would he admit the question of suzerainty to be on the acceptance of this view. Great Britain subject of arbitration. When the British Gov. was prepared to accept the franchise proposals, ernment had asked to have the latest enfran- assuming that they provided for immediate and chisement bill submitted for its consideration substantial representation of the Uitlanders, probefore it went to the Volksraad the State Secre vided a commission of inquiry, whether joint or tary returned a polite negative. The measure unilateral, showed the new scheme to be unenwas passed by the Volksraad and promulgated cumbered with nullifying conditions, as to preon July 26. On July 31 Mr. Chamberlain pro vious registration, qualification, and behavior, posed the appointment of delegates to discuss assuming that the new members of the Raad whether the reforms would give immediate and would be allowed to speak their own language. substantial representation to the Uitlanders, and, If this were acceded to, the British Government if not, what alterations would be necessary. On would be willing to settie the details of the proAug. 1 he telegraphed an invitation to President posed tribunal of arbitration in a conference beKrüger to confer with Sir Alfred Milner on the tween the President and the High Commissioner, franchise question, arbitration without the intro- the questions to come before the tribunal for duction of a foreign element, and other matters. decision being neither Uitlander grievances nor Before this British cruisers had been sent to questions of the interpretation of the convention. Delagoa Bay, and immediately after the invita Should the reply be negative, the British Governtion was delivered to President Kriger several ment must consider the situation de novo, and battalions were dispatched from England to formulate proposals for a final settlement.

On Sept. 5 the Transvaal Government re- gressives, Mr. Schreiner said that, while the responded that it then withdrew its franchise pro- lations with the Orange Free State were friendly, posals, which were more liberal than those put it would be a violation of the customs convenforward by the High Commissioner at Bloemfon- tion to refuse permits. He read a dispatch from tein. The Transvaal had never desired Great President Steyn saying that his republic would Britain to abandon any right that it possessed only take up arms to defend itself or fulfill treaty in virtue of the convention of 1884 or in virtue obligations, that he hoped the differences between of international law, but it wished to assure itself Great Britain and the Transvaal were capable of that Great Britain would abide by the London a peaceful settlement, for war would be a crime convention and international law, and that the against civilization. Mr. Schreiner himself prodifferences in question would be solved in ac- tested his loyalty, and said that if war between cordance with the rules of justice and equity white men broke out he would do his best to recognized by civilized states. If a unilateral keep the colony aloof as the only salvation for inquiry should show that the existing electoral the future, as the two races would have to live law could be made more efficacious, the Trans- together after the storm. The Transvaal Govvaal Government was willing to make proposals ernment issued a proclamation calling on all the to the Volksraad on the subject, but was of the inhabitants to take up arms if martial law opinion that the result of such an inquiry would should be proclaimed. This was an old probe of little value. Nevertheless it was anxious vision of the Constitution, but the State Secreto satisfy Great Britain in regard to the electoral tary assured the British Uitlanders that the law and the representation of the mining dis- Government would never commit the tactical tricts, and was ready to appoint delegates to hold blunder of trying to make them fight against a joint investigation. The Transvaal was ready their country or of commandeering any foreigner also to negotiate on the question of a court of against his will. arbitration, though the restrictions imposed The Transvaal Government on Sept. 6 asked would seem to prevent the object aimed at from an explanation of the massing of troops on the being attained. The Transvaal offered seven frontier, and received from Sir Alfred Milner the years' franchise, past residence being counted, reply that the troops were for guarding British without naturalization or notice being required interests and preparing against contingencies. except from newcomers. Equality of languages Boer troops were mobilized and sent to the Natal was refused, and no further concessions would frontier. The police at Johannesburg tried to be made. The Government of the Orange Free arrest the editor Monypenny and several other State indorsed the reply of the Transvaal. Mr. leaders of Uitlander opinion; but only the jourChamberlain, in the last sitting of Parliament, nalist Pakeman was caught, and the authorities intimated that England had the right to insistat Pretoria denied having ordered the arrests. on the restoration of the franchise of 1881. TheThe rest fled to Durban, and the business men Transvaal officials denied that the franchise bill of the city fled also in alarm, causing a cessation imposed irksome