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the time of employment, instead of having one across the river about a mile apart, and then thousand or two thousand idle men in San draw them together, forcing all the fish with Francisco, we would have five thousand or ten them, and then everything in the net is hauled thousand; for they would come from all parts on shore. Their nets are so small that nothing of the State seeking work.” At the previous can pass them the size of a man's finger. The session of the Legislature a committee was ap- custom-house figures showed that the exportapointed by the Senate to examine into and re tion of small fisin to China in 1875 was worth port upon the actual condition of the Chinese $960,000. Specimens taken from a Chinese in California, and the effects of their presence boat were submitted, and consisted of young upon the white population. A report was perch, smelt, flvunders, sardines, salmon, rockmade and published, without containing a por- cod, tomcod, shrimps, and pipe-fish. Some of tion of the testimony taken in the city of San Francisco. A member of the Senate, on moving that this testimony be published, stated that it disclosed, in part at least, the relations that existed and still exist between some of the authorities of the city, including one branch of the Police Department, and the criminal classes in the “ Chinese quarter." In most instances these disclosures were made with extreme reluctance, and in one case the witness-a special police officer-refused absolutely to answer certain questions touching his compensation and that of his associates at the hands of the proprietors of gambling-houses and houses of prostitution then and now flagrantly kept open in the Chinese quarter. An officer who had been specially detailed to examine that quarter, and wlio, because of his zeal, was summarily removed therefrom, testified to the existence of from four to seven hundred of those houses in that quarter; and all the witnesses admitted upon oath that those dens of infamy and pollution, which are a disgrace to the city and civilization, could be closed by simply enforcing existing ordinances and laws; but, by reason of the fact that they pay for the privilege of keeping open and plying their infamons vocations, they are not only permitted but actually encouraged to do so.
A new law was therefore passed entirely reforming the fish were not over two inches long and not the police system of San Francisco, and abol as thick as a lead pencil, indicating a very small ishing all offices of special police. It was thus net. anticipated that the doubtful practices which An act was passed to amend the sections of prevailed in the Chinese quarter, and which the Code of Civil Procedure relating to attorhave contributed not a little to foster the neys, etc. The amendment consisted in strikprejudices entertained against those people, ing out the words “white male” from the secwould be stopped.
tions, thus permitting women and persons of A bill was also introduced in the IIouse to color to practice law upon passing the requistop the destruction of small fish, shrimps, site examination. The first person to take minnows, etc., known to be the food of large advantage of this act was Mrs. Clara S. Foltz, fish, by stopping the drying and exporting of of San José, who pursued her studies under thein to China, as is now done by Chinese fish- disadvantages that would appall most students ermen. It was stated before the Fish ('om- of the other sex. She had a family of five missioners that on the river Sacramento there small children to provide for, and most of the were about fifteen white men in the business time did her own housework unassisted, and on the river and from five to eight hundred occasionally was obliged to take to the lectureOhinamen. The Chinese stretch two nets field as a means of adding to her meager in
She was admitted to the bar, and the for working men and women, the number of local paper says that “the committee appointed each required, the wages offered, the work to to examine her consisted of some of our first be done, and where; ascertain the facilities for lawyers, who subjected her to a thorough test the performance thereof, the sanitary condition of her legal knowledge, and who unanimously of the locality where such labor is to be done, certified to her entire fitness for advancement. the provisions for the comfort of the workmen,
A concurrent resolution passed the Assem- and the probable term of employment. The bly providing for a joint committee of nine to Bureau must also keep a record of all appliconsider the subject of a Constitutional Con- cations for employment or information, with vention, voted for by a majority of 723 votes the name of each applicant, ses, age, nativity, at the last election. Early in January the trade, or calling, whether married or single, Committee reported a bill to provide for bold- number in family (if any), and amount of wages ing a Convention to revise and change the Con asked. In all cases where practicable, situa
tions should be filled in the order of their application, and without partiality. The Bureau shall, when ordered by the Commissioners, establish branch ottices in other parts of the State.
The subject of irrigation has become of the highest importance to the State, and a bill was passed to secure this object. A commission is created to have charge of the undertaking, and it is empowered to engage the services of skillful engineers, whose business it shall be to make surveys, to ascertain the best mode of districting the State for irrigation purposes, and to draft plans for carrying out the work.
