« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »
Area in sq.
1. Amazonas *
973 27,193 71,9.30
5. Ceará *
178,127 639,773 220,959
8. Pernambuco *
21,204 12,210 233,524 11,049
21,193 162,295 22,659
18. Rio de Janeiro.
Guianas, and the Atlantic Ocean; east by the such is the insuperable apathy of most of the Atlantic; south by Uruguay, the Argentine Re- inhabitants of the interior as seemingly to public, and Paraguay; and west by Bolivia, undermine their social and political existence, Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia. The dividin, prevent good administration, and retard the inlines with Bolivia, Colombia, the Guianas, and troduction of needed reforms. Naturally the the Argentine Republic have not been definite- inoral level is also very low; but the Governly drawn. The empire borders upon all the ment has organized a system of popular educaSouth American states except Chili; and oc tion adapted to the requirements of the various cupies more than two fifths of the South Amer- races, which promises favorable results. In ican Continent. It is divided into twenty-one the southern provinces, from Espirito Santo to provinces and one neutral municipality (mu- Minas Geraes, the white element prevails, and nicipio neutro), which, with their areas and there the European immigrants might be acciipopulation, were as follows in 1876:
matized and their descendants gradually scatter over the whole country. An increase of population being desirable, the Government continues its efforts to attract foreigners to the empire with a view to the founding of colonies
in the southern portion of its territory; and 56,6:31 460,000 232,622
similar endeavors on the part of the provincial 231,101
governments and of private companies have 4. Piauhy..
already been attended by the establishment of 6. Rio Grande do Norte *
a number of settlements, some of which are in 7. Parahyba
a thriving condition. By the gradual opera57,553 752,511 9. Alagoas *.
312,263 35,741 tion of the law of September, 1871, the insti10. Sergipe
tution of slavery is fast disappearing, to give
1,120,516 12. Espirito Santo *
place in the succeeding generation to free la26,600
270,726 bor. The number of emancipated slaves up to 226,033 93,517
December 31, 1875, was 21,704. The Emperor
72,000 116,162 10,560 takes much interest in the prospects of the free17. Santa Catarina * 23,220 141,818 14,951
born children of slaves, technically called in73,836 364,002 66,876 genuos, whom the Government may be called 230,000 1,612,419
upon to receive from the owners of the moth2.), Goyaz *..
10,652 531,575 53,750 6,667
ers to the number of about 25,000, on Septem
ber 29, 1879, when they shall have attained the Total... 3,210,000 8,198,590 1,462,553
age of eight years. The masters may either
1,000,000 Uncivilized Indians.
retain them till twenty-one, paying them wages General total
10,656,113 and educating them, or receive from the Gov
ernment bonds of $300 bearing interest at 6 per The capitals, in the order of the numbers, cent. per annum. are as follows: 1, Manáos; 2, Belem or Pará; 3, The Government of Brazil is a constitutional São Luis; 4, Therezina ; 5, Portaleza; 6, Na- monarchy. The Emperor is Dom Pedro II., tal; 7, Parahyba; 8, Recife; 9, Maceió; 10, born December 2, 18:25; proclaimed April 7, Aracajú ; 11, São Salvador or Balin ; 12, Vic- 1831; regency, until July 23, 1840; crowned toria; 13, Nictheroy; 14, Rio de Janeiro; 15, July 18, 1841; married September 4, 1843, to São Paulo; 16, Curitiba; 17, Desterro ; 18, Theresa Christina Maria, daughter of the late Porte Alegre; 19, Ouro Preto; 20, Goyaz; 21, King Francis I. of the Two Sicilies. Soon afCuyabá. In the foregoing table, the popula- ter the return of the Emperor and Empress tion of the provinces marked thus * is accord- from their tour through the United States and ing to the last census, but that of the others is Europe, in September, 1877, a new Liberal minmerely estimated. The completo report of the istry was formed through the personal influence census when published will probably show a of the sovereign, whose policy of reform the total population of 12,000,000. An official re- Conservative ministry would not agree to carry turn gives the population of Rio de Janeiro, the out. It is thought that the existing Chambers capital, at 274,972 for December, 1875), made up will be dissolved should a majority not be obas follows: Free population, 226,033 (males tained in support of the policy of the new 133,880, females 92,153); slaves, 48,939 (males Cabinet. The latter, formed January 5, 1878, is 24,886 females 24,053). In the coast cities and composed as follows: Interior, Senhor Leonin the northern provinces the mixed races pre- cio Carvalho ; Justice, Senhor Lafayette R. Pedominate ; not merely those resulting from reira; Foreign Affairs, Baron de Villa Bella ; the union of whites and Indians (mamalucos), War, Marquis de llerral; Navy, Senhor Anwhites and negroes, and negroes and Indians drade Pinto; Finance, Senhor Silveira Mar(cafuzos), but half-breeds of every shado and tinos; Public Works, Commerce, and Agriculdegree. Brazil is probably the country where ture, and President of the Council of State, the mingling of races has taken place upon the Senhor Sinimbú. Senhor Sinimbú, the head most extensive scale, and yet intellectual de- of the now ministry, is a well-known statesvelopment has not been inconsiderable. But man, entertaining most liberal viows, and his