conditions. All an applicant of much of the traffic and industry that was still who is not already registered had to do was to going on, and consequent distress among the hand in his name to the field cornet with the working people, many of whom also joined the affidavits of two reputable burghers to the exodus. T'he Boer forces encamped at Volksrust, effect that he has resided seven years in the and when more battalions arrived at Durban from country; if he is registered, the affidavits are England and India and marched up to Ladyunnecessary. Even sedition does not disqualify smith and Glencoe President Krüger dispatched nor any offense against the law except high an ultimatum demanding the cessation of these treason or heinous crime. During the corre movements within forty-eight hours, otherwise he spondence war preparations were actively pro- would consider that a state of war existed. (See ceeding on both sides. Large consignments of SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC.) ammunition and arms were forwarded to the Rhodesia.—The region south of the Zambesi Orange Free State through Cape Colony, and river lying north of the Transvaal and the others passed by way of Delagoa Bay into the Bechuanaland protectorate, and extending from Transvaal. Mauser rifles were distributed among the Portuguese possessions on the east coast to the burghers in the place of the Martini rifles the German sphere in southwest Africa was dethat they had before. Arms were given out to clared a British protectorate in 1888, and was the Free State burghers as well, and some to committed in October, 1889, by a royal charter the Dutch farmers inside the Natal border. A to the British South Africa Company. In conlarge force of workmen was employed in making sequence of the machinations of the company's trenches, earthworks, and other defenses about officers against the Government of the South Pretoria. A Boer was arrested in Bechuanaland African Republic and the Matabele and Mashona for trying to incite Khama and his chiefs to dis- uprisings the charter was amended on Nov. 25, affection. Over 4,000 Germans formed a corps to 1898, by an order in Council which vests the fight for the independence of the Transvaal in High Commissioner for South Africa with direct the event of war. Hollanders and other foreign authority over the military forces and a general ers volunteered their services also. In the mid- control over the administration that he did not dle of August two cargoes of Mauser rifles and formerly possess. A Resident Commissioner is cartridges were stopped at Delagoa Bay, orders appointed by the Imperial Government, and the having come from Lisbon to prevent the further administrator of the Chartered Company is aslanding of war materials. The Transvaal Gov- sisted by a Legislative Council, composed of the ernment protested against this breach of inter- Resident Commissioner, the Administrator, 5 national law and treaty rights, sending police members nominated by the company and apofficials to investigate, who were placed under proved by the Secretary of State for the Coloarrest when they reached Lourenço Marques. In nies, and 4 members elected by the registered a few days the Portuguese authorities withdrew voters of the colony for three years, which is their embargo. At the same time the Cape min- the duration of the Legislative Council. Every istry allowed munitions to pass freely into the colonist has a vote who occupies a house worth Free State, and, when called severely to account £75 or receives £50 a year income and can read by Sir J. Gordon Sprigg, the leader of the Pro- and write. Ordinances passed by the Administrator and Legislative Council go into effect as The route traverses various gold fields, the Masoon as they have been approved by the High fungabesi coal fields, and a promising copper field Commissioner, but any ordinance may be can on the Karfui river, north of the Zambesi. The celed within twelve months by the Secretary of railroad from Vryburg to Buluwayo has a length State in London. A Secretary for Native Affairs of 600 miles. The next section of the projected is to protect the liberties and interests of the Cape to Cairo trunk line will run northeast to natives, who shall enjoy all the rights of Euro- Gwelo, 250 miles; thence the intention is to carry peans except in regard to the possession of arms it northward at a distance from the sea of from and ammunition and the purchase and consump- 500 miles, at which the route crosses the Zambesi, tion of spirituous liquors. Land shall be as- up to 800 miles, to some point in Uganda, where signed from time to time for tribal settlement, it will connect with an extension of the Egypand whenever such land is reclaimed for mineral tion system. The route north of Gwelo traverses development by the company, which reserves all first an extensive auriferous region, then a wide, mining rights, new lands must be assigned to level coal' area, then the fertile valley of the the natives whose occupation is disturbed. The Zambesi, beyond which it rises gradually to the authorized capital of the British South Africa plateau overlooking the Loangwa valley. This Company is £5,000,000. It has issued £4,375,000 plateau, having an altitude of nearly 6,000 feet, of shares and debentures for £1,250,000.

