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goris, when the royal court became the center A Bulgarian was appointed Bishop of Widin of a certain degree of culture. The kingdom in 1840, but he died while on a visit to Conwas afterward conquered by the Constantino- stantinople, and it was charged that he was politan Emperors, but became again indepen- poisoned. An insurrection broke out in Widin dent in 1186; and during the reign of King ten years later, in view of which the Patriarch John II., 1218 to 1248, it attained such an ex was requested to consecrate a Bulgarian bishtent that its boundaries touched the Adriatic, op. He obeyed, but left the bishop without Ægean, and Black Seas. It then declined till, af
When a National Assembly was called ter the battle of Kosovo, in 1389, it was easily to consider the question of reforms in 1858, overcome by the Turks. The ecclesiastical sys- affairs were mananged so that the Bulgarians tem of the Greek Church having been extended should not be represented in it, and their reover Bulgaria, its churches fell under the juris- quests were again denied. Concerted measures diction of the Patriarchs of Constantinople. were instituted against the Phanariot (or Their authority was exercised in a despotic Greek) ecclesiastics in 1860, when the bishops manner, discriminating against the Bulgarians. were driven away from several cities, and naThe services were conducted in Greek, the use tive bishops were appointed in their places. of the Bulgarian language on public occasions The prayer for the Patriarch was omitted from was discontinued, and the people were deprived the services of the churches, the name of the of facilities for education beyond those afforded Sultan being substituted for his, and recognition by a few priestly schools. At the beginning was refused about the same time to the elecof the present century the Bulgarians were tion of a new Patriarch. Finally, the Turkish among the most miserable and backward of Government, after it had again failed twice to the inhabitants of the Turkish Empire. About gain the assent of the Patriarch to its propofifty years ago an awakening was begun, which sitions for the reform of the Bulgarian Church. has resulted in the revival of a strong national determined to act without regard to him, and spirit, the organization of popular schools in granted a firman on February 28, 1870, conthe Bulgarian language throughout the country, stituting it a separate and independent juristhe establishment of the independence of the diction. Bishop Anthrim, of Widin, was chosen Church, and the growth of a small but promis- Exarch on the refusal of Ilaxion to accept the ing literature.
office, and was consecrated by the command The lessons taught in the gymnasium at Phil- of the Sultan. ippopolis comprise the Turkish, Greek, and Manufacturing and business enterprises were French languages, elementary mathematics, ge- largely developed during the ten years precedography, Bulgarian and Turkish history, mental ing the Russo-Turkish war of 1877, and many and moral philosophy, religious and moral in- towns on the northern and southern slopes of struction, and church music. The larger schools the Balkans became prosperous and growing are provided with fine, spacious edifices, many industrial centers. Among them was Gabrova, of which were specially erected for them. In- distinguished for its manufactures and schools; struction is given free of cost in all the branch- Travna, where carvings in wood and pictures es of a common-school education. Until 1860 were made ; Vratza, the seat of a varied trade, the schools were dependent entirely upon sub- and of leather, silk, and filigree works; Slivscriptions and charitable bequests. After the mia, Calofer, and Carlova, the seats of cloth and Church was separated from the jurisdiction woolen factories; Yamboli, a busy railway of the patriarchate of Constantinople, a reap- station; Batak, in a lumbering district of the propriation of the ecclesiastical revenues was Rhodope Mountains; and Kezanlik, on the made, and a part of them were set aside for southern slope of the Balkans, the chief centhe purposes of edncation. At a later period ter of the production of attar of roses. Most the local authorities of some places, as Philip- of these places were destroyed or greatly inpopolis, were induced to allow a special tax to jured during the course of the war. be laid upon the Bulgarians for the benefit of The treaty of San Stefano defined the bounthe schools.
daries of Bulgaria so as to constitute a state, In 1876 fifty-one newspapers had been start- which, including all the predominantly Bulgaed, of which fourteen were established in 1875. rian districts of European Turkey, both north Most of these, however, were printed outside and south of the Balkans, should have an of the limits of the present principality. Two area of about 79,400 square miles, and an of them were literary, one was theological, estimated population of between five and five and three were technical.
