Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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5 percent to less than 5 percent ( based on Levert 1934 , app . Z ) . It may be
presumed that the reduction in the number of man - days of planting labor fell by
not much less than the all - Java average of 93 percent ( Levert 1934 , 279 ) .
By the mid1990s floor area was more equitably distributed than expenditure in
both Surabaya and Jakarta but — surprisingly — less so in Surabaya despite
cheaper land . Floor and land area have remained extremely small for most ...
Such correlations suggest that the repatriation of the Dutch had less of an impact
on social structure than might have been expected . Although the ethnic basis of
discrimination was broken down , education , occupation , and income have ...