is suitable for cattle rearing or agriculture, and The area of British South Africa, or Southern lies midway between Nyassa and Bangweolo Rhodesia, is 174,728 square miles, divided into lakes, reaching to Lake Tanganyika, about 1,500 Matabeleland, which has an area of 60,728 square miles from Gwelo. The railroad from Vryburg miles and a population estimated at 240,000, and to Buluwayo cost £2,000,000; from there to the Mashonaland, which has an area of 114,000 Zambesi the estimated cost is £900,000, and the square miles, with about 210,000 inhabitants. cost of the continuation to Tanganyika is estiThe country is rich in gold reefs, which extend mated at £3,000,000. This sum was obtained at over an area of 5,250 square miles. Silver, cop- par and 4 per cent. in the summer of 1899. The per, lead, tin, antimony, arsenic, and coal have railroad is expected not only to open up new also been discovered. The Administrator of regions to European settlement and enterprise, Mashonaland is W. H. Milton. Matabeleland has but to supply Rhodesia with needed fuel from also an Administrator, Capt. A. Lawley. The the Mafunga besi coal fields and the still more Chartered Company derives its revenue from needed labor from the populous countries north mining, trade, and professional licenses, town of the Zambesi, where the natives are willing business stands, and the postal and telegraph and eager to work for 68. a month, whereas in services. The railroad from Kimberley to Vry- Southern Rhodesia £4 is the present rate in the burg, 126 miles, built by the British South Africa mines. From the south to the north end of TanCompany, and afterward transferred to the Cape ganyika, 400 miles, steamboats will at first conGovernment, has been extended by the Bechuana. nect the railroad with the one running through land Railroad Company to Buluwayo, the capi- German territory for 450 miles to the southern tal of Matabeleland, with the aid of a subsidy frontier of Uganda. The hope of obtaining the for ten years of £20,000 a year from the Imperial aid of imperial credit, thereby saving £250,000 and £10,000 from the Cape Government. It is a year in interest on a probable cost of £10,000,intended to continue the line to the Zambesi, and 000 for the whole line, has not been abandoned. eventually to Tanganyika, and perhaps through The telegraph line is being erected with capital Congo State or German territory to Uganda and furnished by Mr. Rhodes and his associates. The the Nile. The Rhodesia and African Transcon- total length from the Cape to Alexandria is tinental Telegraph Company, organized for the 6,670 miles, of which the Cape system from Cape purpose of building a continuous telegraph line Town to Mafeking supplies 870, and the Egyptian through the length of Africa by the same route, system, when carried to Fashoda, 2,090 miles. had 2,635 miles of line, with 3,613 miles of wire, The Chartered Company has built the link bein September, 1898. A railroad outlet for the tween that point and Salisbury, 985 miles, and Mashonaland mines has been provided by the the African Transcontinental Company, of which Beira Railway Company, which opened the line Mr. Rhodes is the principal shareholder, has unfrom Beira; on the Portuguese coast, to New dertaken to construct the 2,725 miles connecting Umtali in 1898. This railroad has been contin- Salisbury with the southern boundary of the ued to Salisbury by the Mashonaland Railway Soudan. Early in 1899 Mr. Rhodes had a conCompany, and was opened on May 1, 1899. The ference with the German Emperor, and through link between Salisbury and Buluwayo has not him obtained from the German Government the yet been completed. The extension to the fron- right of way for the telegraph line through Gertier from Buluwayo and branch lines to Gwanda man East Africa on condition that at the end and other gold fields and the coal deposits at of forty years the line should pass into the posWankie have been undertaken by the Bechuana- session of the Government, which undertook, land Railway Company, transformed into the however, to make no higher charges for through Rhodesia Railways Company, in which the Char- telegraphy than were necessary to pay the cost tered Company has one half and the De Beers of maintenance. Company and the Bechuanaland Railway Trust Rhodesia has not advanced in population or each one quarter interest. The Chartered Com- prosperity since the first influx of immigrants, pany and the gold companies have contributed partly because the mines are not profitable under to the bonds of the Rhodesia Railways Company, present conditions and the climate is not atwhich has a grant of alternate blocks of all the tractive to European settlers, partly also on aclands along the railroads and the exclusive right count of the peculiar land and mining laws of of building new railroads in Rhodesia. Mr. the Chartered Company. At the time when the Rhodes sought to obtain the guarantee of the country was being settled a large number of Imperial Government for the capital necessary Dutch farmers were induced to leave other parts to extend the line to the Zambesi, but this was of South Africa by promises of grants of land refused. The Chartered Company then offered and assistance. Only a few of these obtained the to guarantee the bonds issued for the line promised farms. The others found temporary through its territory up to Lake Tanganyika. employment, principally as transport riders, but

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