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The receipts and expenditures for 1875 were 000 francs, the exports to 1,101,800,000 francs, as follows:

and the transit trade to 1,005,800,000 francs. RECEIPTS.

The special commerce with the different forI. Ordinary receipts :


eign countries in 1875 was as follows, in francs: 1. Taxes..

146,399,595 2. Tolls...

8,018,542 3. Stocks and rentes...



Exports. 4. Reimbursements..

8,370,456 5. Extraordinary resources, applied to the gen


81,129,000 eral needs of the state

18,420,000 2,552,241 Sweden and Norway..

27,545,000 8,913,000 II, Special receipts....


3,109,000 3,999,000 German Customs Сnion

162,571,000 Total receipts..

229,225,000 278,711,587 Hanse Towns..

9,026,000 15,041,000 Netherlands

169,536,000 150, 155,000 EXPENDITURES.


249,273,000 204 642,000 I. Ordinary expenditures :

France .

356,287,000 344,017,000 1. Public debt... 62,704,772 Portugal.

2,329,000 5,259,000 2. Dotations...

4,421,730 Spain

11,329,000 9,353,000 3. Justice... 15,279,650 Italy..

9,171,000 17,302,000 4. Foreign affairs..


1,790,000 28,387,000 5. Interior. 18,785,184 Austria

174,000 6,543,000 6. Public works. 81,944,736 Turkey..

15,046,000 6,684,000 7. War..


3,083,000 1,215,000 8. Finances. 14,958,347 Asia

10,150,000 1,409,000 9. Outstanding debts and reimbursements... 1,306,045

United States,

70.669,000 16,554,000 II. Extraordinary expenditures.

45,161,434 Other countries.

124,842,000 30,746,000 Total expenditures...


1,307,109,000 1,101,764,000 Excess of expenditures over receipts... 13,510,909 The public debt at the close of 1876 was as

The commercial navy in 1875 consisted of follows:

59 vessels, of 50,186 tons.

The aggregate length of railroads in operaLOANS.

Francs. Two and one half per cents..


tion on December 31, 1876, was 3,589 kilomeFour and one half per cents :

tres (1 kilometre -0.62 mile), of which 2,105 1st series, conversion of 1844.

53,36 1,182 kilometres were state railroads and 1,484 kilo2d series, emission of 1814.

67,483,000 3d series (1853)..


metres belonged to private roads. The aggre4th series (1557 and 1860)..

65,546,400 gate length of the lines of electric telegraph 6th series (1965).

58,581,000 6th series (1567, 1869, 1870, 1871).


on January 1, 1877, was 5,086 miles; that of Four per cents (1871).

56,694,000 wires, 22,081; the number of telegraph offices, Three per cents (1973).

283,085,000 613; the number of telegrams sent in 1870, Three per cents (1574). Floating debt.

19,450,000 2,910,687, of which 1,952,686 were inland, 723,

298 foreign, and 234,703 transit dispatches. Total...


In March, a committee appointed for that The standing army is formed by conscription, purpose reported to the Chamber on the introto which every able-bodied man who has com: duction of the Flemish language into the adpleted his nineteenth year is liable. Substitution ministrative affairs of the country. According is allowed. The legal term of service is eight to this report, there are in Belgium 2,256,860 years, but two thirds of this time are generally people who speak French, 2,659,890 who speak spent on furlough. The strength of the army Flemish, 38,070 who speak German, 340,770 is to be 100,000 men on the war footing, and who speak French and Flemish, 22,700 who 40,000 in times of peace. In 1876 the army speak French and German, 1,790 who speak was composed as follows:

Flemish and German, and 5,490 who speak all three languages. From this it will be seen that

the inhabitants who do not understand the offiARMY.

cial language of the country are in a majority, and for that reason the Committee recom

mended that the Flemish language be accorded Infantry.

1,802 23,983 46,754 70,737 Cavalry..

5,339 2,595


equal rights with the French. The report of Artillery.

