Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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Independence when capitalized denotes Indonesia ' s Declaration of
Independence on 17 August 1945 . Its recognition by the Netherlands on 27
December 1949 is referred to as the “ transfer of sovereignty . ” The intervening
four years of ...
As youths many of these children would become prominent in 1945 in the fight for
independence . The educated elite who led the movement for independence
thereby helped to sow the seeds of popular revolt . Beyond Independence Good
Circumstances after Independence would reinforce Surabaya ' s subordinate
status . INDEPENDENCE The transfer of sovereignty in December 1949 marked
no obvious discontinuity in industrial policy , for the groundwork had been laid by