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White. ! Colored.



2,391 17,421


(thers.. Catholics.. Jews.



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is entirely filled with the insect-this is pro The religious denominations were representnounced a sure remedy.

ed as follows: The yield of gold and silver in California in 1878 was $18,920,461; which is an increase in

DENOMINATIONS. gold of $2,068,000, but a decrease in silver to

Protestants : the amount of $1,323,000.



40,011 In the important case of the United States


3,430 4,243 7,673 Methodists..

7,960) 24,317 32,277 vs. Throckinorton, the Supreme Court at Wash Baptists..

2,173 ington, on December 9th, rendered a decision


6,278 11,1+

Dutch Reformed Church. 143,076 28,420 171,496 affirming that of the California Circuit Court.

35,661 58, 029 The action was brought to set aside the final

8,666 1,001

9,667 decree of confirmation of a Mexican grant on


11,196 11,214 the ground of its alleged forgery, etc. The Other religions.., Court declined to interfere, because the validity Belonging to no church

2,237 331,510 334,047

Unknown.. of the grant was the very matter adjudicated twenty years ago. The following general prin


36,753 454,201 | 720,984 ciples were announced by Justice Miller in behalf of a unanimous full bench :

Of the total number of inhabitants in Bassuto Courts of cquity will not set aside, on account of Land according to the census of 1875, 60,394 alleged fraud, a decision rendered by a tribunal of were males and 67,307 females. In Griqua competent jurisdiction, unless the frau complained Land West, according to the census of June of was extrinsic or collateral to the matter so adju- 17, 1877, there were 12,374 whites and 32,dicated. There are rights which, even though founded in fraud, have been so established by formal ju- 903 blacks. dicial proceedings in legally constituted tribunals, The Caffre war, which seemed to have come and by legal methods, that they are no longer openi to an end in November, 1877 (see " Annual to inquiry in the usual or ordinary way; and this Cyclopædia” for 1877), broke out again at the founded on a fraudulent instrument or perjured evi- close of the year. On December 20th Kreli, who dence, or for ayy cause which was actually presented

was in hiding in one of the forests in the Transand considered in the judgment assailed. To over- kei, sent messengers to Ibeka asking for peace, rule the demurrer to this bill would be to retry, as he had been sufficiently punished. This twenty years after its decision by the Board of Laid Commissioners and the District Court, the very ques-councilor Botman, who declared that the tribe

was followed by the surrender of his chief tions which they triod on the ground of fraud in the vory document on which this clecreo was rendered.

was subdued and craving for mercy. Col. The Supreme Court further hold that no one but a Eustace discussed with Botman the terms upon United States Attorney-General, or some one an which the submission of the Galekas would be thorized to uso his naine, can, without special act received by the Government-namely, the unof Congress, bring suit to set aside a Unitod States patent, or a judgment rendered in a Federal Court conditional surrender of the chief and his son, on which such a patent is founded; and that there and the disarmament of his warriors. Three is nothing in tho record in this caso to show that days were given for Kreli to accept this or the Attorney-General sanctioned the proceedings.

take the consequences. At the expiration of CAPE COLONY AND BRITISII SOUTII the time an unfavorable answer was given; AFRICA. The area and population of the the armistice as thereupon declared at an British possessions in South Africa were as end, and on Friday, December 28th, Col. Glyn, follows in 1878:

commanding in the Transkei, moved forward

from the Ibeka, with the forces at his disposal. Population.

During the negotiations with Kreli, however, 1. Colony of Cape of Good Hope :

one of his councilors, Kiva, with 200 followa. Cape Colony proper, inclusivo of British Caffraria.



ers, cluded the guards at the river drifts and

1:27,701 crossed over the Kei into the Gaika location. c. Griqua Land West.

16,032 43,277 This immediately changed the aspect of affairs. d. Catfraria, exclusive of Pondo

12,452 2.34,500

A considerable section of the powerful Gaika 2. Natal....

320,959 tribe, whose veteran chief Sandilli was one of 3. Transvaal.


the most troublesome enemies of the British 370,574 1,750,421 twenty-five years ago, and who up to this time

had been overawed and kept in check, now took The total population of 720,984 in the Cape up arms against the Government. Martial Colony, according to the census of 1875, was law was proclaimed throughout portions of divided as follows:

the Gaika territory, and the European residents on isolated farms in their neighborhood

were warned at once to move to the nearest Europeans or whites

123,910 112,573 236,753

camps and places of rendezvous for protection. Malays..