6,937 8,297 15,234 the Committee was adopted by both the ChamEngineers, 755 1,262 1,423 2,655

ber and the Senate. Other troops. 597 3,009 3,475 6,544

On April 12th the Chamber passed, by a vote Total.. 3,214 40,590 62,534 103,124 of 80 to 24, a bill for increasing the number of

members of the Chambers in accordance with The civic militia, or national guard, numbers the increase of population. The original bill 125,000 men without, and 400,000 with, the fixing the additional number at fourteen depureserve. Its duty is to preserve liberty and or ties and five senators was amended in consedor in times of peace, and the independence of quence of the efforts of the Left, and, after a the country in times of war. A royal decree, long discussion, the number was reduced to dated October 20, 1874, divided the kingdom eight deputies and four senators. The session into two military circumscriptions, one em of the Chambers closed on May 29th. bracing the provinces of Antwerp and West On June 11th the elections of one half of the and East Flanders, and the second the others. members of the Senate (thirty-one) and of the

The imports in 1875 amounted to 1,307,100,- Chamber of Representatives (sixty-two) took



En solde. Sans solde.



place. These elections, which occur every sec- Cabinet, which was constituted as follows: M. ond year, are arranged so that the arrondisse- Frère-Orban, President of the Council and Minments which elect senators do not elect rep- ister of Foreign Affairs; M. Bara, Minister of resentatives and vice versa. This time various Justice; M. Van Humbeek, Minister of Public arrondissements whose representation has been Instruction; M. Sainctelette, Minister of Pubrecently increased had to elect also four addi- lic Works; M. Graux, Minister of Finance; tional senators and eight additional members M. Rolin Jacquemeyns, Minister of the Inteof the Chamber. Till now the proportion of rior; and General Rénard, Minister of War. parties was in the Senate thirty-three Catho An extraordinary session of the Chambers lics and twenty-nine Liberals, and in the Cham was opened on July 23d. M. Rogier, a member ber sixty-eight Catholics and fifty-six Liberals. of the Belgian Congress of 1830, was elected The result of the election was a complete sur President of the Chamber of Representatives. prise to every one. The Liberal party obtained On August 7th the Chamber adopted a bill for a majority in the Chamber of ten and in the the creation of a Ministry of Public Instruction. Senate of six. In the arrondissement of Ghent, The twenty-fifth year after the marriage of the defection of which in 1870 from the Lib- the King and Queen was celebrated in Brussels eral cause was the occasion of the accession of from August 22d to the 25th. All the large cities the Clericals to power, the Clericals were coin of the kingdom had sent deputations to express pletely defeated. In consequence of this result, their congratulations. Among the presents the Ministry resigned, and M. Frère-Orban, was a crown and a lace train of great value one of the leaders of the Liberals in the Chain- presented by the women of the kingdom, and ber, was intrusted with the formation of a new a diadem presented by the city of Brussels.

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TIIE PLACE ST. PIARAILDE, AND GATEWAY OF THE OLD CASTLE OF TUE COUNTS OF FLANDERS. The communal elections took place on Octo- cational question the King said that the instrucber 29th, and likewise resulted in favor of the tion given at the expense of the state should Liberals. Of the nine provincial capitals, only be placed under the exclusive control of the one, Bruges, remains in the hands of the Cath- civil authorities, whose mission would be to olic party. Among the towns in which the imbue the young with respect for the laws and Liberals have this year gained the ascendancy institutions of their country. Various bills are Malines, Eeclo, Tongern, and Marche. They would be presented to the Chambers on this also retain their endangered majority in Lou- subject. Proceeding to speak of tlre army, he vain, Tournay, Charleroi, and Ypres. In some showed that its organization was still incomplaces, however, as in Liége, the Catholic mi- pleto, and mentioned the necessity for the crenorities have somewhat increased in strength. ation of a national reserve. The civic guard

The Chambers were opened by tho King on should also be efficiently armed. Alluding to November 12th. The King, in the speech from the state of trade, the King expressed the hope the throne, said that at no period had the re that the industrial crisis was now past, and lations between Belgium and other states been stated that the Government was endeavoring more influenced by feelings of esteem and con to find means to alleviate the distress of those fidence than at the present time. On the odu- affected by it. Public works were being ac

tively pushed forward. With regard to the the neighborhood of Rome and in a part of the financial situation, the King said that the equi- Marches and of Umbria. In August of the librium of the budget had ceased to be assured, same year he was added to the Commission of and the present estimates were not altogether Three Cardinals to govern the dominion of St. of a favorable character. The Treasury also Peter until the return of the Pope; and on the had contracted considerable engagements, for return of the latter to Rome, Berardi was comwhich it would be necessary to provide. The missioned to receive him at the frontier. In Government would submit proposals to the 1856 he was by the influence of Antonelli apChambers for effecting further reform in the pointed substitute of the Secretary of State, and electoral law.

