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that, by the influence of its publications, a mittee on the State of Religion reported that church of thirty-one members had been formed revivals of religion among the churches of the in Scotland within a year and a half, having different elderships had been very general, and an efficient pastor, and publishing a weekly that numerous additions to the Church' had paper.

been made, particularly in West Ohio. The The Treasurer of the Education Society made Board of Missions was urged to use every a final report of the financial transactions of effort to establish missions in the Western and the Society from its organization in 1855 to Southern States, as well as in the Territories. September, 1878. The accounts of the endow. A resolution was passed advising the estabment fund amounted to a total of $44,683, and lishment of missions in foreign lands as soon those of the general fund to $41,172, the lat as possible, and approving steps which had tur suin being made up chiefly of interest on been taken by the East Pennsylvania Eldership endowment notes and on mortgages and bonds. toward beginning a mission in India. A Board The property of Milton College, Milton, Wis., of Foreign Missions was organized, with which was estimated to be worth $35,379; its receipts the several annual elderships were directed to for the year had been $3,949, and its expendi- cooperate, with a view of establishing a mis tures $3,946, and its indebtedness was $7,716.- sion in that country. The Eldership declared 65. The school has divided into preparatory by resolution tliat a school was required for and collegiate departments, and has three the education of the ministers and people, to courses of study, classical, scientific, and teach- be under the control of the Church; and propoers'. The number of students in both depart- sitions from Ridgeville College, Indiana, and ments during the past collegiate year had been Mount Pleasant Institute, Pennsylvania, were 225. The endowment fund of Alfred Univer- considered favorably. A resolution was adopted sity, Alfred Center, N. Y., was $95,401; the affirming the belief that the washing of the grounds, buildings, library, cabinets, and ap- saints' feet is an ordinance instituted by Christ, paratus fund of the institution were valued at and advising all the ministers to teach and all $130,003 ; the receipts and expenditures of the the churches to practice it. The practice of feetinstitution from its foundation in 1836 to the washing before the celebration of the Lord's present time had been $228,236 each ; and the Supper was especially insisted upon. Measures revenue and expenditure for the year ending were taken for the preparation of a “ Teacher's July 3, 1878, had been $9,515 each. Nineteen Manual” and “Lesson Leaves” for Sunday teachers were employed in the university; the schools. The introduction of temperance orwhole number of students enrolled during the ganizations into Sunday schools was recomcollegiate year was 415 ; and the whole num mended. It was resolved to celebrate the year ber of students who had pursued for four 1880 as the semi-centennial of the existence of months or more during the year classical stud- the Church as an organized body; and a comies or the higher branches of English educa- mittee was appointed to make all the necessary tion, or both, was 113.

arrangements for carrying the resolution into IV. Churol Of God.—The number of mem- effect. bers of this Church in the United States is es V. MENSONITES.— The sixteenth annual Contimated by the Secretary of its Board of Mis- ference of the 1mish Mennonites was held at sions to be about 30,000. The twelfth trien- Eureka, Ill., in June. Forty-two delegates nial meeting of the General Eldership of the were present, of whom four were from Ohio, Church of God in North America was held at two from Indiana, two from Iowa, thirty-two Syracuse, Ind., beginning May 29th. Elder from Illinois, and one each from Pennsylvania C. II. Forney was chosen Speaker. The Board and Nebraska. There was also an attendance of Missions reported that eight inissionaries had of several hundred members of the churches been employed during the past three years, as visitors. Elder J. K. Yoder, of Ohio, was whose assignments, modified at the several chosen chairman of the Conference. The promeetings of the Board, had been principally ceedings consisted chiefly of devotional exerin the States of Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri, cises and addresses. The principal business and Michigan. The organization of the Church considered was the adoption of measures to had also been introduced into England, at Al- prevent the Conference from being disturbed vingham, through the agency of Elder Jolin by the intrusion of petty cases of discipline P. Coulan. The General Book Agent reported and difference which ought to be settled elsethat his receipts during the three years had where. The Conferenco decided that no cases been $9,160, and his expenditures $4,452. The should be admitted before it till after efforts publications issued during his term included, had been made to settle them in the local besides the “Journal” of the General Elder church, or by special tribunals constituted ship, tracts on the subjects of feet-washing, from the neighboring churches, and failed. baptism, and the Church of God, the Consti- The Amish originated in Germany in the tution of the General Eldership, and a sermon seventeenth century, and, adhering to the by the late Elder Winebrenner on baptism, Mennonite Confession of Faith, differ but little which was preached in 1842. A reprint of from the regular Mennonites. Their preachers Elder Winebrenner's “ Treatise on Regenera- are not men of learning, but are chosen from tion” was in course of publication. The Com- among the membership by a vote of the peo