21. Matto Grosso...
policy will, it is expected, favor the best inter- the expenditures at $53,861,034; deficit, $2,ests of the empire. The promised reforms will 211,034. embrace direct representation, retrenchment of The national debt was as follows in 1876 national expenditures (especially in the depart- and 1877: ments of War and the Navy, both unduly developed during the Paraguayan campaign), the
1877. repression of custom-house frauds, and a return
$51,860,000 $$4,608,553 to normal budgets. Recent elections in Bahia Home debt, funded..
Debt before 1527.. and Paraná, although these provinces are ad
Loan for the orphan fund. 7,230,415 7,566,203 ministered by Conservatives, give indications Special loan..
350,000 that the Liberal party is increasing in strength in abeyance.
1,313,356 and influence. The President of the Council,
Deposits of savings banks... 4,605,227 4,981,262 of pawn-offices...
375,962 himself a planter, has taken the departments public..
various sources.. of Agriculture and Public Works, once consid
4,005,091 3,697,207 Treasury bills...
17,018,000 10,081,300 ered of secondary importance, and has raised Baak notes...
71,639,575 74,673,929 them to the rank becoming such offices in an
$312,103,705 $351,026,5389 agricultural country requiring public improvements, particularly railways and internal navigation, for the development of its natural re
The following is a statement of Brazilian sources. The Council of State is made up of
finances from a London publication: the following members in ordinary: the Prin The internal debt of the empire consists of six, cess Imperial Donna Isabel, Prince Gaston four, and five per cent. apolices, the dividends d'Orleans Count d’Eu, and the Senators Vis
whereon are payable in currency, and a gold loan count de Abaeté, Viscount do Rio Branco, Vis- which appears to be paid in sovereigns. Despite
raised during the Paraguayan war, the interest of count de Muritiba, Viscount do Bom Retiro, some recent addition to the former through the Bank Viscount de Jaguary, Viscount de Victheroy; of Brazil, which that institution has not yet wholly and of six members extraordinary: Senators placed at the profit it seeks, the quotations of a polices Viscount de Araxá, Duke de Caxias, J. P. Dias
at Rio are slightly above par, and the gold bonds
are, of course, at higher quotations. Converted into de Carvacho, and J. J. Teixeira, Vice-Admiral sterling, at 24d. per milrei, the funded home debt J. R. de Lamare, and Dr. P.J. Soares de Souza. of the empire may be stated at £30,208,670, carrying The President of the Senate, which is composed interest in sterling of £1,810,802. So that the conof 58 life-members, is Viscount de Jaguary; Brazil in 1877–78 will need in sterling £3,247,240, the Vice-President, Count de Baependy. The out of a revenue for this year calculated to exceed Archbishop of Bahia, J. G. de Azevedo (1875), fractionally £10,000,000, and brought, according to is Primate of all Brazil, and there are 1ì bish- the Emperor's speech at the close of the session of ops, viz., those of Pará, São Luis, Fortaleza, the General Assembly, to an equilibrium with the Olinda, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Porto Alegre, expenditures. Thus far, then, the resources of Brazil
are amply sufficievt to bear a charge for delt, whichi Marianna, Diamantina, Goyaz, and Cuyabá.
bears à proportion to receipts less than the 'service The amounts and various branches of the of the public debt of England bears to its revenue. national revenue and expenditures for the fiscal But, in calculating the revenue for the current year year 1875–76 are exhibited in the following at that amount, it is to be borne in mind that the table :
revenue of Brazil has for two years past been adversely affected and reduced, as well by the com
mercial misfortunes of the world, as at home by bad Custom-house.