5,635 10,817 50,579

The Gaikas in the last days of December made

47,952 98,561 Fingoes..

36,435 87,071 78,506 an incursion into Fingo Land, which is unler

109,817 104,316 214,133 the British protectorate. They next attemptea Halt-breeds and others..

13,705 13,479 87,184

to cut off the communications by the post369,624 1831,336 720,994 road between King Williain's Town and KonVol. XVIII.—6 A




8. 1530)

b. Bassuto Land..


15,700 114,340


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gha, which is the principal station of the cavalry and after several licurs' fighting completely and artillery belonging to the armed frontier routed. police, and is distant forty miles north of King In the beginning of March a movement was William's Town. A serere engagement was undertaken by Commandant Griffith against fought on December 31st, between a body of the rebel positions on the Thomas River, and 40 men of the 88th and 20 police, and a large the whole country from the junction of the body of Gaikas estimated at from 600 to 1,000. Kei to Ilenderson was effectually scoured, the In the beginning of January the Caffres were Caffres everywhere retreating. Sandilli and swarming throughout East London division, his two sons, however, together with their folespecially near the Kei. From Kongha Col. lowers made a backward morement into the Lambert, with a force 600 strong, went out colony during the succeeding night and day, against them, but thought it better to defer and, passing within a mile or two of the posts an attack until reinforcements should arrive. at Stutterheim and Grey Town, reached withIIe relieved and brought away a garrison at out any hindrance the Izeli and Perie Bush Fort Jeupetu, and in less than an hour after- in the famons Amatola range, thus taking posward the fort was occupied by the natives. session of their old and familiar strongholds At the junction of the Isomo and the Kei the in the wars of 1846 and 1851. Gaikas attacked the Fingoes, but were re Kreii, after the disastrous battle of Quintapulsed with a considerable loss. On January na, fled to Pondo Land on the l'mtata River. 14th a general plan of offensive operations for On March 14th news reached Ibeka that the the attack and dispersion of the enemy was great Galeka warrior Kiva had taken refuge set in motion. Col. Glyn's column, east of the in one of Kreli's hiding-places. Col. Glyn Kei, Col. Lambert's from the Konglia, reën- immediately sent out an expedition against forced by a large number of Fingoes, and Capt. him, which was completely successful. It took Brabant's East London and Chalumna Volun- Kiva completely by surprise, and during the teers, made a simultaneous movement upon engagement Kiva and three of his brothers the Kei and Chichaba Valleys. While Col. were killed. No sooner was the news of his Lambert's force drew the head of the Chi- death made known than Kreli showed signs of chaba Valley, the force under Capt. Brabant submission. llis principal councilor, Botman, encountered the enemy lower down. I bout brought the intelligence that the great chief 4,000 head of cattle and 10,000 sheep were intended to surrender in a few days. He taken from the Caffres, and a large number shortly after inquired on what terus peace of the enemy killed. A continuous roar of can- would be made. But he as well as Sandilli, non and musketry was kept up from Col. Glyn's who made a similar inquiry, was told that no column on the other side of the kei, who took conditions would be made with rebel chiefs in from the enemy 1,000 cattle and 900 sheep. arms against the Government. The losses of the British on this occasion wero The mountainous region to which Sandilli very small. On the 16th Capt. Brabant drove had retired offered all the advantages of a them with considerable loss from the fastnesses natural fortress, occupying a space of about 30 along the Kabousie River, where they had miles square. At first the number of rebel concentrated their forces, and again captured Gaikas in the Amatolas was not more than large numbers of cattle and sheep. Nothing of 1,000, but constant reënforcements soon raised importance occurred during the remainder of it to 3,000 or 4,000. Gen. Sir A. Cunynghame, January. A decisive victory was gained by whose term had expired, was succeeded in the Britislı, however, in the beginning of Fel- the latter part of February by Gen. Thesiger, ruary, when on the 7th Col. Glyn and (apt. The operations of the latter were at first unUpcher inflicted a severe defeat upon the na- successful, but he gradually reduced the territives at Quintanil. It was undoubtedly the tory occupied by the rebels. Tini Macomo, a most disastrous defeat the Caffres had met with powerful chief who, after having been defeatup to that time. The Galekas themselves ac- ed near Fort Beaufort, had joined Sandilli, knowledged severer losses than on any pre was captured on May 27th, and, within about vious occasion; and the bodies of nearly 200 ten days after, Sandilli himself was killed at found in front and about the position, and more Isidengi. This virtually put an end to the war, than an equal number afterward discovered in and the troops were ordered home. the neighboring kloofs and ravines, attested the At the same time that the troubles in the sevority of their punishment. It was known a Transkei territory were reopened, the powerday or two previous that the enemy were col- ful nation of the Zooloos, under their King Cetylecting in that part of the Transkei meditating wayo, pressed close upon the borders of Natal an attack, but it was difficult to judge which of and of the Transvaal province, along the Buffalo the positions, Ibeka or Quintana, they would River. This locality is distant three hundred approach. Col. Glyn made dispositions to miles in a straight line to the north from the moet either case. On the morning of the 7th Great Kei River of the Gaikus and Galekas; the forces of the enemy were seen approach- but the intervening provinces of Natal and ing, and proved to be the combined forces of Bussuto Land are traversed by a chain of wild Kreli and Sandilli, numbering about 4,000 to mountain ranges and highlands, called the 5,000 men. They were immediately attacked, Drakenberg, along which it would be possible

