Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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Although the ethnic basis of discrimination was broken down , education ,
occupation , and income have remained the ... Indeed , the Westernized
Indonesian elite of today is probably just as middle class as the Dutch elite of the
late - colonial ...
Economic growth had enhanced social mobility , enabling many to move out of
the cramped and socially regulated kampung environment into suburban , middle
- class society . The new towns and luxury suburbs attested to that trend .
Rather it is argued that , despite its different origins , the New Order displayed
similar features — authoritarian rule , capitalist economic development , and an
expanding middle class — that in turn generated patterns resembling those in the