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object of the attacks of the reactionary party. net it was understood that Count Shouvaloff The immediate occasion of his dismissal was would take the chief position, an event which a demand by the reactionists, growing out of was made more practicable and probable by an incident in the Vera Sassulitch trial, that the growing age and infirmities of Prince advocates should be subjected to Government Gortchakoff. Nothing definite on this subject control. Count Pahlen opposed this proposal, had been inade known at the close of the and was removed, to make way for M. Nabo- year. koff, a reactionist.

Attention has been paid recently to the comThe resignation of M. de Reutern as Minister munications withı Siberia by way of the Arctic of Finance was officially announced July 19th. Ocean and the great rivers of that country. He was succeeded by W. Greig. General Tima- Three ships laden with corn, hemp, flax, etc., cheff, Minister of the Interior, resigned his po. were sent from Siberia by the Arctic route to sition in December. The Emperor addressed Europe in 1878. A great development of inhim a letter of thanks for the service he had dustrial activity has taken place in southern given, and conferred upon him the Vladimir Siberia since the recent acquisition by Russia order of the first class. Privy Councilor Ma- of Semivitchinsk, Kuldja, and the Ili Valley. koff was appointed Provisional Minister of the The Russian legation at Teheran is promoting Interior, and General Timacheff was appointed the construction of a railway between Tiflis a member of the Senate. An intention was and the Persian capital, which will be carried attributed to the Czar, toward the end of the out, if necessary, exclusively with means supyear, to take advantage of the changes which plied from Russia ; and an extension of the the resignations of the old ministers were line, it was said in September, was even conmaking necessary in the personality of his templated to lIerat. A grand national exhiCabinet to introduce a new policy of admin- bition is projected to be held at Moscow in istration, and substitute for the present Com- 1880, a date which will correspond with the mittee of Ministers a Cabinet which should hold twenty-fifth year of the accession of the present its councils under his presidency. In this Cabi- Emperor to the throne.

S

SAN SALVADOR (REPÚBLICA DE SAN Sal- 507, with but $7:3,792 of expenditures. The VADOR), one of the five independent states of spirit tax alone yielded $146,760 in the first Central America. (For territorial division, quarter; and the total yield of that monopoly area, population,* etc., see“ Annual Cyclop:e- for the year was estimated at $670,000. “Tho dia” for 1873). The President of the Repub- financial difficulties having now been relic is Señor Don R. Zaldívar (May, 1876); and moved,” writes a newspaper correspondent, the Vice-President, Sr. Don T. Larreynaga. "the ordinary revenues of the country will

, The Cabinct is composed of the following min- with economy and wise management, suffice isters: Interior, Sr. Ion A. Lopez; Foreign to meet all present requirements.” The floatAffairs, Sr. Ion C. Ulloa; Justice, Sr. Don ing home debt of the republic was reported to G. Aguilar; Public Instruction, Sr. Ion M. amount to $1,072,948 on September 30, 1876. Gallardo; and War and Finance, Sr. Don A. The exports for 1876 were of a total value Moran. The President of the Corps Législatif of $3,605,02:3, against $3,179,514 in 1877; and is Sr. Don M. Olivares ; President of the Sen- the imports, $1,698,083, against $2,689,968 in ate, Sr. Don T. Moreno; and the Bishop, T. M. 1875. The following tables exhibit the value Pineda y Zaldaña.

of the foreign commerce of San Salvador for The standing army is 1,000 strong, and the the year 1877, and the countries with which it militia 5,000. The Minister of War reports was carried on: the condition of the forces as most admirable, and that the troops were well supplied with

$1,505,108 good arms of all kinds.

96,761 The national revenue for 1876 was set down at $1,096,591, and the expenditure at $1,794,

Germany.

447,196 282, constituting a deficit of $697,691. The financial condition of the country has for a

$:3,960,932 number of years been extremely unfavorable;

$1,219,991 but symptoms of improvement have of late been observed. For instance, the revenue and

270,129 expenditures for 1878 were estimated at $1,

Gerinany.

870,626 500,000 and $1,300,000 respectively; and the Treasury returns for February and March of

$2,311,042 the same year show a total income of $261, According to the foregoing figures, the bal* European statisticians estimate the population as not

ance of trade in favor of the republic was $1,exceeding 450,000.

619,890. It will be observed that the esports to

EXPORTS.

Value.

COCTRIES
Great Britain..
United States..
France

516,079 201,198

Other countries

Total..