ple, or in cases where there is a tie, or the not observe the order of the Brethren in remajority for the person receiving the highest gard to apparel; against administrators of number of votes is only one, by lot; and they communion who fail to conform to the order receive no salaries. The Lord's Supper is ad- in respect to dress and the hair ; and against ministered twice a year. Besides this, bap- expensive feasting at funerals. tism, feet-washing, and the holy kiss are re VII. BAPTISTS IN THE BRITISI MARITIME garded as ordinances of equal importance. PROVINCES.—The Baptist Convention of Nora They take but little part in civil affairs, only Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward's occasionally voting at elections for school offi- Island met at Fredericton, N. B., August cers, are conscientiously opposed to military 17th. The Rev. S. W. De Blois was chosen service, and have no denominational schools President. The statistical report gave the or church paper, depending upon the public number of churches as 352, with 34,450 memschools for the education of their children and bers. Three new churches had been constiupon the Mennonites for their literature. The tuted, three ministers ordained, six houses of Ohurch pays the debts of those who are un- worship opened, and 1,735 persons baptized fortunate and become insolvent, and excludes during the year. The endowment fund of those who can pay their debts and will not; Acadia College amounted to $83,863, of which and members are advised to consult the Church $31,500 consisted of notes of hand and pledges. before embarking in any new enterprise. The The most important business transacted was older members are distinguished by certain the adoption of the report of a committee peculiarities of costume, such as wearing hooks which had been appointed in the previous and eyes instead of buttons, whence the sect year concerning the subject of placing the has been called “the Hookers”; but the home mission work in the three provinces younger members are beginning to conform under the control of the Convention. The to the customs of the world.

committee presented a plan for the appointVI. THE BRETHREN, OR TUNKERS.— The an- ment of a committee of thirteen persons to nual Council of The Brethren, commonly take charge of this work as soon as the legal called German Baptists, or Tankers, met at obstacles to the making of the change can be North Manchester, Ind., during Whitsun-week. removed. The Home Mission Board of Nova Enoch Ebeg was chosen Moderator. An or Scotia had already approved the principle of ganization for the promotion of home missions, the new arrangement, but it still awaited thio called the Church Extension Union, had been ratification of the Convention of New Brunsformed in the previous year, the plan and wick. A foreign mission is maintained by the management of which, in that it contemplated Convention among the Telugus of India. salaried officers, were a deviation from the VIII. REGULAR BAPTISTS IN Great BRITAIN. established usages of the brotherhood. Sev- — The “ Baptist Iland Book” of the Baptist eral petitions were presented, asking the Coun- Union of Great Britain and Ireland for 1878 cil to account for the departure. As the gives statistics of the Baptist churches of Great Union was an acknowledged innovation, and Britain and other foreign countries, of which could not be shown to be consistent with any the following are summaries : precedents in the Society, there seemed no way of answering the petitions except by dissolving it. It was accordingly dissolved, but a new organization was immediately formed, England..

1,954 1,385 195,199 under another name, with the same objects. It was claimed in justification of this course, that the Brethren, professing to have thé

Total for the United Kingprimitive and apostolic form of Christianity,

2,620 1,825 269,836 were under obligation to spread it; and it Europe (Denmark, Finland, was stated that more than one hundred calls France, Germany, Greece, for teachers had been received from all parts

Holland, Italy, Norway,

Poland, Russia, Spain, of the United States, and even from England Sweden Switzerland, Tur


85,470 and Switzerland, and there was no other effec

Asia (Assam, Burinah, Ceytive way of answering them. The question of lon, China, India, Japan, the validity of “tub baptism," or baptism in

Palestine, Siam)..

27,138 the house in exceptional cases of extreme sick

Africa (Cape Colony, Port

Natal, West Africa, St. ness, instead of taking the candidate to the Helena)....

1,126 stream, was brought up; but the Council, al

dies (exclusivo of the though a general sentiment of disapproval was l'nited States).

88,171 expressed against it, declined to condemn it as without authority of the Scriptures. The use of “fine and fancy carpets” was condemned

Add for the United States. 22,924

13,799 1,082,355 as tending to pride and elevation. Condem


10,7-10 2,360,951 nation was voted against the practices of ministers going about persuading people to join Number of Sunday scholars in the United the Church, and telling them that they need Kingdom, 370,320; in France, 866; in Ger



