Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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Van der Plas persisted , especially cultivating Islamic leaders , and by dint of
gerrymandering and intimidation was able by September 1948 to reconstitute
twelve regency councils , all with majorities in favor of the negara ( Kahin 1952 ...
The urban boundaries are not identified but it may be presumed that most
kampungs still retained a rural character , especially those on the surrounding
private estates . Most of the nonprimary employment , almost another third of the
Europeans were certainly well represented , especially school children , for the
Netherlands was the European home of the bicycle . However , it was
Indonesians for whom the bicycle was a transport revolution , a very necessary
one in that ...