Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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The share of trade and what is described loosely as community services (
including household servants ) both rose , while manufacturing , which in the
1930 census was understated by its share of the coolie category , had markedly
The top quintile spent double its pro rata share of expenditure while the bottom
two quintiles spent only half . By the mid - 1990s the top quintile had raised its
share several percentage points at the expense of the two lowest . This does not
After Independence , as the capital of a centralized state , Jakarta experienced
faster population growth and attracted the lion ' s share of what import substitution
did occur . Industrial leadership thereby passed decisively to Jakarta .