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Concerning the work of the marshals and assistants in this connection, Mr. Coxe further says (p. xxv):

Though many of the officers and assistants have performed this new and difficult service with much zeal and intelligence, yet various causes have concurred to occasion numerous and very considerable imperfections and omissions in returns from cities, towns, villages, townships, hundreds, counties, and, as to valuable articles and branches, from States, to be observable. In these first sets of tables it has not been thought best to supply those defects by detailed and diversified estimates, which must be erroneous and might be sanguine.

In submitting a summary of the manufactures by States, Territories, and districts, several footnotes are used, to the general effect that, in the opinion of the marshals of the several States referred to, the values and amounts were much more than as reported, and this summary is followed by "an estimate of the value of the manufactures of the United States of America, excluding the doubtful articles, digested by States, districts, and territories, formed by a consideration of all the reported details and by a valuation of the manufactures which are entirely omitted or imperfectly returned, for the year 1810," giving an estimated total for the whole country of $172,762,676. The total of the goods made in the United States which are of a doubtful nature in relation to their character as manufactures or agricultural, so far as they have been returned by the marshals and the secretaries of the territories, for the year 1810," was $25,850,795; or, in all, $198,613,471.

A further estimate is given, under date of May 1, 1813, by Mr. Coxe (p. liii), covering the year 1813, as follows:

In the course of the numerous and diversified operations, occasioned by the deliberate execution of this digest and statement, constant and close attention has been applied to those facts, which have occurred throughout the Union, since the autumn of the year 1810, from which a judgment of the condition of the manufactures of the United States, in the current year 1813, might be safely formed. It has resulted in a thorough conviction that, after allowing for the interruptions to the importations of certain raw materials, the several branches of manufactures and the States, territories, and districts have advanced, upon a medium, at the full rate of 20 per centum, which would give an aggregate for this year of 207,315,211 dollars. In this increase the State of New York is considered to have most largely partaken, especially by her joint stock companies, and in consequence of the migrations thither from the Eastern States. But as it is best to make ample allowances for some manifest repetitions of articles which are inextricably involved in the subordinate returns, a sincere and well-reflected final opinion is respectfully offered, that the whole people of the United States, taken in 1813 at 8,000,000 of persons, will actually make within this year manufactured goods (exclusively of the doubtful) to the full value of 200,000,000 of dollars, or 45,000,000 of pounds, of sterling money.

It is apparent, therefore, that the published details of manufactures by States and counties have little value as representing the aggregate amount of manufactures at this period for any section, but they do afford, as stated by Mr. Coxe, "a great number and variety of clear indications of the state of the manufacturing branch of the national industry" at that time.

The total population returned at the census of 1810 was 7,239,881, and the total cost was $178,444.67, of which, approximately, $40,000 was expended on account of the return relating to manufactures. (a)


The fourth census was taken under the direction of the Secretary of State, in accordance with the provisions of the act of March 14, 1820, which adhered very closely to the organic act of 1790, as modified by the changes incorporated in the laws governing the second and third censuses, and the addition of two sections which are explained later on. The duty of taking the census was charged upon the marshals of the several districts and territories of the United States, who were required to divide their districts and appoint assistants in the same manner as at the census of 1810; but the law of 1820 provided, in addition, that where a State comprised two districts, and a part of a county should lie in each district, such county should be considered as belonging to that district in which the court-house of said county was situated.

The enumeration was to commence on the first Monday in August, and was to close within six calendar months, but by act of March 3, 1821, the time prescribed for the completion of the work by marshals and assistants was enlarged to September 1, 1821. It was further required that the enumeration should be made, as in 1810, by an actual inquiry at every dwelling house, or of the head of every family within each district, and not otherwise, and the assistants were required to take an oath or affirmation before entering upon their work and were subject to the same penalties as heretofore. The marshals were directed by the act to file with the returns of their assistants an attested copy of the return which the law required should be made to the Secretary of State, the same as in 1810, but they were now subject to a penalty of $1,000, instead of $800, as in preceding censuses.

The assistants were to receive compensation at the same rates prescribed in the law of 1810, including that allowed for the copies of their schedule to be set up for the inspection of all concerned; but before any assistant should be entitled to receive such compensation, he was required by the law of 1820 to take and subscribe to an oath or affirmation to the effect that the number of persons set forth in his return has been ascertained by actual inquiry at every dwelling house, or of the head of every family, in exact conformity with the

a Report of Seventh Census, viii.

provisions of the act, and that he had, in every respect, fulfilled the duties required of him by the act, to the best of his abilities, and that the return aforesaid is correct and true, according to the best of his knowledge and belief. In addition, provision was made by the act of 1820, that where the superficial content of any county or parish exceeded 40 miles square, and the number of inhabitants in said parish or county did not exceed 2,500, the marshal or assistants should be allowed, with the approbation of the district or territorial judges, further compensation, provided the same did not exceed $3 for every 50 persons returned. The number of districts and territories to be enumerated was increased to 31 at this census, New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, as well as Tennessee, each being divided into two districts, and the compensation of the marshals, which was fixed by the act, varied from $50, for the marshal of the District of Columbia, to $350, for the marshal of the district of North Carolina.