for the savages to hold communication with another Administration as soon as he could each other. It was therefore an alarming cir- form the same. A new ministry was formed cunstance that the Zooloo King had chosen by Mr. Gordon Sprigg, and was composed as this time to advance claims of territory in the follows: Mr. Sprigg, Premier ; Mr. Uppington, district of Utrecht, at the southern extremity Attorney-General; Mr. Laing, Commissioner of of the Transvaal, which both Sir Theophilus Crown Lands and Public Works; Mr. Ayliffe, Shepstone, the Administrator of that province, Secretary for Native Affairs; and Mr. Miller, and the Provincial Government of Natal weré Treasurer-General. Parliament met on May not disposed to admit. There was much cause 10th. Among the first questions it considered to apprehend that Cetywayo was assured of was the action of Sir Bartlo Frere in dismissing an alliance with his restless warlike neighbor the Molteno Ministry. A resolution supporting Sekukuni, the late unconquered foe of the the action of the Governor was passed by a Transvaal Republic; and it was estimated that vote of 37 to 22. both potentates together could command a joint CIIEMISTRY. Nitrification.-The process force of_47,000 men, armed with muskets and generally in use for preparing saltpeter (nitrate rifles. In the middle of March Sekukuni de- of potassium) is as follows: Soil

, containing clared himself openly hostile, and laid siege to niore or less vegetable mold and carbonate of . two forts in the direction of Leydenburg. Se lime, is mixed with a certain proportion of vere fighting took place on June 22d at Lar- stable manure or other refuse organic matter, genbeck on the northern border, in which the and disposed in small heaps, to the interior of rebels were defeated. The Kamas tribe was which there must be free access of air; the disarmed and dispersed. In August a mutiny heaps are sheltered from rain, and watered from broke out in Zooloo Land, in the native police. time to time with stable sewage. After two Skirmishing had been going on during July and or three years the earth is found to be sufficientAugust, and by the end of August the Caffres ly rich in niter to be worth leaching. Of late, had completely invested Leydenburg.

however, niter is obtained far more expediA rising took place among the Griquas, in tiously by the treatinent of Peruvian nitrate Griqua Land East, during April

, On the 14th of sodium with potassium chloride, the prodthey made an armed demonstration against uct being saltpeter and common salt. But Kokstadt, but were defeated with considerable how is the phenomenon of nitrification as seen loss. The rising was completely suppressed by in the artificial process to be explained? Clearthe end of the month.