and a half millions. The included territory The autonomy of the Bulgarian Church as extended from the boundaries of Servia and an independent exarchate was secured in 1870, Albania to the Black Sea, and from the Danafter a hard and extraordinarily bitter con- ube nearly to the Ægean Sea, and took in test of about thirty years with the Greek about fifty miles of the Egean coast. Of the clergy and the Patriarch of Constantinople. coast lands, a small strip on either side of the In 1833 the people of Samokov and Scopie Salonican peninsula, and a district in eastern asked for the appointment of Bulgarian bish- Thrace, bounded on the west and north by a
of two Greek bishops who had lino extending from Buruguel around Adrianbeen removed, but the request was denied. ople and thence to llakim Tobiasi, were left
under the exclusive jurisdiction of Turkey. be demanded would be modified in accordanco The British Government made strenuous ob- with this view. jections to the provisions of the treaty respect Previous to the meeting of the Congress at ing Bulgaria, which were briefly stated in a Berlin, on the 30th of May, the British and Ruscircular addressed by Lord Salisbury to the sian Governments came to an agreement rePowers, which was published on March 30th. specting the terms of adjustment which they It recited, as among the most important conse would accept from the Congress. This agreequences to which the treaty practically led, ment provided that Bulgaria should be dithat by the articles erecting the New Bulgaria vided into two provinces: one north of the a strong Slavic state would be created under Balkans, to be endowed with a political authe auspices and control of Russia, possessing tonomy under a prince; the other south of important harbors on the Black Sea and the the Balkans, but not to touch the Ægean Sea, Archipelago, and conferring upon that power and to have a Christian governor and a gova predominating influence over both political ernment similar to that of an English colony. and commercial relations in those seas. The Further, the British Government reserved, state would be so constituted as to merge in among other things, the right to demand of the dominant Slavic majority a considerable the Congress the participation of Europe in mass of population which is Greek in race and the administrative organization of the two sympathy, and which views with alarm the Bulgarian provinces, and to discuss the duraprospect of absorption into a community alien tion and nature of the Russian occupation of to it not only in nationality but in political Bulgaria. The Bulgarian question was the tendency and religious allegiance. The pro- first topic considered by the Congress, and the visions by which this new state would be sub- first to be settled. The final decision of it jected to a ruler whom Russia would practically was made substantially on the basis of the choose, its administration framed by a Russian Anglo-Russian agreement, and established the commissary, and the first working of its in- principality of Bulgaria, to be bounded on the stitutions commenced under the control of a south by the Balkans, and to include Varna on Russian army, sufficiently indicated the politi- the east and Sophia on the west, the state to cal system of which in future it was to form own all the fortresses; the territory south of a part. Stipulations, the dispatch continued, the Balkans to be erected into an autonomous were added which would extend this influence province, to be called Eastern Roumelia, and even beyond the boundaries of the New Bul- to be governed by a Christian hospodar, nomigaria.
nated by the Sultan and the Powers, who Objection was made by the Greek inhabitants should be aided by a local elective Parliament, of the southern territory against the extension and supported by a local militia, the higher of the now Slavic state over communities of officers of which must be approved by the predominantly Grecian nationality, which found Sultan. The Turkish Government was given expression in protests and in the participa- the full and entire right to occupy and cover tion of the Greeks in the insurrections with the line of frontier separating Bulgaria from which the districts around the Rhodope Moun- Eastern Roumelia, by whatever number of tains were convulsed during the spring and the troops it might deem necessary for the seearly summer. It had not been the original curity of its borders; but it was expressly unintention of the Russian Government to make derstood that these troops should be composed the Bulgarian state so large ; for Count Shou- entirely of regulars, should not on any prevaloff, the Russian Ambassador to Great Brit- text be cantoned among the inhabitants, and ain, had assured Earl Derby on June 8, 1877, should be used exclusively for frontier service. that if the Porte should sue for peace before It was stipulated that the principality of Bulthe Russian armies crossed the Balkans, they garia should have a Christian government and would not pass that line, but the Emperor a national militia ; that the Prince should be would insist upon the autonomy of Bulgaria as elected by the people and confirmed by the a vassal province under the guarantee of Eu- Porte and the great Powers; that the rights rope, and would ask the Powers to assure to of all the nationalities should be taken into that part of the country south of the Balkans, account in whatever relates to the election or as well as to the other Christian provinces of the government, and that distinction of reTurkey, the best possible guarantees for a reg- ligious belief or confession should not operate ular administration. But, at a subsequent in- against any one as a reason of exclusion or interview, the Count informed Earl Derby that capacity in what concerns enjoyment of pohis Government had decided that separation litical rights, admission to public employment, into two provinces would be impracticable, functions, or honors, or the exercise of the diffor “local information proved that Bulgaria ferent professions and industries. Liberty of must remain a single province, otherwise the public profession of all creeds was assured to all most laborious and intelligent part of the Bul- the returned population as well as to strangarian population, and notably that which had gers. Until a permanent organization shall most suffered from Turkish maladministration, be comple for which nine months ar alwouid remain excluded from the autonomous lowed, Bulgaria will be governed by a proviinstitutions," and that the terms of peace to sional organization, directed by Russian com