$53,973,120 sugar and coffee crops, and by a drought in three of Balance from 187+75..
199,950 its northern provinces almost totally destructive of Deposits..
1,735,633 the crops. Not only have the great ports of Bahia Nickel coin
13,530) Lottery tax
and Pernambuco been suffering from short supplies
4,737,903 Treasury notes.
reacting on the revenue, but, as Mr. Heath lately Slave-liberation fund
told tlie São Paulo Railway shareholders, a few
nights frost did last year enormous injury to the Total....
$72,236,075 coffee culture of that province, diminishiny also the
traffic of that line. The new crop is, however, greater than ever. As, ther, the revenue has in the past
suffered from these causes, so the present revenue Ministry of the Interior. ...
$1,217,715 of Justice
will, it is to be expected, improve with better crops; of Foreign Afairs
indeed, in the past ten months of 1877 those of cotof Marine..
9,145,916 ton and sugar imported into England exceed by of War....
10,671,1-19 £800,000 in value their imports for the same period of Agriculture, etc...
15,995,174 of 1876, and we may again short!y see the total inof Finance.
come of the empire rising to £12,000,000, to which Total..
it had ascended a few years ago, when the services Surplus...
of its debt will bear still more reduced proportion
to its income. $72,236,073
The total values of the exports and imports The revenue for 1876–77 was estimated at in 1875–76, including precious metals, wero $58,570,468, and the probable expenditures $104,247,000 and $86,074,500 respectively. at $60,248,665, which would show a deficit The values of the chief articles of export of $1,678,197. In tho budget for 1878–79 were, in the years 1874–75 and 1875–76, as the revenue is set down at $51,650,000, and follows:
All other articles..
duty, while in France it pays a duty of 1 franc Value in 1874–75. Value in 1875–76.
56 centimes per kilogramme, or nearly 15 cents $62,905,900 $55,046,100 per pound.
When the American Congress reRaw cotton.
pealed the duty on coffee, the Brazilian GovSugar
11,503,230 7,025,900 Mate (Paraguay tea)
713,500 731,750 ernment immediately increased the provincial 6,235,100 5,942,000
export duty to the amount of the custom-house
2,994,500 3,525,750 India-rubber.
duty formerly paid in the United States. The Diamonds..
culture of the coffee-plant in Brazil, and the
increasing commercial value of this important The following are the statistics of the com- product to the great South American empire, merce between Brazil and the United States, are thus described in a French journal : during the year ending June 30, 1878:
Even among the most ardent lovers of coffee, few
persons have an approximate idea of the area of its IMPORTS.
production, the extent of its consumption, or of the
very considerable traffic to which the coffee-berry Quantity.
las given rise. In the reign of Louis XVI. of France, Breadstuffs.
by the care and diligence of Captain Duchieux, it Iron and steel, and manufac
was first introduced into Martinique. Planted and tures of...
acclimatized in the soil of that island, the limits of Petroleum, refined, gallons.. 8,902,594 635,797 its growth and cultivation have steadily enlarged, Provisions :
until coffee has now become an article of primary Lard, pounds... 5,715,720 601,999
importance to modern commerce. In 1861 the total All other provisions..
27,935 Cotton manufactures..
production of the whole world was estimated at
523,322 Railroad cars...
3,460,000 metrical quintals* ; in 1870 it had increased Wool and manufactures of...
to 3,890,000, and in 1975 to 5,670,000 quintals. Since Drugs, chemicals, etc.