IMPORTS.

Great Britain.
France,
United States.

361.525

92,471

Other countries.

Total..

He was

Great Britain were of nearly double the value Peace remained undisturbed throughout the of those to the United States, and the value of republic during the year. the imports from the former alınost five times SERVIA, a principality of southeastern as great as that of the imports from the latter; Europe. The Prince, Milan IV. Obrenovitch, but, what is more remarkable still, the absolute born in 1854, succeeded to the throne by the balance of trade in favor of San Salvador in election of the Servian National Assembly, afboth cases was almost the same, say very little ter the assassination of his uncle, Prince Miluss than $700,000. The value of the cotton chael Obrenovitch, in June, 1868. goods imported from the United States was but crowned at Belgrade, and assumed the govern$15,010, against $983,247 from Great Britain ; ment August 22, 1872. He was married Octobut American machinery was imported to the ber 17, 1875, to Natalie de Keshko, the daughamount of $20,418, against but $1,073 worth ter of a Russian nobleman, and bas one son, of British. The chief staples of export are in- Prince Alexander, born August 14, 1876. The digo, coffee, sugar, balsam of Peru, and India- area of Serria is 18,687 square miles; popularubber, the tirst thing by far the most impor- tion in 1878, 1,720,000. According to the budtant. The total indigo crop in 1877 announted get for the year 1877–78, the revenue was to 1,636,227 lbs., of which Great Britain alone 38,800,338“tax piasters” (1 piaster = 7 cents), took 1,055, 700 lbs. There were 15,861,947 lbs. and the expenditures 38,627,752 piasters. A of coffee produced in the same year, and 3,- loan was contracted in 1876 in consequence of 521,138 lbs. of sugar. Rice is now grown in the war, the amount of which is not known. considerable quantities, as is also tobacco: of The number of taxable persons in 1875 was the former Costa Rica took 405,635 lbs., and 287,047. The imports in 1874 announted to of the latter 213,650; the entire crop amount- 32,456,362 francs, the exports to 39,001,878 ing to 604,135 and 270,550 lbs. respectively. francs, and the transit trade to 6,631,000 francs. Of 313,062 lbs. of hides shipped, the larger The army consists of the standing army and portion went to the United States.

the national army.

The former is estimated at The total values of some of the principal 4,222 men, and the latter at 150,590. commodities exported to all destinations in For an account of the war with Turkey, and 1877 were as follows: Indigo, $1,636,227 (con- the provisions of the treaty of Berlin affecting siderably less than usual); coffee, $1,686,194; Servia, see TURKEY and EASTERN QUESTION. silver ores, $142,466 ; sugar, $111,634; balsam The Skupshtina was opened on July 7th, by

of Peru, $50,137. Cotton fabrics were im- Prince Milan. In his speech from the throne • ported to the amount of $1,077,701; woolen he stated the motives for entering upon & fabrics, $58,832; silk fabrics, $53,215; hard- second campaign against Turkey, and thanked ware, $370,404; flour, $111,856 (mainly from the national militia for their services in the California); provisions, $58,242; wines, spirits, field. He dweit upon the article of the treaty etc., $48,065 ; glass and earthen ware, $64,448. of San Stefano relative to the independence of The shipping employed in the foreign trade of Servia and the extension of her territory, and the republic in 1877 was nearly 12,000 tons; expected that the Congress would sanction of which 4,269 were for the United States, Servian independence, and increase Servian 4,504 for England, 1,080 for France, 788 for territory by those districts in which Servianıs Germany, 726 for Costa Rica, and the remain- for centuries past have demanded union with der for other republics of Central and South Servia. The Prince also expected from the America.

justice and good will of the Great Powers an A new contract with the Pacific Mail Com- amelioration of the condition of the Servian pany was talked of.

The Government ex countries not united with Servia. Servia, inpressed its willingness to pay $10,000 per an- dependent and enlarged, would, be said, acnum in addition to the present subsidy, on quire fresh strength for the development of all condition that all through steamers should the national forces. The Prince concluded by touch at both La Libertad and Acajutla every recommending to the Skupshtina to confine itvoyage, keeping up the same service as usual self to the most pressing matters, such as the in the intermediate lines.