ly it involves oxidation of nitrogen into nitrio The Caffre war gavo rise to a ministerial acid; but the question which has long vexed crisis. It was well known that differences of the minds of chemists concerns the rationale opinion liad occurred on more than one occasion of this oxidation. The old chemists believed between the Governor and the Cabinet. Pos- that a decaying organic body evolves more or sibly it could not be otherwise while the Gov- less of its nitrogen in a free state, and that this ernor as commander-in-chief was responsible while nascent combines with the oxygen of the to the Imperial authorities for the movements air.. According to many modern chemists, the and actions of the British forces, and at the oxidizing agent is ozone. Others again incline silme time was constitutionally advised in all to the belief that nitrogen is never oxidized in intíors of government by a ministry answer the soil except when in the form of ammonia, able for their policy to the Colonial Parliament and that the nitrogen of organic matter is cononly. The dissensions in the Executive Coun- verted into ammonia as a preliminary to nitrificil came to a head in the first days of February, cation. Accorling to soine experiinents, the when the General, Sir A. Cunynghame, called ferric oxide, which gives a red color to so many attention to the fact of there being virtually soils, is itself an oxidizing agent, and capablo of two commands on the frontier, one composel converting ammonia into nitric acid. of the military, controlled by the General, and An entirely neiv explanation is offered by another a colonial army formed of the burgler Messrs. Schloesing and Müntz, and their theoand volunteer contingents, each operating in- ry appears to be confirmed by the researches dependently of the other. Sir Bartle Frero of others. According to this theory, nitrificatook the military view that there could be no tion, so far from being a purely chemical prosuch division, that even the issuing of commis- cess, is the icork of a living organism comparasions to the officers at the head of the volunteer ble to the yeast-plant. They have found that expeclitions against the enemy was illegal and nitrification, however active, is immediately unconstitutional, and that the colonial auxili- stopped by chloroform vapor, herein showing ary troops must be placed under Lieutenant- an analogy to all known organized ferments. General Sir A. Cunynghame, the officer com- They have further shown that, when the promanding the British forces in South Africa. cess has been suspended in this way for many The Governor, finding the Ministry persistent weeks, it can be renewed by the addition of a in the course of maintaining the independent small quantity of a nitrifying body. Again, the action of the Colonial Government with re- temperature of boiling water suflices to destroy spect to the burgher and volunteer contingents, all power of nitrification, and soil which has informed Mr. Molteno and his colleagues that been once heated to this point produces no he would feel it his duty to call to his Councils nitrates. If, lowerer, this soil be moistened

with water containing a little unheated soil, trification has probably distinctive characters, and the production of nitric acid begins again. might be isolated by cultivation under conditions The theory has been subjected to practical specially suitable to its growth, but more or less un

távorable to the life of other associated germs. Pastests in England, and the results, as stated in teur has pursued this method with success in the “Nature" by Mr. R. Warington, are as fol case of beer yeast, and has shown that with the pure lows:

yeast thus obtained an unchangeable beer may be

manufactured, the organisms producing, secondary It was found that the vapor of bisulphide of carbon, changes having been excluded. The subject of niand of chloroform, etfectually prevented nitrification trification has clearly reached a stage whică demands in a moist garden svil through which air was fre- the aid of the vegetable physiologist. quently aspirated, while without these vapors tho soil produced nitrates in considerable quantity: A

Ver Compounds from Carbon Bisulphuret.solution of chloride of ammonium containing a little It is known that carbon bisulphuret, like cyantartaric acid, phosphato of potassium, and carbonato of calcium, was also completely nitrified in a few the intervention of oxygen or any similar body;

ogen, will unite directly with metals without wecks by the addition of a small quantity of soil hence its distinguishing name of " erythrogen." taken from the "fairy-ring "ofa meadow. This sulution, when nitrified, was successfully used as seed Guided by this property, L. Thompson made to produce nitrification in other similar solutions, the attempt to discorer whether erythrogen which without this addition produced no nitric acid. could displace cyanogen from any of its comnitrification; solutions kept in a dark cupboard pro- binations, and in this way discovered not only ducing nitric acid, while similar solutions standing that cyanogen can be so displaced, but also that in daylight produced none. The evidence has thus in so doing two hitherto unknown compounds become very strong that the nitrates in soil owe their are produced, viz., (I ner pigment and a new origin to oxidation brought about by living organ-oplosire. The first experiment was made with ismus. That mycoderms, in their processes of life, may exert a powerful oxidizing action upon organic

a sample of coal-gas containing a rather large matter, we have alreadly learned through the re- proportion of carbon bisulphuret. A set of searches of Pasteur and others. The most familiar Liebig bulbs were charged with caustic-potash example is that of the acetic termentation. Vinegar solution containing (issolved bieganide of mergrowth of a very simple organism, the 1yroderma cury, and the coal-gas was then slowly passed aceti; without the growth of such an organism 20

