Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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What was lacking was fuel to drive the process in the sense of effective demand ,
real purchasing power . The Japanese occupation , the turmoil of the Revolution ,
and the worsening economic stagnation after Independence all constrained ...
Supply and demand at the national level set the context . After about 1968 there
was a recovery in domestic demand that received a tremendous boost from the
two OPEC price increases , in 1973 and 1980 . Rising real consumption was ...
The necessary local condition was the emergence of a middle class with enough
critical mass in terms of effective purchasing power not only to create a current
demand but also — and this is the critical point — to create expectations of ...