budget, the laws enacted during the war, the In Chalchuapa, a fertile district in the north- discussion of the law upon invalided soldiers, ern part of the republic, inducements are of- and the reorganization of the active army. fered to immigrants. A free building site in Senator Matitch was then elected President of the town, and security of person and proper- the Skupshtina. On July 18th the Skupty, are guaranteed. The lands are remarkably shtina unanimously voted the budget for 1878 good, and those not private property can easily as introduced by the Government, with the be obtained. Coffee, sugar, indigo, tobacco, exception of a few unimportant amendments, etc., are the staples of production.

and on the 20th the bill with regard to the The Government has announced its inten- pensions for invalids and the families of soltion of joining the Postal Union. Although diers who fell in the late war. M. Ristitch, the the mail service is tolerably well provided for, Minister for Foreign Affairs, addressing the so far as the establishment of mail routes is llouse on the 24th, declared that Servia should concerned within the republic, the rates of be well satisfied with the result of the Berlin postage on letters have always been high. Congress. She had acquired more than her

neighbors, and it was impossible to obtain fur- proved June 18, 1878. It is the only exclusivether concessions from the Great Powers withi- ly governmental establishment of the kind in out risking everything. The Skupshtina was the world, the life-saving institutions abroad closed on July 25th. In the latter part of being all voluntary societies, supported by the August the entire Ministry resigned, and M. donations of benevolent persons; and to this Ristitch was intrusted with the formation of country belongs the eminent distinction of hava new Cabinet, which was announced in the ing organized an elaborate system of relief for early part of October, as follows: President seafarers wrecked upon its coasts, backed by. of the Council and Minister of Foreign Affairs, the means and energies of the Government. Ristitch; Interior, Miloikovitch; Finances, Although the coast of the United States is Jovanovitch; War, Leshyanin; Worship, Was more extended than that of any other marisilyevitch ; Justice, Lazarevitch ; Public Works, time country, and is fraught with peculiar Alimpitch. The Skupshtina assembled again difficulties and perils to navigators, as many on December 3d. Of six deputies named by shipwrecks show, the public movements for the Skupshtina, Prince Milan selected M. Tas- protecting the lives imperiled by disaster upon kakoritch as President, and M. Vasitch as Vice- it appear to have long been remarkably feeble President. In his speech from the throne he and disconnected, considering the active symdeclared that the equal rights of Servian sub- pathy called into play by constantly recurring jects of all religious denominations should be calamity. The first regular attempt at organrecognized.

ized succor was made by the Massachusetts On August 22d the Servians celebrated si- llumane Society, an association of gentlemen multaneously the independence of Servia, Prince originally formed in 1786, incorporated for genMilan's birthday, and his accession to the eral purposes of benevolence in 1791, but dithrone. The Prince issued a proclamation in rected toward the alleviation of tlie miseries of which he announced a future era of peace, shipwreck in 1789, when it placed some huts on thanked the nation for the sacrifices it made desolate portions of the coast of Massachusetts during the war, congratulated the country on for the shelter of mariners who might escape the accession of territory, and promised help from the sea, the first building for this purpose to the families of those killed or injured during being erected on Lovell's Island, near Boston. the hostilities.

In 1807 this society established the first lifeSERVICE, UNITED STATES LIFE-SAV. boat station at Cohasset. Subsequently it erectING. This institution was formally established ed a number of others. Its efforts, although during the past year, by an act of Congress ap- necessarily limited by reliance upon volunteer

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crews ard by the conditions of extemporized "for furnishing the lighthouses on the Atlantic service, were of such value as to evoke at vari- coast with the means of rendering assistanco ous times some pecuniary aid from both the to shipwrecked mariners,” which for two years State and the General Government. An appro- lay unused in the Treasury, was permitted to priation of $5,000 made by Congress in 1847, be expended by this society in 1849. In 1855

it received from Congress an appropriation between Mr. Joseph Francis, of New Jersey, of $10,000; in 1857, another of $10,000; and then a boat-builder of the Novelty Iron Works again in 1870, one of $15,000. The extension of New York, and Captain Douglas Ottinger, in 1872 of the Government life-saving Service an officer of the Revenue Marine, under whose to Cape ('od relieved the society of its onerous supervision the establishment of these stations charge in this region, and enabled it to de was effected. In March, 1849, Congress made vote its main energies to the better protection a further appropriation of $20,000 for lifeof other parts of the Massachusetts coast. The saving purposes. With half this sum eight society still continues its wardenship of such buildings were erected and furnished on the localities, and has now 78 stations. No other coast of Long Island, under the supervision of organized efforts, outside of those of the Gov- Mr. Edward Watts, a civil engineer, aided by a ernment subsequently described, were made to committee of the before-mentioned New York mitigate the distresses of shipwreck, beyond Life-saving Benevolent Association. The rethose of three or four other societies, all ephem- mainder of the money was devoted to estaberal in their character, except the Life-saving lishing six additional stations on the coast of Benevolent Association of New York, char- New Jersey, under the superintendence of tered by the Legislature of that State in 1849, Lientenant (now Captain) John McGowan, of which is still in existence, but whose operations the Revenue Marine, assisted by a commithave been mainly exerted in other and limited tee of the Philadelphia Board of Underwriters. channels of benevolence.

