Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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During the twelve dark hours it was foolhardy to venture onto the streets except
for urgent or clandestine business . ... Modern street lighting was finally achieved
in 1881 , when the new gas factory introduced gas mantles — electric street ...
logic , it seems to have been believed simultaneously that street sellers would
overcharge and that the turnover of markets would be seriously eroded , causing
prices to become more volatile . Logic , however , was probably not to be
thousand market traders , which may be compared with an estimated forty - five to
sixty thousand street sellers ( KMS , SDA annual ; Bijlmer 1987 , 178 ) . Surabaya
' s administration was more cautious than Jakarta ' s in moving against street ...