Another subject of no less importance to the prosperity of the State is the disposal of the débris from hydraulic mining. At present it flows into the rivers, filling them up, and is carried by freshets over the fertile lowlands, causing their destruction. This prevails to a great extent through northern California. The losses by floods in February, which in the main were chargeable to the débris, were estimated at $75,000,000. Nothing was done by the Legislature on the subject.
Various resolutions relating to the financial policy of the Federal Government, removal of troops from the Southern States, civil-service reform, railroads, etc., were introduced before the Legislature, but failed to be approved. The session closed early in March. Some fifteen hundred and
sixty bills were introduced in both stitution of the State, It proposed to hold the Ilouses, a large number of which failed to beConvention at Sacramento in May, and that it
come laws. should be composed of 120 members. The mea The certainty of the ultimate adoption of a sure was extensively discussed in each IIouse, system of'irrigation in the State, in consequence and various amendments were made in one and of the passage of a bill for that end, was very rejected in the other. The act as passed pro- favorably received. A large tract on the westvided for the election of delegates in June and ern slope of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, it the assembling of the ('onvention on Septem- was thought, would become far more producber 28th. Thirty of the members were to be tive under the system. Below the altitude of chosen on a general ticket, of' wliom each voter two thousand feet, the hills or mountains are was to vote for twenty.
essentially the same in all their characteristics A bill was also passed to provide for a State of soil, shape, accessibility, and climate. The Labor Bu
sts of commissioners length of territory included in this slope, or whose duty it is to keep a list of all persons, foot-hills, is about four hundred miles, and the companies, or corporations making applications width from five to thirty miles. The entire area
is equal to one fifth of the area of the Sacra
SAN FRANCISCO, January 19, 1878. mento and San Joaquin Valleys. For the pur
The Honorable the Senate of the State of California. poses in view this statement of the area may and Secretary of the Workingmen's party of this
GENTLEMEN: The undersigned are the President be extended to the altitude of three thousand State. We have read your speeches on the new gag five hundred feet above the sea. The soil of law with astonishment. We were not aware before this vast extent of territory is rich and warm.
we read it in the papers that we had used incendiary The abundance of volcanic clay, formed from language, had fixed on Sunday, the 20th, for a yendissolved lava, provides it with a recuperative city and kill the people, or even to incite so much power within itself. This clay, under the in
as a riot. Huence of water and exposure, 'slacks, and in charged, not for any defect of the law, but froin want this form it is easily combined with vegetable of facts. You read the reports in the papers, when mold, and the result is a good manure.
The you should look at tho sworn testimony. We need climate of this region, so far as temperature is have violated 'law, created riot, and trumped up
your assistance, and not our adversaries. They alone concerned, is essentially the same as that in charges based on falso newspaper reports. For our the Sacramento Valley. But the absence of part, peace, law, and order have been our motto, and malaria and the presence of resinous matter in
will be. The ballot-box is our battle-field. But'winthe air, added to the benefits derived from ele- ning there, we do not propose to be cheated out of
the result by any indiscretion. The capitalist, the vation, result in a climate far superior to that land-grabber, and the Chinese Six Companies see of the lower valleys.
It is more agreeable and the death-kuell of all their hopes in our numbers, healthful. Bilious diseases and lung troubles our strength, and our calm resolution. They havó are comparatively rare in this region, while falsified our unguarded speeches; they have done the general vigor of its permanent inhabitants they charge us with crimes they can not prove, and
all they could to provoke us into disorder; and now will be above that of the Sacramento Valley. ask for new laws to give effect to their persecutions. It produces everything that is raised in the lat Gentlemen, you are supposed to be the guardians ter; and the peach, apple, plum, and ordinary of the public liberties and the friends of the people. garden vegetables reach a degree of perfection Read the sworn testimony in our caso, now given
Ilear us before you strike. which can not be attained in the valley. It is before a jury. Do not hasten to do wrong. also asserted that in one notable instance this The Workingmen's party is a great power now—a region has produced oranyes which have been respectable and orderly and resolute power. It is pronounced by travelers superior to any oth- destined to rule this State by law, and at no distant ers raised in the State. The availability of this day. We arer to you that we have never incited to region depends, however, upon facilities for struction of property; never so much as broken the irrigation; and, if this can be had, it will offer peaco or held a riotous meeting. Wo are simple inducements to agriculturists superior to those workingmen, who speak to our fellows from our of the great valleys. There is water enough in hearts ; thoirs respond
in thousands. This is what
has alarmed our enemies. This is what they can the Feather River, unclaimed by anybody, to never avoid until the interests of the people are conirrigate the whole range from Red Bluff to Fol- sulted, and the Chinese pest abated, if not removed som, and the practical use of it is entirely fea- altogether. sible. In addition to this source, there are
We are rapidly forming in two ranks in this city other and more limited sources which are suf
and in the State : those who will have the Chinese ficient for the wants of a considerable acreage the Chinese Six Companies to keep them here. Be
nuisance abated, and those who have conspired with in this vicinity.