from that time until his elevation to the carThe association of the Belgian Free Churches dinalate he always took a prominent part in has grown up out of the Belgian Evangelical the temporal and ecclesiastical affairs of the Society, which was founded in 1837. After Holy See. In 1860 he fell for some time into existing for several years under this naine, the disgrace, as his brother Filippo was charged Free Churches adopted an ecclesiastical organ- with being at the head of a conspiracy against ization better fitted to promote the develop- the temporal power of the Pope, and with ment of their work. They accepted the Pres- having secretly delivered to the enemy iinporbyterian form of government, and chose as tho tant public documents. By the influence of standard of their faith the old Belgic Confession Antonelli he was, however, soon restored to of the sixteenth century, with the article which favor, and designated to the important position refers to the interference of the civil power in of Apostolic Nuncio at St. Petersburg. For matters of faith omitted. The Synod for 1878 this purpose he was obliged to take holy ormet at Brussels July 16th. Twenty churches, ders; and being consecrated in immediate sucFrench and English, were represented, besides cession priest and bishop, he was appointed which visiting members were present from the Archbishop of Nicea in partibus. As the relaWaldensian and the Scotch and English Pres- tions between Russia and Rome remained unbyterian churches, and churches in Holland. friendly, he never entered upon his functions as Pastor Cacheux, of Lize-Seraing, presided. nuncio; but on March 13, 1868, he was appointA resolution was passed to the effect that a ed cardinal-priest. Much against his own greater prominence should be given to the de- wish, he was appointed Minister of Public cided views entertained by the church on the Works, Commerce, and Fine Arts, which posisubject of the separation of church and state. tion he retained until the overthrow of the A meeting was held in connection with the temporal power of the Pope. When he was Evangelical Alliance, which was also attended forced to leave the Quirinal Palace in 1870 he by ministers of the National Church ; and the took up his abode with his brother Filippo; annual public meeting was addressed by depu- and, as the latter had the reputation of being ties from foreign churches. The financial re an outspoken partisan of Italian unity and an port announced a deficiency of $3,600 on a intimate friend of the statesmen Nicotera and necessary annual expenditure of $25,000. Mancini, Cardinal Berardi again awakened the

BERARDI, GIUSEPPE, Cardinal-priest of the suspicions that he was not himself in full hartitle of Saints Marcellino and Pietro, born mony with the policy of the Holy See. September 28, 1810, died April 6, 1878. IIo BERNARD, C'LATDE, one of the greatest was the son of a poor family of Ceccano, a physiologists of the present century, born July village in the former Pontifical States near the 12, 1813, at St. Julien, in the department of the frontier of Naples. Ile received his first edu- Rhône, died February 10, 1878. On account cation in the diocesan seminary of Ferentino, of the poverty of his family, he found it very and subsequently attended the Collegio Ro- difficult to finish his classical studies. After mano. At the Papal university della Sapienza living for a short time with a pharmacist in he studied law and theology, supporting him- Villefranche-sur-Saône, he went to Paris. In self in the mean while by giving private les- 1841 he became a pupil of the learned physisons. Feeling no vocation for the priesthood, ologist Dr. F. Magendie, who had a great inhe practiced law for several years and mar fluence upon the progress of his studies; and ried; but after losing his wife and only dangh- in 1843 he graduated as a doctor of medicine. ter he was appointed in 1844 by Gregory XVI. Until 1853 lie chiefly studied surgery, but from prelate and judge of the supreme tribunal of that year ho relinquished surgery in order to the Consulta. In 1845 he became judge of tho deroto himself entirely to the experimental Apostolic Chamber for civil, ecclesiastical, and study of physiology. In 1854 the chair of criminal affairs. In 1848 Berardi followed Pius Professor of General Physiology was specially IX. to Gaëta, where he became the devoted created for him at the Sorbonne; in the samo and zealous partisan of Antonelli. At the in- year he was made a member of the Academy stigation of Antonelli, Pius IX. in 1849 intrust- of Sciences, and in 1861 of the Academy of ed Berardi with the difficult task of restoring Medicine; in 1855 he succeeded his master the Papal authority in the recovered States of Magendie as Professor of Experimental Medithe Church. Supported by Neapolitan and cine in the Collége de France; and in 1868 he Spanish troops, Berardi displayed an astonish- became Professor of General Physiology at the ing activity, and reüstablished Papal rulo in Museum. Four times ho received from the

