Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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In 1995 over half of all households occupied a living area of less than 50 square
meters ( 7m x 7m ) . In fact , 29 percent of households occupied less than 20
square meters ( 4 . 5m x 4 . 5m ) , which by Western standards is but one room (
bungalows from the rest of the population living in the kampungs . I have argued (
Dick 1985 , 1990 ) that there is a fundamental distinction in mode of consumption
between those living in kampungs , who share the means of consumption ...
... in Jakarta ( Jellinek 1991 ) . As neighbors sought first to emulate and then to
avoid the embarrassment of being seen still to be living in a shack , these small ,
piecemeal renovations gradually changed the appearance of entire kampungs .