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EMBRACING POLITICAL, CIVIL, MILITARY, AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS; PUBLIC DOCU-
MENTS; BIOGRAPHY, STATISTICS, COMMERCE, FINANCE, LITERATURE,
SCIENCE, AGRICULTURE, AND MECHANICAL INDUSTRY.

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CoPYRIGHT BY D. A PPLE TO N AND COMPANY., 1879.

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THIS volume of the Annual “Cyclopædia” is the third of the new series and the eighteenth of the whole series. The plan of this work comprises the coorld’s history during the year in every department of human affairs of suffient importance to be permanently recorded. " A special article is devoted to the affairs of each country, which contains a itsketch of its history during the year, whether it is at peace or at war, in a state sof quiet or of revolution, and full official and reliable information on its area, opulation, religion, education, army and navy, commerce, industry, military affairs, the public questions agitated, and the reforms effected. (See the titles of all countries.) No efforts are spared to secure the fullest information from 5all parts of the world, and it is considered that in its several departments the PR work may be safely consulted as the completest and most reliable book of refereIlC6. The details of American affairs in these pages embrace the speeches and proceedings of Congress on the important questions of silver remonetization, resumption of specie payments, the use of the army, etc. (see CoNGRESs); the administration of the Federal Government (see UNITED STATEs); its army and navy (see ARMY AND NAVY); the successful progress of its finances to a specie basis; the revenue from commerce and internal taxation; the demand for Government paper money (see FINANCEs); the organization of the National party and its principles; the unusual commercial activity; the labor movements in several States, especially Massachusetts and California, with the details of the Chinese question; the finances of the States; their debts and resources; their educational, charitable, and reformatory institutions; the struggles of their indebted cities and counties; the various political conventions of the year, with their nominations and resolutions; the results of elections; the proceedings of State Legislatures on a number of local questions of importance; the extension of railroads and telegraphs, and all those improvements involved in the peaceful and rapid progress of the country, for which see each of the respective States. In the Old World the year 1878 marks a turning-point of its history. The reconstruction of Eastern Europe, long recognized by European diplomatists as an unavoidable necessity, was begun in earnest. By the treaty of Berlin, Roumania and Servia have been added to the list of independent states; Bulgaria has actually become independent; Eastern Roumelia has received the hope of future independence, which decaying Turkey can not withhold for any length of time; Bosnia and IIerzegovina will be reorganized by Austria; Greece has been promised an increase of territory; Russia has gained new regions, both in Europe and Asia, which she considered of strategical importance. Turkey, at last comprehending the danger of an entire decomposition, has purchased the

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