The same year, as before stated, an unexFor nearly half a century the efforts of the pended appropriation of $5,000, made two Government for the protection of navigators years before, was allowed to be expended by upon our coasts were listless and occasional. The Massachusetts Humane Society upon Cape In 1807 an attempt was made to organizo a na- Cod, so that life-saving protection was extended tional Coast Survey, which failed. The charts simultaneously to the coasts of Massachusetts, and sailing directions used for the guidance New York, and New Jersey, thus inuring to of mariners were for a long period of foreign the benefit of the commerce of Boston, New origin, and extremely untrustworthy. These York, and Philadelphia. . The newly estabwere superseded, however, by charts and a lished stations, though manned upon occasion "Coast Pilot” of great value, made by the only by extemporized crews, so proved their Messrs. Blunt from surreys of leading harbors value at several scenes of shipwreck that the and the more frequented and perilous parts of next year, 1850, Congress again appropriated the Atlantic coast, undertaken at their own ex- $20,000 for life-saving purposes. Half this sam pense. In 1820 there were but 55 liglıthouses, went to the establishıment of additional stations all poorly built, mostly badly located, and fur on the coast of Long Island, and one at Watch nished with oil lamps of inferior illuminating llill, Rhode Island, under the supervision of power. In 18:32 the important step was taken Lieutenant Joseph Noyes, of the Revenue Maof establishing the Coast Survey, which at once rine, coöperated with by the New York Lifebegan its magnificently comprehensive labors saving Benevolent Association. The remaining and the publication of complete and accurate $10,000 was used in placing life-boats at differcharts. About the same time the Engineer ent points on the coasts of North and South Corps of the army began a similar survey of the Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Texas, and shelGreat Lakes. The gathering movement in aid tering them with boat-houses. The growing of comineree extended to the lighthouse system, interest in the protection of navigation was which by 1837 had 208 fixed and floating lights strikingly shown two years later by the act of in operation. At the latter date Congress ('ongress organizing the Lighthouse Board. passed an act authorizing suitable public ves The system of lighting the coast had continued sels to cruise upon the coast to assist shipping to be imperfect, although the number of lights in distress, and the revenue cutters were des- had been increased to 320—a paltry number, ignated for this duty; an action which resulted however, for the then second commercial nation in as much benefit as could have been expected in the world; and all but seren of them were oil from the limited number of vessels ocmprising lamps with common reflectors. But in 1852, the fleet. No other measures in aid of the the date of the legal organization of the Board, mariner were taken till 1818, a date which this service underwent a memorable transformarks the inception of the Life-saving Service. mation. A scientific programme for regularly In August of that year a vigorous and graphic lighting the coast was adopted ; towers of maappeal was made in the llouse of Representa- sonry or iron, built by the highest engineering tives by the llon. William 1. Newell, of New skill, arose at selected points, crowned with the Jersey, which secured an appropriation of $10,- splendid Fresnel lenses, whose drum of prisons 000 for providing surf-boats and other appli- augments the light eightfold; responsible keepances for rescuing life and property from ship- ers were appointed, under inspection and disciwreck on the coast of that Stati. With this pline, as wardens of these beacons; and the inoney eight buildings were erected at different work of development was begun which has repoints, and furnished accordingly. In impor- sulted in the establishment of 1,336 lights on the tant feature of these appointments was the seacoasts and the shores of the great Western life-car, the invention of which is in dispute rivers, together with a large number of day