Pastors or missionaries,






64.188 9,096 1,353



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America and the West In

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many, 4,917; in Denmark, 517; in Holland, proving the measure by which the Baptisi 745; in Poland, 505; in Russia, 232 ; in Tur- iloine Mission had become connected with the key, 108; in Sweden, 17,383 ; in Port Natal, Baptist Union, urging the churches to make 172 ; in St. IIelena, 250 ; in the West Indies, annual collections for the Mission, recoinmend15,106. The Baptist Union of Germany, Den- ing the associations each to appoint a repremark, IIolland, Switzerland, Poland, Russia, sentative on the committee, and advising that Turkey, and Africa employs 200 missionaries special efforts be made to raise its income to and colporteurs. The Swedish Missionary £10,000 a year. Union employs 68 missionaries at stations in The receipts of the Baptist Missionary SoSweden. The Swedish Baptists have a build- ciety for the year ending with the anniversary, ing fund of £280 for furnishing loans for the May 1st, were £50,069, and the expenditures building of plain houses of worship, a poor during the same period were £37,873. Favorfund, and the Bethel Theological Seminary for able reports were made of the progress of the the instruction of ministers, which in 1877 had missions in France and Italy. Opposition had 21 students. Serampore College, India, under been manifested to the work of the Society in the control of the (Englislı) Baptist Missionary Norway. Society, had 300 pupils. Besides their general The Baptist Zenana Vission reported at its missionary and other societies, of which notices anniversary, May 3d, that it employed about are given in the “ Annual Cyclopæilia” from twenty lady visitors and about thirty-six nayear to year, the Baptists of Great Britain sus tive teachers and Bible women at various imtain the China Inland Mission, with 157 labor- portant points in India. It had received durers, and the Palestine Mission, established in ing the year £2,772 for general purposes, and 1870, which reports two missionaries at Nab- £1,20.5 for the homes which it was intended lus, with three baptized converts, upward of to build for the laciy workers in India. 80 children in the schools, and about 30 attend The Baptist Home and Irish Jission Society ants at the mothers' meetings. They have also reported at its anniversary in May that it connumerous general and local societies for the ducted in Ireland 17 principal stations and 211 aid and relief of ministers and the care of the sub-stations, at which 21 missionaries and widows and children of ministers, and a Bar- other persons were employed, and the average tist Tract Society, having for its object “to attendance was 6,000 hearers. In England, disseminate the truths of the Gospel by means the Society supported 25 churches, and indiof small treatises or tracts, in accordance with rectly supported 28 other churches, which our viows as Calvinists and Strict Communion were attended by an average of 7,500 hearers, Baptists,” the income of which for 1876 was and with which were connected 2,856 mem£1,469.

bers and 3,038 Sunday-school scholars. The The annual meeting of the Buptist Union cost of the operations of the Society for the of Great Britain and Irelanl was held in year in England and Ireland had been £5,215. London April 29th. The statistical tables The Bible Translution Society during the showed that 1,825 pastors, 3,381 evangelists, year ending in May, 1878, issued 28,470 copies 270,000 members, and 370,000 Sunday-school of the Scriptures. Its receipts for the year scholars were connected with the churches were £2,093. It is translating and distributing represented in the Union. An increase was the Scriptures in various tongues, particularly shown in all important particulars. Two new in the languages and dialects of India. Of associations had been formed for home mis- the translations now in hand, those into the sionary work.

languages of Japan and Orissa were nearest The autumnal meetings of the Union were completion. held at Leeds, beginning October 9th. The IX. GENERAL BAPTISTS.—The one hundred first day's session was devoted to the subject and ninth annual meeting of the Association of missions, and a paper was read by one of of General Baptists wils held in London, June the secretaries of the Society comparing the 17th. The Rev. Thomas Goadby presided, condition of its missions in 1849 with the con The statisti: al reports showed that the total dition in 1878. It showed that in 1818 the number of members in the churches connected total number of European missionaries wholly with the Association was 24,943, with 179 sepsupported by the Society was 58, and that their arate churches, 109 pastors, 38+ local preachers, labors were supplemented by those of 159 and 4,515 teachers in Sunday schools. There native teachers and preachers. In 1878 the hal heen 1,1705 members added by baptism, Society employed the same number of mis- and the net increase of members during tho sionaries, 58, that it had supported thirty years year was about 250. before; but' the native force consisted of 199 The annual meetings of the Baptist Tinion missionaries and evangelists, with 611 umpaid of Scotlanul were held at Edinburgh about the Sunday-school teachers and helpers. The con first of November. The l'nion had just entributions in 1848 were £21,876 ; in 1878, £12,- tered upon its second decade, and a review 234, special funds being excluded in both cases, of its history showed that, while it began The report of the IIome and Irish Mission with 50 churches and 3,850 members, it had showed that during six months the Mission had grown to consist of 81 churches and 8,163 spent £2,680. A resolution was adopted ap- members, with 7,670 pupils in the Sunday


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schools. The Union had during the year built tric currents by the operations of the animal 14 new chapels, giving accommodation to 10,- economny, thus giving confirmation to the theory 000 persons, at a cost of £39,435. One thou- proposed by himself