The schedule of inquiries called for the same age distribution of the free white population, male and female, as in 1800 and 1810, with the addition in 1820 of the number of free white males between 16 and 18 years. It also provided for a separation of the number of free colored persons and of slaves, respectively, by sex, according to the number under 14 years of age, of 14 and under 26, of 26 and under 45, and of 45 and upward, with a statement of the number of "all other persons, except Indians not taxed." An inquiry was also contained in the schedule, for the first time, as to the number of foreigners not naturalized, and the number of persons (including slaves) engaged in agriculture, commerce, and manufactures.

Not deterred by the poor success of the attempt to secure industrial statistics in 1810, this requirement was again made a part of the law of 1820, under the provisions of which it was made "the duty of the several marshals and their assistants, at the time for taking the said census, to take, under the direction of the Secretary of State, and according to such instructions as he shall give, and such forms as he shall prescribe, an account of the several manufacturing establishments, and their manufactures, within their several districts, territories, and divisions." The returns relating to manufactures were to be sent by the assistants to the marshals of their respective districts or territories, and were to be in turn transmitted by them, with abstracts thereof, to the Secretary of State at the same time at which they were required to make their returns of the enumeration; and for this additional service they were to receive "not exceeding 20 per centum in addition to the sums allowed by this act, to be apportioned in proportion to the services rendered, under the direction of the Secretary of State."

It was further provided by a resolution approved March 30, 1822, that a digest of the returns of the several manufacturing establishments should be made under the direction of the Secretary of State,

and that he should cause 1,500 copies of said digest to be printed, subject to the disposition of Congress.

The questions to be asked concerning each manufacturing establishment were 14 in number, and related to the nature and names of the articles manufactured; market values of the articles annually manufactured; kind, quantity, and cost of raw materials annually consumed; the number of men, women, and boys and girls employed; the whole quantity and kind of machinery, and the quantity of machinery in operation; amount of capital invested; amount paid annually in wages; amount of the contingent expenses, and general observations.

The report of the census of population consisted of a folio of 160 pages, while that containing the digest of the accounts of manufacturing establishments consisted of a folio of 100 pages.

The presentation of the details of age and sex for each class of the population enumerated is given for the several cities and towns in each county in the northern and eastern districts as at the preceding censuses, but in many districts there is no recapitulation by counties, while in two districts (New Hampshire and southern New York) the summary by counties is given, but that for the entire district, which is common to the other districts, is omitted. In the southern districts the presentation is confined to counties usually, but in Maryland it is made by counties and election districts, in Delaware by hundreds, and in South Carolina by districts only.

The report on manufactures presents the results concerning manufacturing establishments, so far as returned in each district and territory, by counties, but the results are not summarized for each district, nor does the report contain any aggregate statement for the entire country-an omission due, doubtless, to the incompleteness of the returns, arising partly from the insufficient compensation allowed for the collection of the returns and partly from the neglect or refusal of manufacturers to supply the necessary information.

The report on population, also, contains, for the first time, copies of the instructions and forms prepared by the Secretary of State for the use of the marshals and assistants in their work.

In making the distribution of the reports the Secretary of State was authorized by the resolution of February 4, 1822, to send one copy to each of the colleges and universities of the United States, as well as to the members of Congress, officers of the Government, and judges of the United States courts.

The total population of the United States in 1820 was 9,633,822.

The total cost of the fourth census was $208,525.99, subdivided as follows: For enumerating the inhabitants, $195,357.56; for printing, $11,014.35; for postage, $1,229.08; for temporary clerk hire at the Department of State, $925. (a)

a Report of Seventh Census, viii.


The census in 1830 was also taken under the direction of the Secretary of State, but, prior to the passage of the census act, President Adams, in his fourth annual message to Congress, dated December 28, 1828, (a) suggested the desirability of commencing the enumeration from an earlier period of the year than the 1st of August, the most favorable season being the spring, and, also, that the columns of age, hitherto confined to a few periods, should be extended, commencing from infancy, in intervals of ten years, to the utmost boundaries of life. Changes embodying these suggestions were made in the act of March 23, 1830, which provided for taking the fifth census. Under the provisions of this act the marshals were directed to appoint one or more assistants in each county and city, and to give to each assistant a certain division, which should not consist, in any case, of more than one county, but could include one or more towns, townships, wards, hundreds, precincts, or parishes, which should be plainly and dis tinctly bounded. In case a part of a county should lie in each of two districts, where a State was divided, it was adjudged to belong to the district in which the court-house was located, the same as in 1820.

The enumeration was to be made by an actual inquiry by the marshals or assistants at every dwelling house, or, as the law now stated, by "personal" inquiry of the head of every family, and was to commence on the 1st day of June (instead of the first Monday in August, as heretofore) and to be completed within six calendar months thereafter. This change made the period from the first Monday in August, 1820, to June 1, 1830, nine years and ten months only, instead of the full ten years, and gave a slightly less percentage of increase than it would have been for the full decade. The assistants were required within six months, or on or before December 1, 1830, to transmit to the marshals of their respective districts or territories two copies of their return, instead of one, as heretofore, while the marshals were directed by the act to file one copy of these returns, together with an attested copy of the return which they were required to make to the Secretary of State, with the clerks of the courts of their respective districts or territories, and to transmit the other copy of the returns of their assistants, and also the aggregate amount of each description of persons within their respective districts or territories, on or before February 1, 1831, to the Secretary of State. It was found necessary, however, to extend the time for the completion of the work, and by the act of February 3, 1831, the assistants were given until June 1 and the marshals until August 1, 1831, or a total period of fourteen months from the commencement of the enumeration.

a Messages and Papers of the Presidents, Vol. 2, p. 420.

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