Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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Those estates in the delta plain ( as opposed to the dry southwestern hills )
typically produced rice and sugar , with some tree crops and ... By the turn of the
century the private estates had become an anachronism that satisfied nobody .
Most of them were sugar mills that crushed the cane from the adjacent private
estates , with one or two surviving arak distilleries that processed the by - product
, molasses . Around 1900 the Kali Mas above Simpang had been lined with ...
the city proper had extended no further than the abandoned Fort Prins Hendrik to
the north and the settlement of Simpang to the south . The private estates that all
but encircled the city were for the most part still under cultivation . By 1930 most ...