Academy the great prize of physiology: first tin County, N. C., February 4, 1811. After in 1849 for his work “Recherches sur les receiving a common-school education he began Usages du Pancréas”; again in 1851 and 1853; to practice law in 1831. He was elected a and finally in 1872 for his work “De la Phy- member of the State Constitutional Convensiologie générale.” In 1868 he became in the tion in 1835, to the lower branch of the Legislaplace of Flourens a member of the French ture in 1810 and 1842, and to the State Senate Academy, and in 1869 he was appointed a in 1814. He was chosen a member of Conmember of the Senate. On the day following gress in 1845, and served one term. He was his death the Chamber of Deputies, on motion one of the three commissioners appointed in of the Minister of Public Instruction, Bardoux, 1830 to revise the State statutes, and who unanimously voted an appropriation of 10,000 prepared the Revised Code of North Carolina, francs for a public funeral of the distinguished which went into operation in 1854. In the scholar.

latter year he was again elected to the State BIGELOW, GEORGE Tyler, an American Senate, and 1854 was chosen United States jurist, die in Boston April 12, 1878. Ile was Senator, which position he resigned in 1858 born at Watertown, Mass., October 6, 1810, to accept the judgeship of the United States graduated at Ilarvard College in 1829, and be- District Court of North Carolina under an gan the practice of law in Middlesex County. appointment from President Buchanan. He in 1834. He served as captain of the New held this position until the war broke out, and England Guards, was afterward colonel of an in May, 1861, he was elected to the State Coninfantry regiment in Boston, and in 1814 was vention which met in Raleigh and passed the chosen an aide to Governor Briggs. IIe was ordinance of secession. After the war he rea member of the lower branch of the Massa- sumed the practice of the law, and subsequently chusetts Legislature from 1840 to 1814, and engaged in the commission business at Norfolk, of the upper in 1817 and 1818. He became a Và. In the United States Senate he served on common-pleas judge in 1849, and in 1850 was the Committees on Finance and Private Land appointed an associate justice of the Supreme Claims. Court. In 1860 he succeeded Lemuel Shaw as BOLIVIA (REPÚBLICA DE BOLIVIA), an inchief justice, which position he held till 1868, dependent state of South America, lying bewhen he resigned it. From this time until tween latitudes 10° and 24° south, and longiJanuary, 1878, he served as actuary of the tudes 57° 25' and 70° 30' west. It is bounded Massachusetts Flospital Life Insurance Com on the north and northeast by Brazil, on the pany. In 1868 Judge Bigelow was elected one south by the Argentine Republic and Chili, and of the overseers of Harvard University, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean and Peru. in 1873 he was a member of the Commission The republic is divided into nine departfor the Revision of the Boston City Charter. ments, which, with their areas in square miles,

BIGGS, Asa, died at Norfolk, Va., March capitals, and population (exclusive of 250,000 6, 1878. He was born in Williamstown, Mar- savage Indians), are approximately as follows:

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The population of the foregoing cities is set ment, particularly in the departments of La Paz down by a European authority as follows: Co- and Tarija. bija, 2,380; Trinidad, 4,170; Sucre, 23,979; The President of the Republic is General Cochabamba, 40,678; La Paz, 76,372; Oruro, Hilarion Daza (installed May 4, 1876), and the 7,980; Potosí, 22,580; Santa Cruz, 9,780; Ta- Ministers are: Interior and Foreign Affairs, rija, 5,680. But as these figures are taken from Dr. D. Martin Laura; Finance and Public Lieutenant-Colonel J. Ondarza's map and tables Works, Dr. M. Salvatierra ; Justice and Pubof population published in 1859, and no allow- lic Worship, Dr. J. M. del Carpio ; War, Genance is made for the increase of population, eral Ion Manuel Oshon Jofré. By the Conwhich the same authorities estimate at 30 per stitution of Bolivia, drawn up by Simon Bolivar cent., it is presumed the table will be found in 1826 and modified in 1828, 1831, and 1863, approximately correct.

tho executive power is vested in a President The departments are subdivided into 37 dis- elected for a term of four years, who appoints tricts, and these into 45 provinces. Only one a Vice-President and the ministers. Tho legisfourth of the population is purely white, and lative authority is vested in a Congress of two the aboriginal is by far the most numerous olo- Chambers, the Senate and llouse of Represen

tatives, both elected by popular suffrage. The led since that date, while the neighboring counministers are liable to impeachment before tries have advanced in wealth and civilization. Congress. The capital of the republic is La BOUTON, NATHANIEL, died in Concord, Paz.