through the bulbs, with the following results: vinegar is ever formed. It is by similar low oryan Very soon the solution became milky, and this isms that termentation of all kinds is brought abont. effect continued to increase for several days, Putrefuction has also been shown to be equally do with deposition of a white precipitate, which and except under the conditions suitable for their became successively first gray, then black, and rapid development putrefaction will not take place. finally a beautiful scarlet, thus proving the esWith this abun lant evidence before us of the ener- istence of at least two, perhaps three different gotic decomposition of organic matter brought about compounds. llaving ascertained by analysis by what we may term microscopic fungi, we can hurdly be astonished to find that the same agency is from the coal-gas but the bisulphuret of car

that the scarlet compound derived nothing capable of' oxidizing the nitrogen of organic maiter and of ammonia, and thus producing nitric acid. bon, the gas was abandoned, and pure bisulThe orunnisms which produce these wonderful pluret of carbon was employed instead.

The changes consist of colorless cells; they are indepen- process is as follows: dont of daylight, for they derive their supply of carbon exclusively from organized matter, and from the A strong solution of the cyanide of potassium is decomposition of such matter they obtain the force to be boiled for several minutos upon binoxide of necessary for life and growth. In these respects mereury, or, what answers equally well, the nitric they differ entirely from green rentation, in which oxide of mercury sold by apothecarios; it is then sunlight is the source of all energy, and carbonic-acid

to be mixed withi'tliree tinies its bulk of a very strong gas, decomposed by the aid otlight, the material from solution of caustic potasli, and when it has become which carbon is derived. The colorless and green

cold it must be cautiously decanted into a Florence organisms, however, equally require phosphoric aciil, flask or other convenient vessel, and a considerable potash, and other ash constituents; and both appear quantity of bisulphuret of carbon added to it with to be capable of assimilating nitrogen in the form of frequent agitation. The mixture assumes in rapid ammonin. Not only are these simple organismsinde- succession a variety of' tints, parsing from white, pendent of the aid of light, but liilit is, in some cases yellow, brown, and gray, into black; and, if tben at least, actually fatal to their existence. This fact left to the ordinary temperature of the atmosphere, has quite recently been established by Downes and the black is changed into scarlet in the course of Blunt. They find that the bacteria present in an or twenty-tour to forty-eight hours, according to the ganic fluid may in many cases be entirely destroyed by quantity of caustic potash present. The larger the exposure of the solution to daylight, and that even amount of potasli, the shorter is the time ri quired when this is not the case their development is made for the developinent of the scarlet color; but this retarded by suell treatment. This observation is per- change is very soon brought about by thé employfectly in accordance with the fact observed at Rotham ment of heat, and therefore the task containing the sted, that uitrification did not proceed in solutions mixturo should be placed in a water-bath at 1108 exposed to daylight. In the last communication of Fahr., when in about half an hour the scarlet preSchloesing and Müntz, it is stated that vegetable soil cipitate will have formed, and we may distill off suspended in water, by passing a stream of air and collect the surplus bisulphuret of carbon, after through the mixture, undergoes nitrification both in which the pigment must be well washed and carelight and darkness. No details of the experiment are fully dried. given, but it seems probablo that such a mixturo would be more or less opaque, and the greater bulk

This pigment (ponsalion) is a scarlet powder of the material consequently at all times in partial of a very brilliant užt. It rivals gold itself in darkness. The microscopic organism producing ni- resisting the effect of atmospheric influences

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aad is, like gold, only attacked by aqua regia on the other hand, complex compounds of and those Huids which generate chlorine; it is other elements are as a rule decomposed by moreover unaffected by sulphuretted hydrogen this substance into two or more simpler comor any of the hydrosulphurets, and as a paint pounols. Mr. Hannay was therefore induced is practically imperishable.

to examine whether carbon is or is not the İts composition appears to be very peculiar, only element capable of forming series of . though a sufficient number of analyses has not bodies of complicated structure; and whether yet been made to settle that question beyond the the existence of water on this earth is the range of doubt. Nevertheless, it seems to con reason of our not having complex bodies with sist of one atom of mercury (202), three atoms other elements than carbon for their basis. of sulphur (48), one atom of carbon (6), and The plan adopted was to take some complione atom of hydrogen (1); thus making 257 as cated substance containing no carbon which is its atomic equivalent, and leading us to con- decomposed by water, find a solvent for it, and clude that it is al hydro-erythride of the proto- act on it with other reagents out of contact of sulphuret of mercury, whence we may infer air and moisture. The substance used was that it might be made by a very different pro- oxychloride of chromiun (CrO2Clu), and the cess to that above described, and, indeed, wo solvents employed were carbon disulphide and may naturally expect many improvements in carbon tetrachloride. Mr. Ilannay has devised the mode of its production.