missioners, who will be assisted by delegated discontent of these people over the provisions consuls of the great Powers. The Ottoman of the treaty of Berlin aggravated the disorders army shall evacuate Bulgaria, and all the with which the country was already afflicted. fortresses shall be destroyed, within a year, Charges of outrages committed by Bulgarians and new ones shall not be erected. Mussul were preferred, and became so definite that mans who remove from the principality shall an international commission was appointed to be allowed to retain their real property by suf- investigate them. The reports of the commisfering it to be administered by third parties; sioners were published in the latter part of and two years were allotted for a Turkish- August. The British, French, and Turkish Bulgarian commission, to be engaged with the commissioners made identical statements, repregulation of all matters relative to the trans- resenting that atrocious outrages had been comfer of state properties and religious founda- mitted by the Russians and the Bulgarians in tions. The province of Eastern Roumelia, as 1877 and 1878, both north and south of the defined by this treaty, has an area of 13,66+ Balkans, but chiefly in the villages of the Rhosquare miles, and a population of 751,000. dope Mountains. It had been intended to make
The Russians had accomplished much in the this statement the basis of the report of the organization of the Bulgarian districts which commission; but the Russian, German, and they had occupied, even before the treaty of Austrian representatives refused to sign it, beSan Stefano was signed. They continued in cause the evidence upon which it was founded their work without waiting for the result of was not satisfactory to them, and the Italian negotiations concerning the meeting of the representative withdrew his signature after Congress, and did not change their course having attached it, for the same reason. even after the Congress had made its decisions. The more important offices in both provinces In April an imperial ukase was issued direct were filled by the appointment of Russians. ing the speedy establishment of the new or The organization of the native militia was ganization.
The province was divided into pushed with rigor. An enrollment of all young governments. Each governor should act along inen of the ages of twenty, twenty-one, and with an administrative council chosen from twenty-two, was begun in September, which among the most trustworthy persons within was intended for the organization of a territhe area of the government. The government torial army to consist of fifty battalions of should be divided into circuits, presided over infantry, seventy squadrons of cavalry, four by sub-governors, each having a council of sotnias of artillery, and four regiments of sapseven Bulgarians. A superintendent should pers, to be commanded by officers selected from be appointed in each circuit, to be supported the Russian army. This army was enrolled and by a Bulgarian magistracy, to have the coin- designed for service in both provinces, but two mand of a body of police composed of Chris- thirds of the whole were drawn from Bulgaria. tians and Mohammedans, and to be vested The particular organization of northern Bulwith the control of passes, and with authority garia was conducted with dispatch and without to act as a judge in small cases. An autono- disturbance, so that few events occurred in mous court of law appointed in each circuit connection with it which attracted attention town would exercise jurisdiction in all civil abroad. The evacuation of the fortresses by and criminal cases, partly in accordance with the Turks was begun with hesitation and carformer Turkish law, and partly in accordance ried on slowly, in consequence of the compliwith the determination of use and wont. The cations growing out of the continued presence constitution of a National Assembly at Phil- of the Russian forces near Constantinople. The ippopolis was contemplated after all the forts around Shunla were given up in July, above-mentioned institutions should have been and the Russians received possession of Varna organized. After the death of Prince Tcher- on the 11th of August. The formation of bands kasski, the superintendence of the Russian ad- in the Dobrudja to resist the occupation of the ministration in all of Bulgaria became lodged province by the Roumanians was reported in in the hands of Prince Dondoukofl-Korsakoti, the latter part of September, and it was said who, establishing his headquarters at Philip- that arms had been distributed among the inpopolis, directed the organization of both sce- tending insurgents. A circular was sent by tions of the country.
Gen, Scoboleli to the officers of the territory While the appointment of the commissioners oceupied by the Russians, threatening to profor Eastern Roumelia contemplated by the claim martial law against those inhabitants who treaty of Berlin was pending, the Russian ad- should rebel against Russian authority; and a ministrator continued to execute the policy similar circular was prepared by the Porte to previously adopted, which looked to the forma- be published in the provinces recently occupied tion of a compact, autonomous state, without by the Turkish troops. The organization of seeming to regard the changes demanded by the administration of justice was effected in the new treaty. Ile was supported by tho October, when tribunals were constituted for majority of the Bulgarian population, who civil and criminal cases, consisting of local triwere anxious to be incorporated into a state bunals in the circuits and governmental courts embracing their whole nationality, and strongly in each sanjak, with special tribunals for cases opposed to a return under Turkish rule. The in which religious faith is concerned.