tween these two there is no peace, and there can be An unusual excitement was raised in San Francisco, in the early part of the year, by the
If, as is claimed, there is a middle party, who are demonstrations of workingmen. The occasion
not with us, because they have been led to believe
us too violent, now is the time for them to step to of the excitement was chiefly the reckless and
the front. Their assurance that this thing inust and violent language used by some of the leaders in will be done, speedily and peaceably, will give calm their harangues, rather than any disorderly con- security to both. Let them move solidly, and we duct by the workingmen. Application was
will wait patiently. But while they content themmade to the Legislature for the passage of moro
selves with menacing us, and array themselves with
our enemies, we can not abate a jot of our zeal and stringent laws, and an act was passed which devotion to our own interests. contained the following provision:
D. KEARNEY, Any person who, in the presence or hearing of
President of the Workinginen's Party. twenty-fivo or more persons, shall utter any language
H. L. KNIgit, Secretary. with intent either to incite a riot in the present or in the future, or any act or acts of criminal violence
A Convention of the workingmen was held against person or property, or who shall sugvest or at San Francisco about January 21st, at which advise or encourage any act or acts of criminal vio- the following declaration of principles was lence against any person or persons, or property, or malle: shall adviso or encourage forcible resistance to any of the laws of this State, shall be deemed guilty of Wherens, The Government of the United States felony, and on conviction thereof shall be punished has fallen into the hands of capitalists and their will.. by in prisonment in the Stato prison or in the county ing instruments; the rights of the people, their jail not exceeding two years, or by fine not exceed- comfort and happiness, aro wholly ignored, and the ing $5,000, or by both.
vested rights of capital are alone considered and During the debate in the Senate on the bill, guarded, both in the State and nation. The land is the following address was sent to that body fast passing into the hands
of the rich few. Great
money monopolies control Congress, purchase State by the leader of the workinginen:
legislation, rule the courts, influence all public offi
cers, and have perverted the great republic of our We demand that the Constitution of the United fathers into a den of dishonest manipulators. This States be amended to the effect that the President concentration and control of wealth bas impoverished and Vice-President of the United States and Senathe people, producing crime and discontent, and i'l tors of the several States shall be elected by thie tarded the settlement and civilization of the countrydirect vote of the people. In California a slave labor has been introduced to still further aggrandize the rich and degrade the The following were adopted : poor. And the whole tendency of this class legisIation is to undermine the foundations of the repub
Whereas, The Workingmen's political party of the lic, and pave the way for anarclıy and misrule, und
State of California, now permanently organized, dethis Convention therefore declares as follows:
sires that no persons shall be promoted to any posiSECTION 1. The workingmen of California desire tions on our Stute Central Committee who are not to uuito with those of other States in effectivg such willing to forsake all previous political alliances, and reforms in our General Government as may be neces
work to promote and advance the interests of the sary to secure the rights of the people as against Workinginen's party: therefore, those of capital; to maintaiv life, liberty, and luppi.
Resolved, That this Convention appoint, from the ness, againīst land and money monopoly. Only in
members thereof, a Committee of Investigation, to the people, the honest workingmen, can we hope to
examine the political antecedents of all persons prior find a remedy.
to their election or appointment to any position in Sec. 2. Chinese cheap labor is a curse to our land, this party, or as a candidate therefor.