an apparatus which allows of the substance As we have seen, the first effect of passing being precipitatei, filtered, washed, dried, and coal-gas through an alkaline solution of bicya- weighed off for analysis without coming in nide of mercury is a white precipitate. If we contact with air or moisture. The following arrest the process at this point we obtain, in the is a list of the chromium compounds prepared usual way of washing and drying, a gray-white by him: powder, which on applying heat explodes with Cr.C1,503. Cri,C1,Sg. Cry('1,P,Br;0.. great violence. In all probability it consists Cry('lis). Cr,C1,5,6). (rz(1P16(1,0). of two substances, one containing sulphur and

('r C1, Brn. CriCl.S;O)... ('r:(').Pt.

Cr (1,5,O, ('rCl, S.,11,0). (13C'l Pil. the other cyanogen united to some form of

('r,(1.S. ('r(l.,S..

('ry('13PBr. hydrocarbon; it is to this last that the name ('r. ('1,Brus. ('rC1zPSO. (Cory(16P,0. “ cyanon" has been provisionally given.

Cr,C1,9.. ('r;(');P,00 CroCl.P. As procured in the way described, cyanon is a

| ('r C1.P,0,. white powder having a greonin-gray tint, and, when Mr. IIannay las prepareil some analogous a few grains of it are heated in a test-tube, it es- manganese compounds, but the analyses of plodes at a heat of about 400° Fahr. with much these have not yet been finished. force and the production of a considerable quantity of soot or carbon, while the mercury is thrown out

The Luminosity of Flame.-IIeumann conof the tube to a considerable distance, so that cya- siders the luminosity of lıydrocarbon flames to pon may truly be said to combine the qualities of be due to the presence in them of solid partiboth gunpowder and shot. The cyanoged com cles of incandescent carbon. The grounds on pound, which in cyanon is united to mercury, has been transferred to copper with the production of a

which this opinion is based are thus briefly copper salt having an explosive quality quite equal summed up in the “ American Journal of Scito the mercurial compound; and in all likelihood ence": "1. The increased luminosity which this copper salt is tho substance which has fre- chlorine gives to weakly luminous or non-lumiquently caused explosions during the repairing of nous flames is due to its well-known property Old gus-meters by soldering them. This explosive of separating the carbon as such. 2. A rod held drosulphate of ammonia, and no doubt common gas- in a fame is smokeol only on the lower side, liquor would answer the saine end, so that it would the side opposed to the gas stream. Were the be a wise precaution to bathe old gas-meters in gas- carbon there as vapor, is Frankland assumes, liquor before attempting to apply a heated soldering it would be condensed by a cooling action, and iron to them. To outain cyan in it is not necessary that there

so all around the rod. 3. A body held in the should be an exess of caustic alkali present in tho fame is smoked even when it is in a state of liquor, for this is needed only to insure the formia- ignition ; this, therefore, can not be condentiön oi' ponsælion; consequently we have merely to sation of il vapor 4. These particles can be excess of peroxide of mercury, and, after filtering actually seen in the fame when it is made to tlo cold liquor, pass a current of purified conl-yus strike against a second flame or an ignited through it until a sufficient quantity of white precip- surface, the particles aggregating together to itate has been formed, which must then be washed form visible masses. 5. The luminous portion and dried in the usual way.

of a flame is not very transparent, no inore so Vino Compounds of Chromium and Janga- than the layer of smoke of the same thickness 21686.- A paper of considerable interest in which rises above it flame fed with turpentine. theoretical chemistry was communicated to 6. Flames which unquestionably owe their lathe Glasgow Philosophical Society by J. B. minosity to the presence of solid particles give Hannay, on certain new compounds of chro a shadow withi sunlight, precisely as do hydroquium and manganese. Ho observes that, on carbon flames; while luminous fames comexamining any general list of carbon com- posed only of ignited gases and rapors give no pounds, however complicated their structure, such shadow in sunlight.” they are not as a rule decomposed by water; Alum in Baking-Pouilers. — Dr. IIenry A.

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