Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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Indonesian forces were then gradually driven southward through Tunjungan and
Bubutan . The local people used to the full their knowledge of the buildings and
narrow lanes but could not withstand the relentless pressure from British - Indian
Europeans were disproportionately represented in the professions , public
service , and the armed forces . Their main occupation , however , was trade ( 26
percent ) . This reflected not only Surabaya ' s importance as an international port
Being for the most part located in the main cities , the modern industrial sector fell
much more quickly into Dutch hands than the plantation sector , much of which
remained hostage to Republican armed forces . Albeit by force of circumstance ...