Resolvéil, That the committee hereby appointed & menace to our liberties and the institutions of our country, and should therefore be restricted and for
shall apply to the city and county of San Francisco
only. ever abolished. Sec. 3. The land is the heritage of the people, and
L'esolred, That a majority report of said commitits appropriation by the Government for the further tee in the county, when appointed, shall be sufficient ance of tho schemes of individuals and corporations
to admit or disqualify sucli person or candidate. is a robbery which must be restricted in fuiure, and all lands so held should revert to its lawful possessor, The immigration of the Chinese has been to be held for actual settlement and cultivation ; und
a subject of absorbing interest in the State for individuals holding by purchase or imperfect title
many years. The first treaty between China land in excess of one square mile shall be restricted
and the United States was ratified in June, to the use of that amount only for cultivation and pasturage, and all lands of equal productive value 184+. Though it granted no rights or privishall be subject to equal taxation.
leges to the Chinese, yet immediately there[Supplemental to section 3.] Our previous legis- after they began to enrigrate to the State of lators have abused the trust contidingly reposed in California. Their numbers, few at first, gradthem by a misguided people by allowing a corrupt wally and steadily increased up to the spring ring of land monopolists to exist, who bave arpoo of the year 1876, when the people of the Papriated vast tracts of the fairest 'lands on earth to themselves; we therefore, in the name of humanity, cific slope became alarmed at the great influx consider a resurvey of the Stato necessary, in order of this class of immigrants, and by means of the law in this respect has been violated. As the check it. The effect of this excitement against to uscertain, as far as possible, the extent to which the press and public meetings endeavored to land is the natural heritage of the children of men, we deem, on the laws of equity and justice, that one the Chinese, and consequent danger to their section of 640 acres is a siitticiency for any one man safety and welfare, was, however, of short to own or transmit to his offspring,
duration. The number of immigrants for the All import duties on raw material not produced in quarter ending June 30, 1877, which was the the United States should be abolished.
SEO. 4. The industries of the country are depressed second quarter following the Chinese agitaor improvưd by the fluctuations in our financial sys tion, was 6,691, the highest ever reached. The tom, and we tlierefore insist that the National Gov- rate of increase has been very rapid. Diridernment shall give to the people a system of finance ing the last two decades into periods of five consistent with the agricultural, nauutacturing, and
years, the average number of imnigrants for mercantile industries and requirements of the country, uncontrolled by rings, brokers, and bankers, but tho period from 1855 to 1859, inclusive, is asfor the interests of the wliole people.
certained to have been 4,530; for the second SEO, 5. The pardoning power conferred on the period, 1860 to 1864, it was 6,600; from 1865 President of the United States and the Governors of to 1870, 9,311; from 1871 to 1874, 13,000. In the several States should be abolished, and the samo
other words, the increase for the four periods bo vested in commissions. Seo. 6. Malfensance in public office should be pun
of five years each has been at the rate of 50 ishable by imprisonment in the State prison for life, per cent. The lowest estimate of Chinese in without intervention of the pardoning power. the Pacific States is 150,000. Accepting this Sec, 7. We demand the abolition of the contract
as correct, it will be seen that at the above rate system in our State prisons and reformatory institutions. They should bo managed in tho interests
of increase, and after deducting the large of the people, and the goods therein manufactured number who return, the Chinese population should not be sold at less than current market rates will in the near future exceed the male adult for like products of free labor. Sec. 8. All labor on public works, whether State all other races combined. It is apprehended
population of Americans in those States and or, municipal, should be performed by the day, at current rates of wages.