104,89 then the development has been equally progressive, 733,108 and för last year the total is estimated at not less
than 6,300,000 metrical quintals, which, at an averTotal imports.
age of only 75 franes ($15) per 50 kilos at tlie places
of production, would represent a sum of not less EXPORTS.
than 975,000,000 francs. It is calculated that the
consumption of Europe in 1877 absorbed about 283,Quantity
000,000 kilos of coffee; and Brazil furnishes nearly
one half of all the coffee consumed in the world. It ('offee, pounds... 211,654,160 $35,367,992
is, therefore, both curious and instructive to observe Sugar, brown, pounds... 73,070,533 3,165,34 the steally progress made by that country, whether India-lubber and gutta-per
as regards the increase in production or an improvecha, crudo, pounds.
5,876,112 2,157,398 ment in the quality of the coffee. The culture of Ilides
1,298,085 coffee in Brazil extends over a surface of about 655,000 Barks, medicinal, pounds.... 403,007
196,796 Wool, raw, pounds..
square kilometres. The principal places of produc
97,127 Wool, manufactured, pounds.
tion are the provinces of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Chemicals, drugs, dyes, and
Bahia, and (feará. The construction of railways has medicines.
61,166 enabled the planters to reduce their beasts of burden, All other articles..
250,037 and to concentrate their labor and capital more im
mediately to the culture of coffee and other exportTotal exports.
able products. The transport by rail avoids the
damage to which their products were exposed when The duties on imports were on the 1st of carried by mules. The following figures will give March increased 5 per cent. on the addition- place in the conditions of transport in the province
an idea of the radical transformation which has taken al duty, raising it to 50 per cent.; and the of São Paulo. Fifteen years ago, before the estabfollowing additions were made on articles lishment of the São Paulo Railway, from 80,000 to of luxury: 40 instead of 30 per cent. on the 100,000 mules were sold annually at the Sorocabo official values of fermented drinks, liqueurs, fair; now only 10,000 to 12,000 mules are sold. On spirits, wines, etc., furniture, fine woods, silks, the other hand, the production of coffee in the provand fine carthen and glass wares; 5 instead ince, which amounted then to 300,000 sacks of 75 kil..
or about 22,500,000 kil., has risen to 1,300,000 sacks of 2 per cent. on gems cut or uncut, set or of 60 kil. in 1877 78, or obout 78,000,000 kil. At unset; 10 instead of 5 per cent. on goldsmith's the French Exhibition of 1807 Brazilian coffees alone work in gold or silver, gold and silver watches, obtained the gold medal. The berry varies in color and on platina wares not employed in science from pale green to green, and is rather long. In the
province of São Paulo, more particularly, the berry and inanufacture.
is found small and round, almost identical with that Coffeo is the principal staple of Brazil, and of Mocha, and produces a delicious infusion. In fact, is cultivated from the Amazon southward to the coffees now grown in São Paulo rival in quality the province of São Paulo, and from the At
the best and most esteemed descriptions derived from lantic westward to the limits of Matto Grosso. continually increasing. The import duties in France,
other countries, and their consumption in Europe is There is no country that can rival Brazil in i franc 56 centimes per kilogramme, being excessive, its production, from the great advantage it has have hindered the development of the consumption over all others, the coffee ripening during the of coffee. The rapid augmentation in the import of dry season. The quantity exported in 1877 been brought about in consequence of their superior
São Paulo cotfires into France from Santos has only was 340,506,600 pounds, of which the l'nited quality, which permits of their taking the place States, the greatest coffee-consuming nation hitherto occupied by other sorts of established repuin the world, received 205,208,876 pounds. Coffee is admitted into this country free of
* The metrical quintal = 100 kilogrammes.
tation. At Hamburg and Antwerp the São Paulo ants, were chosen for this work. The expedicoffees have been more quickly appreciated at their tion started from Pará in the United States true value, and they are there very well known under the name of Santos coffee. These two ports in corvette Enterprise on June 30, and entered 1877–78 took almost one half of the coffee exported the main Amazon on the 7th. On the 15th from Santos, having imported 422,169 sacks. they reached Serpa, 872 miles from Pará, and
twenty miles below the junction of the MaA table showing the number of primary deira, the principal tributary of the Amazon. schools in each province, and the attendance They ascended that river for a distance of 300 thereat, will be found in the “ Annual Cyclo- miles to San Antonio, the northern terminus pædia " for 1875.
of the projected railway, below the falls of the The Minister of the Interior has abolished Madeira. A track chart of both rivers has in the Government College of Dom Pedro II., been made, showing latitudes and longitudes which confers degrees of Bachelor of Arts, along their banks, and also their shoals, rapids, the obligation for Protestants to be examined and bars, so that navigation may in future be in the course of religion, and has also abolished perfectly safe. the oath in regard to religious creeds. Examinations have been opened to persons not attending the collegiate course.