marks, fog-signals, and buoys. The Coast Sur- life-boats. Partial improvement in the service vey was also continuing its vast hydrographic resulted; but the absence of drilled and discilabors, extended to a study of the Gulf Streain plined crews, of regulations of any kind for and its influences, and the laws and opera- the government of those concerned, and above tions of tides, currents, winds, and storms, and all of energetic central administration of its afchanges of the shore, and involving the copious fairs, were radical defects, and the record conissue of the best possible charts and other pub- tinued to be one of meager benefits checkered lications of signal value to seafarers and mari- by the saddest failures. In Congress, in 1869, time interests generally. It is possible that the the Hon. Charles IIaight, of New Jersey, at the achievements of these two noble branches of instance of a resolution of the Legislature of the public service, acting on the mind of the lis State, moved an amendment to an appronation, had a reciprocal effect upon the for- priation bill, providing for the employment of tunes of the nascent Life-saving Service; for crews of surtinen at the stations, which, though in the years 1853 and 1854 Congress appropri- urged with great force, was defeated. Through ated $42,500 for its uses. With this money the vigorous efforts of the Hon. S. S. Cox, fourteen new stations were added to those on however, a substitute was adopted, which sethe New Jersey coast, built under the care of cured the employment of these crews, though Mr. S. C. Dunham, and eleven on the coast of only at alternate stations. This was a measure Long Island, under the supervision of Mr. J. of signal benefit, chietly because it opened the N. Schillenger. Twenty-three life-boats were door to the subsequent employment of crews also placed at points upon Lake Michigan, and at all the stations. At the time it was not several others at various places on the Atlantic enough to more than improve the existing conand Lake coasts. Exclusive of the boats at the ditions, and the service, which then scarcely 55 stations on the New York and New Jersey deserved the name, remained half abortive until coasts, there were in 1874 eighty-two life-loats 1871. at different localities elsewhere.

This was the date of the organization of the The measures taken up to this time, although present life-saving system. Order now began dictated by frequent appalling cat:astrophes, had to stream from chaos. During the winter of nevertheless a certain indeterminate and grop- 1870–71 several fatal disasters, some of them ing character. The life-boats provided and occurring near the stations, others at points the stations established were doubtless of oc where stations should have been, and all refcasional and even signal benefit, but the lack erable to irresponsible employees, inadequate of responsible custodians for these ineans and boats and apparatus, or remoteness of lifeappliances of relief rendered them in a great saving appliances, roused the Treasury Departdegree nugatory. The boats in many cases were ment, then under the administration of the Hon. appropriated to private uses or fell into dilapi- George S. Boutwell, to make proper represendation. In some instances natural changes in the tations upon the subject to Congress, which on beaches, wrought by winds and tides, made the April 20, 1871, appropriated $200,000, and austations ont of situation for use, and the ravages thorized the Secretary of the Treasury to emof time and weather had told upon them all, while ploy crews of surfmen at such stations and for their equipments became diminished by pillage such periods as he might deem necessary. In or worthless by decay. IIcart-rending scenes the February previous Mr. Sumner 1. Kimball of disaster occurred where, either through the took charge of the Revenue Marine Service, paucity of the stations or the time-eaten char- and the life-saving stations, being then under acter of the appliances at hand, succor was the charge of that bureau, also became the impossible. By 1854 the inefficiency of these subject of his consideration. The first step means, emphasized_by frequent calainity, bad was to definitely ascertain their condition. At become glaring. Public sentiment now ex- his instance, Captain John Faunce, of the Revcited Congress toward action. A bill for the enue Marine, was detailed for this duty, and increase and repair of the stations and the set out on a tour of inspection of the stations, guardianship of the life-boats, passed by the Mr. Kimball accompanying him a portion of Senate in 1853, had failed to reach the House the way. Captain Faunce's report was subbefore its adjournment. A frightful disaster mitted on August 9, 1871. The report dison the New Jersey coast, the wreck of the closed stations too remote from each other Powhatan, involving the loss of 300 lives, and from the scenes of periodic shipwreck; brought it up at the session of 1854, when it the houses filthy, misused, dilapidate, some became a law. It is noteworthy that its pas- in ruins, the remainder needing enlargement sage was strenuously opposed in discussion in and repairs; outfits defective or lacking, even the House, and upon a yea and nay vote 45 such articles as powder, rockets, shot-lines, members recorded their votes against it. Under hawsers, and shovels being often wanting; its provisions a superintendent, at a compensa- apparatus rusty or broken through neglect, tion of $1,500 per annum, was appointed for sometimes destroyed by vermin, or by those each of the two coasts; a keeper was assigned evil persons who, as Bacon says, are but a each station at a salary of $200; the stations higher kind of vermin; larceny everywhere and their equipments were made serviceable, active, every portable article being stolen from and bonded custodians were secured for tho some of the stations; the keepers often living

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