that this rate of immigration will continuo in SEC. 9. Eight hours is a sufficient day's work for consequence of the advantages to the immi. any man, and the law should make it so,
grants. China is estimated to contain nearly Sec. 10. All public officers should receive a fixed salary, and the fees should be accounted for us pub- density of the population in many provinces
one third of the population of the earth. The
exceeds 400 persons to the square mile, and Subsequently this resolution was adopted : the average of all the provinces is 300. The
wages of the laboring class in China range American workingmen with their families. from $3 to $5 per month. Their condition is Here they sleep, cook, and eat. a hard and miserable one. They are exceed Another and more serious objection urged ingly migratory in their disposition, and, against the Chinese is that their personal and though their ports have been so scantily moral habits make them undesirable members opened to free commerce, they are to be found of society. The crowded condition in which to-day in every civilized country of the world. they live renders the observance of hygienic
They find in America a congenial climate, high laws and sanitary regulations almost an innwages, and a more liberal government. They possibility. Neatness and cleanliness is an are separated from us by a comparatively nar- exception. The air of their apartments is row ocean, which is pacific in spirit as well as filled with noisome smells and pestilential vain name. Passage can be made quickly and pors, threatening disease and death. The propcheaply, the usual price being from $10 to erty occupied by them is lessened in value, and $50, which by competition has been reluced the locality itself aroided by the white popas low as $12. If any are too poor to pay this ulation. Not only their personal liabits, but small sum, brokers stand ready to advance the moral ideas, methods, and institutions are dinecessary amount, to be secured by a mort- rectly antagonistic to those of Americans. The gage contract on their future wages.
religious ideas, even of the higher and titled As the Chinese are thus residents in the classes in China, are preöminently wretched. country under treaty arrangements, petitions Their superstitions are numerous and ludiand inemorials have been sent to Congress for
Their educational systems are exceedthe abrogation of the treaty. This has led to ingly defective. Among the laboring or cooly an investigation on the part of Congress into classes the grade of morals is very low. One the nature of the objections against them and illustration of this is seen in their treatment their justness. As a result it appears that the of woman. Her birth is commonly regarded Ohinese laborer is in some respects very de as a calamity. If not destroyed, which is not sirable. He is frugal, thrifty, patient, cheer- unusual, she is regarded as a slave, and suffers ful, and obedient. He readily learns his trade, privation, contempt, and degradation from the and expertly performs every species of light cradle to the tomb. Instances are frequent of work. Chinese cheap labor has worked a the sale for debt by parents of their daughters, great material benefit to California in its early and by husbands of their wives, and that, too, days, by digging its canals, delving in its mines, for the worst purposes. Infanticide of girls is reclaiming its tule lands, buildling its railroads, practiced more or less in all parts of the em and in various other ways contributing to the pire, and in some sections to an alarming exdevelopment of its material resources. If the tent. The sanctity and obligation of an oath desire for money-making were the only ques are disregarded, and torture is often employed tion in value in this contest between Ameri- to extract the truth. These are some of the can and Chinese races, it would in its indus- characteristics of the class from which nino trial labor phase be promptly clecided in favor tenths of the immigrants come. of the latter. The material advantages of this A third and principal objection to the Chikind of labor, however, sink into entire in nese was the fact that they do not assimilate significance when compared with the personal with the American people, but remain a disconsiderations at stako—the comfort and self- tinct and alien element. In this respect they respect, the decent, honorable living of the differ from all other voluntary immigrants. laborer himself. The Chinese laborer does The Gerinar, the Irisliman, the Frenchman not come up to the American standard of in- have sought this country as a permanent home dustry. Those who come to this country have for themselves and their posterity, promptly no homes, no home feelings, nor home inter- and cheerfully adopting its habits, customs, ests, in the usual sense. They are willing to and political institutions. Devoted to the peowork for less wages than will secure homes ple, to the Government and the laws, they and comfortable support to white laborers. In speedily become the worthiest and thriftiest their own country they work patiently and citizens, vindicating in the chambers of the obediently during twelve or thirteen hours for nation their knowledge of the political prinless than one tonth of what the poorest class ciples, and illustrating upon every battle-field, of American workingmen receive. In the På- when liberty has been attacked, the patriotism cific States they are willing to work for al which such knowledge inspires. It is not so most half of the price paid to American oper- with the Chinese. They have been in this atives. They are able to live upon rice, tea, country over a quarter of a century; their and dried fish, costing upon an average from employment as house servants and laborers twenty to thirty cents per day. Under-cloth-has brought them into close and immediate ing is a luxury almost unknown to them, while contact with the people; but no change has the clothing they wear is of the simplest and been produced in them. What they were coarsest character. They bring with them when they came, they are at this day—the neither wives, families, nor children. One same in disposition, in language, in religion. hundred Chinese will occupy a room which, They manifest no desire either by word or if subdivided, would not accommodate five action to become identified with the people