This is one of the secularizing measures projected by the Sinimbú Cabinet, and will probably be followed by the establishment of civil marriage, the removal of religious disabilities, and increased facilities for naturalization.
In 1867 there were oniy six railroads in the empire, of the aggregate length of 515 miles; in 1872 there were fifteen, with 768 miles; in 1876, twenty-two lines, with an aggregate length of 1,113 miles; in 1877, twenty-seven lines, with an aggregate of 1,994 miles open to traffic. There were at the latter date 4,672 miles of telegraph and one hundred and four offices. Although the new administration has inaugurated an era of strict economy and retrenchment, extending to the public works projected by a former ministry, the construction of important lines of railway will be continued. A cominission had been engaged in On November 10, 1877, the imperial decree studying a general system of railways to be No. 6,729 was signed by the Emperor of Brabuilt under a governmental guarantee of seven zil, granting a subsidy of $100,000 a year for per cent. for thirty years, or a kilometric sub a period of ten years to Messrs. John Roach & vention for such lines as show a probability of Son, to establish a line of steamships between a net income of at least four per cent. ; but the ports of New York and Rio de Janeiro, this system having proved impracticable, and calling at St. Thomas, Pará, Pernambuco, and too onerous to the Treasury of the empire, Bahia. The contract, signed on the 14th of another will be devised more in accordance November, requires that the ships composing with the economical tendencies of the reform the line shall compare favorably with the Cabinet. By a decree dated November 24, steamships plying between Europe and Brazil. 1877, a guarantee of seven per cent. on £400,- The time allowed between New York and Rio 000 of additional capital has been granted in de Janeiro is twenty days, and a failure in this favor of the Madeira and Mamoré Railway. respect subjects the contractors to fines and The guarantee is for thirty years, and is to penalties. Two steamships have already been take effect after the actual employment of placed on the line, the City of Rio de Janeiro £600,000 realized from the Bolivian loan and and the City of Pará. They are each 370 deposited in London. When the line is in op- feet long over all, 39 feet beam, depth of hold eration, the guaranteed capital will be credited 31 feet 6 inches, and 3,500 tons custom-house with a part of the net earnings of the railway, register. They are divided by bulkheads into until the Brazilian Government is reimbursed six water-tight compartments, and their engines of its expenditure. As it was thought that the are of 2,500 horse-power. The City of Rio Brazilian and Bolivian trade resulting from de Janeiro, the pioneer ship of the new line, the construction of the Madeira and Mamoró reached the harbor of Rio de Janeiro on the Railway would mainly fall into American 29th of May. On June 3d the steamer was hands, the thorough survey of the Amazon visited by the Emperor and Empress of Brazil, and Madeira Rivers was undertaken by the accompanied by the ministers of state and the Navy Department of the United States. Com- officers of the court; and they were received mander Selfridge, a skillful, energetic, and by the IIonorable II. W. IIilliard, the Ameriexperienced officer, and an able corps of assist- can Minister, Captain Weir, the commander
of the ship, Colonel Willard P. Tisdel, the prose articles. Mr. Bryant was married while superintendent of the line, Captain Jayo of living at Great Barrington, where he wrote the United States steamer Hartford, and other some of his best poems, such as “To Green distinguished Americans. The Emperor ex- River,” “Inscription for an Entrance to a pressed his satisfaction with the ship and the Wood,” and “ To a Waterfowl.” In 1821 he manner in which the contract had been carried delivered before the Phi Beta Kappa Society out.