N. H., June 6, 1878. He was born at NorThe Bolivian Consul-General in New York walk, Conn., June 20, 1799, and was graduis Señor J. Pol, and the Consul in San Fran- ated from Yale College in 1821, and from the cisco Señor F. Herrera. The American Min- Andover Theological Seminary in 1824. lIo ister of the United States in Bolivia is the was pastor of the First Congregational Church Hon. R. M. Reynolds, residing at La Paz. The and Society in Concord, N. II., from 1825 to Metropolitan Archbishop is Dr. P. J. Puy y 1867; president of the New Isampshire llisSolona (elevated in 1861), and there are the torical Society from 1842 to 1844; trustee of following bishops : La Paz, Dr. Juan de Dios Dartmouth College from 1840 to 1877, and Bosque (1874); Cochabamba, F. M. del Gra- secretary of the Board of Trustees froin 1845 nado (1872); and Santa Cruz de la Sierra, F. to 1873; and president of the New Ilampshire X. Rodriguez (1870).

Missionary Society from 1852 to 1858. IIe No statement of the Bolivian finances has also served as vice-president of the American been published since 1875, for which year the Ilome Missionary Society and director of the revenue was set down at $2,929,574, the ex New Hampshire Bible Society, and was a corpenditures at $4,505,504, and the national debt porate member of the New England Historical at £3,400,000, including Colonel Church's loan and Genealogical Society, and of the Maine, of £1,700,000 for the construction of the Ma- the Wisconsin, and the Pennsylvania Historideira and Mamoré Railway. The revenue is de- cal Societies. Besides numerous sermons, adrived from customs duties on imports, from the dresses, and articles in periodicals, he published mines and other state property, and from a “ Ilelp to Prayer" (1832), “Sinners Directed," tax levied upon the Indian population yielding abridged from Baxter (1832), “Memoir of Mrs. nearly one half of the total receipts. The im- Elizabeth Macfarland (1839), IIistory of ports in 1875 amounted to $5,750,000, and the Concord, N. II.” (1856), “ Collections of New exports to $5,000,000. The exports consisted lampshire llistorical Society,” Vols. VII. and mainly of guano, leather, Peruvian bark, tin, VIII. (1850–'56), and “Lovewell's Great Fight and silver. The duties on goods imported at Pigwacket” (1861). through Peruvian ports were collected by the BOWLES, SAMtel, an American journalist, Peruvian Government, and a sum averaging died January 16, 1878, in Springfield, Mass., $500,000 was paid annually to Bolivia; but where he was born February 9, 1826. At an negotiations for a renewal of the custom-house early age he was employed in the office of treaty between the two countries not having the *: Springfield Republican,” a weekly paper been taken up by the Republic of Peru, in spite which his father had started in 1824, and of of the urgent requests of the Bolivian envoy, which he was proprietor. In 1814 he perDr. Zoilo Flores, the Government of Bolivia suaded liis father to publish a daily paper, on has issued a decree restoring the Bolivian cus- which the son, though but a boy, performed tom-houses. It is thought that the early com an important part of the editorial labors. llis pletion of the Madeira and Mamoré Railway, political articles soon attracted attention, and which will open navigation to the very center his letters from the South, where he was sent of Bolivia through the Amazon and its tribu- for his health in the winter of 1815, were widely taries, will free the country from the custom- read. Young Bowles soon became the virtual house tutelage of Peru, and strengthen the head of the paper, and conducted it with entergood relations now existing between Brazil prise and ability until the time of his death. and Bolivia.

In 1865 he made a journey to the Pacific coast The only railways in operation are the lines with a large company, including Mr. Schuyler from La Paz to the port of Aygacha on Lake Colfax. The letters written on this journey Titicaca (60 miles), and from Antofagasta to to the “Springfield Republican" were repubSalar (38 miles). Some progress has been lished in a volume called “Across the Contimade in the construction of the Madeira and nent.” In 1869 he published "Our New West” Mamoré Railway by the American contractors, and “The Switzerland of America,” in the the Messrs. Collins, of Philadelphia. Seven latter of which were described the mountain miles of the road were already in operation, scenery and the natural parks of Colorado. and materials were on the ground for fifty Mr. Bowles was an industrious, fearless jourmiles additional; but, owing to unexpected nalist, and not only made the “Springfield Redelay in the final decision of the English courts publican " a leading journal of New England, in regard to the Bolivian loan and to the con but during the war and afterward gave to it a tract with the Public Works Company, work national reputation. had been temporarily suspended. To Bolivia BRAZIL (IMPERIO DO BRAZIL), an empire of this enterprise promises national life, as with- South America, and the only monarchy in the out it it can not profitably export its abundant New World, extending from latitude 5° 10' and valuable products. The trade and reve- north to 33° 46' south, and from longitude 34° nues of the republic hare not increased since 47' to 74° 7' west. It is bounded north by 1825, although the population has nearly treb- the United States of Colombia, Venezuela, the

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