nouncement was made that the civil, military, be astonished at the injustice which the Powers and ecclesiastical service of Bulgaria would had committed against the Bulgarians in dihenceforth be carried on in the Russian lan- viding them into three parts; declared that, guage.
after having experienced nine months of freeThe International Commission for the organ- dom under the Russian occupation, they could ization of Eastern Roumelia was appointed in not return to subjection to Turkishi misgovernSeptember, and held its first meeting at Con- ment; and averred that they preferred the stantinople on the 1st of October. Its meetings provisions of the treaty of San Stefano to those were held afterward at Philippopolis. It was of the treaty of Berlin. In illustration of the not favorably received by the Bulgarian peo- injustice which they said the Congress had ple, and complaints were made that the Russian done to the Bulgarians of Eastern Roumelia and officers did not heartily encourage its objects. Macedonia, they claimed that the former provPrince Dondoukoff-Korsakoff refused to sur ince contained the best part of the Bulgarians, render the administration of the finances to and the latter 1,500,000 persons of that nathe commission, as was stipulated in the treaty tionality. The Bulgarian boundary commisof Berlin should be done, so long as the Rus- sioners returned to Constantinople early in sian troops occupied the province; but he December, averring that they were forced to offered to give up the surplus revenue remain- do so because the Russians, despite reiterated ing after defraying the expenses of the govern- requests, delayed furnishing an escort, and Gen. ment, including the payment of the native Todleben refused to receive them when they militia then in the course of formation. It was wished to remonstrate. observed with concern that the Russians, instead A meeting of Bulgarians was held at Philipof showing an intention to withdraw, were popolis on the 11th of November, which resending fresh troops south of the Balkans. solved to continue in persistent opposition to Gen. Todleben, having arrived at Lule Bourgas the execution of the work of the commission on the last of October, gave orders for the for organizing Eastern Roumelia. Prince Donrepair of the bridges in the neighborhood, and doukoff-Korsakoff was reported to have exfor the construction of barracks for the winter pressed the conviction, about the same time, quarters of the Russian soldiers stationed be- that the execution of the treaty of Berlin was tween Liverts and Tundja. The arrangements a sheer impossibility, for the Bulgarians would for sending away the greater part of the army take up arms to oppose the separation of Eastand for demolishing the fortresses of Widin ern Roumelia from Bulgaria. and Rustchuk were stopped. The fortifications The Bulgarian Assembly was called to meet at Kustendji in the Dobrudja, which had been at Tirnova, December 27th, where, after preabandoned, were rearmed, and military guards paring the organic law of the principality, it were posted at the railway stations. The ap was expected to elect a Prince. A draft of prehension was excited by these movements the Constitution had been prepared, which that the Russians did not intend to be bound provided for an Assembly consisting of four by the limitations of the treaty of Berlin, nor hundred deputies, one hundred of whom should to evacuate the Bulgarian territories until a be selected by the Government. The Prince final peace was concluded. Journals friendly should have the right to exercise mercy,
but to thêm stated, however, that their renewed should not be entitled to declare war. The advance was ordered, not on strategical grounds, election of the Prince was expected to take but for the sake of order and humanity. place on the 1st of January, 1879. The per
On the 29th of October a petition signed by sons named in December as the principal can50,000 Bulgarians of Eastern Roumelia and Ma- didates were Gen. Ignatieff, late Russian Amcedonia was presented to the commission sit- bassador at Constantinople, Prince Alexander ting at Philippopolis, protesting against the di- Wassiltchikoff, Prince Reuss, and Prince Alesvision of Bulgaria. The petitioners professed to ander of Battenberg.
CALIFORNIA. The Legislature, after a and mechanics who have nothing to do. Only brief adjournment, reassembled on January two or three days ago—the day before yester4th. In the Senate one of the first bills intro- day—they went to the Mayor of that city, I duced was framed to authorize the Mayor, City think in a body three thousand strong, and and County Surveyor, and Superintendent of asked him to give them labor in order that they Streets in San Francisco to give employment to may be able to get bread. The leader of that two thousand laboring men from the date of large body of men said to the Mayor, l'nless the passage of the bill to April 10th, the price you give us something to do—some work-we to be fixed by the officers above mentioned. shall be obliged to steal, in order that we may One of the Senators (Mr. Rogers) said: “It is be put in the county jail, where we will have well known that the streets of San Francisco, food.?” Another Senator (Mr. McCoppin) obat the present time, are full of laboring men jected to the bill, saying: "Why, at the end of