of Harvard College “ The Ages," a didactic A famine of unprecedented severity has poem in the Spenserean stanza; and in the been experienced in three of the northern same year a volume of his poems was published provinces, but more particularly in that of at Cambridge, and immediately led to his recCeará. A protracted drought dried up the ognition as a writer of high merit. springs, brooks, and rivers, completely de In 1825 Mr. Bryant removed to New York, stroyed the crops, and deprived the inhabi- where he became editor of the “New York tants of all means of support. In the city of Review,” which was soon after merged in the Aracaty, from the 10th to the 18th of Febru- “United States Review,” for which he wrote ary, 60+ persons died of hunger, and an equal literary criticisms and several poems. About number perished in the immediate neighbor- this time he delivered a course of lectures on hood. Many more died from starvation on Greek and Roman mythology before the Acadtheir way to other provinces. At least 10,- emy of Design. In 1826 be became one of the 000 persons perished in the province of Ceará editors of the “Evening Post,” of which Wilsince the beginning of the famine, in spite of liam Coleman was then editor in chief. This the efforts of the Government to relieve the journal then had a marked leaning toward distress of the people. As much as $800,000 federalism, but Mr. Bryant labored to give it in a single month has been expended by the more of a republican character. Acquiring national Treasury to support the starving pop- exclusive control of its columns a few years ulation and to remove it to more favored dis- later, he took a bold stand in favor of free tricts.
trade and against all partial or class legislation, BRYANT, William Culley, an American and gave the paper a decidedly democratic poet, editor, and author, died in New York tone. From 1827 to 1830, in conjunction with June 12, 1878. IIe was born at Cummington, Robert C. Sands and Gulian C. Verplanck, he Ilampshiro County, Mass., November 3, 1794. conducted “The Talisman,'' a flourishing annuIlis father was Peter Bryant, who was a dis- al, and about the same time wrote the tales of tinguished local physician of learning and lit “Medfield” and “The Skeleton's Cave," which erary acquirements, and was the grandson of appeared in a book called “Tales of the GlauStephen Bryant, who came to this country in ber Spa.” A complete edition of his poems the Mayflower. William's remarkable preco was published in New York in 1832, and was city as a poet places him in this respect in the republished in England with a laudatory prefrank with Pope, Chatterton, and Ilenry Kirk ace written by Washington Irving, then in that White. Soveral metrical translations from the country. It was favorably reviewed by John Latin poets, written by him before he was ten Wilson in “ Blackwood's Magazine," and gave years of age, were published in the local paper, the poet a reputation in Europe not less than and in his fourteenth year he published two that in his own country. After the death of important poems called “The Embargo" and Coleman, William Leggett became associated “The Spanish Revolution,” the former a politi- with Bryant in the management of the “Evencal satire relating to the embargo policy of ing Post." In 1834 the latter went with his Jefferson in connection with Napoleon's Berlin family to Europe, and traveled through France, and Milan decrees. In 1810 young Bryant en- Germany, and Italy, studying the languages tered Williams College, where he soon distin- and literatures of these and other countries, guished himself in the languages and belles- and acquiring a wealth of knowledge of which lettres ; but at the end of two years lie left he made good use in his subsequent writings. college and engaged in the study of law. Ile Ile made in 1815 a second and in 1849 a third was admitted to the bar in 1815, began prae- visit to Europe, extending his travels to Egypt tice at Plainfield, and afterward established and Syria. During this time he wrote letters himself at Great Barrington. IIe soon took al to the “ Evening Post,” which were repubhigh rank as a lawyer, but preferred literature lished in a book entitled "Letters of a Travelto law, and gave much time to the former. In er.” In 1857 he ngain went to Europe, spendhis eighteenth year he wrote his most famous ing much time in Spain, whose language bepoem, “Thanatopsis,” which has been called came a favorite study with him. Another vol
one of the most precious gems of didactic ime of his letters to the “Evening Post” was verse in the whole compass of English poetry.'
.” published under the title of “Letters from It was published in 1818 in tho" North Amer- Spain and other Countries." In the mean ican Review,” and led to the life-long friend- timo Mr. Bryant had traveled extensively in ship between its author and the now venerabile his own country from Maine to Florida, makpoet Richard II. Dana, who was then one of ing also a trip to the island of Cuba. In these, the club which conducted the “Review." To as in his foreign travels, he regularly wrote to this periodical Bryant also contributed several his paper letters which were widely read.