, that all chemical actions sand pounds bad been raised during the year develop electric currents. Further, he deterfor the beneficiary fund; the ministers' provi- mined the electric conductivity of sundry eledent fund had a capital of nearly £3,000; and ments and compounds. But the discovery a chapel debt and building fund was about to which constitutes his strongest claim to rank be started with a capital of £1,000. The in as a benefactor of mankind is, perhaps, that of come of the general fund was £528, of the the deposition of metal on the negative elecbeneficiary fund £375, of the educational fund trode, when the two poles of a battery are in£464, of the Home Missionary Society £1,647. troduced into solutions of various metallic salts. The Educational Committee had 13 students This observation he made in 1834, and shortly on its rolls, and the Home Missionary So- after he discovered that by using feeble curciety returned 21 missionaries, 141 mission rents the metal could be deposited very evenly stations, 1,720 members, and contributions on the surface of the electrode, and that the from the mission churches of £1,000.

two solutions required for the purpose could BARAGUAY D'HILLIERS, Count ACHILLE, be kept from mingling by interposing between a French general, born September 6, 1795, died them an animal membrane without lindering June 6, 1878. He took part in the campaign the current. In 1840 I)e la Rive made pracof 1812, and in the Spanish and Algerian cam tical application of this discovery for the purpaigns. Ile became lieutenant-general and pose of gold-plating; thus the important art commandant of Constantine in 1813, but was of electro-plasty had for its real author this superseded in the following year. In the Con- indefatigable investigator. Ile continued to stituent Assembly of 1848, of which he was a pursue his researches in electricity down to member, he usually voted with the Right. Ile the day of his death, but there is not room was placed in command of the army sent here even for a bare list of his discoveries. against the Roman Republic, and in 1851 suc- Becquerel composed numerous treatises on physceeded Changarnier as commandant of Paris, ical science, chiefly, of course, on electricity and but resigned six months afterward. In 1854 magnetism; among them may be named his he commanded the Baltic expedition, and the “Experimental Treatise on Electricity,” etc. capture of Bomarsund inade him a Marshal (7 vols.); " Elements of Electro-Chemistry,' and Senator. IIe also distinguished himself à Terrestrial Physics and Meteorology, at the battle of Solferino in 1859. In July, tory of Electricity and Magnetism,” and many 1870, he again became commandant of Paris, otliers. Ile was for fifty years a member of but resigned on the formation of the Palikao the Paris Academy of Sciences; was a correCabinet. After the conclusion of peace he pre- sponding member of the London Royal Society, sided over the inquiry into the numerous ca and honored with the C'opley medal. IIe leaves pitulations, and in 1872 over the court-mar a son who inherits his father's eininent gifts. tial which sentenced General Crémer to ono BEECHIER, CATIIERINE ESTIIen, died May month's imprisonment.

12, 1878, at Elmira, N. Y., where she had been BECQUEREL, ANTOINE CÉSAR, physicist, living with her brother, the Rev. Thomas K. died in Paris, Jannary 18, 1878. Ile was born Beecher. She was born at East Ilampton, L. I., March 8, 1788; made a full course of study in September 6, 1800, and was the eldest child of the Paris Polytechnic School; in 1808 was the Rev. Lyman Beecher. The death of her attached to the engineer corps of the imperial mother, when Catherine was about sixteen army; served with distinction through the years of age, brought upon the latter domestic entire Spanish campaign ; in 1812 was pro- responsibilities which lasted until her father's moted to a captaincy in his corps, and deco- second marriage, about two years later. Soon rated with the cross of a cheralier of the Le- afterward she was betrothed to Professor Fishgion of Honor. In 1815, on the downfall of er of Yale College, whose death by shipwreck Bonaparte, he resigned from the army, to de- off the coast of Ireland while on a voyage to vote himself to chemical and physical research, Europe so affected her that she remained unand became an instructor in the Paris Museun married throughout life. Iler brother, IIenry of Natural History. lle succeeded to a pro- Ward Beecher, says that this sad event nearly fessorship in that institution in 1837, which destroyed her religious faith. In 1822 she position he continued to occupy down to his went to Hartford, Conn., and opened a school death. Ilis chosen field of research was clec- for young ladies, which was continued with tricity and magnetism, and with these two marked success under her supervision for ten important branches of physical science his years. During this time slie also prepared, naine is inseparably linked. IIis experiments primarily for use in her own school, some elein thermo-electricity resulted in the formu- mentary books in arithmetic and mental and lation of the thermo-electric series, bismuth, moral philosophy. ller sister, Ilarriet Beecher platinum, lead, tin, gold, silver, copper, zinc, Stowe, was her assistant in the Ilartford school. iron, and antimony. With the aid of delicate In 1832 Catherine went to Cincinnati with her apparatus derised by himself, he was enabled father, who had accepted the presidency of to demonstrate the development of faint elec- Lane Theological Seminary, and in that city


32,115 Jumet.









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5,670 10.984


9,956 16,202 13,515 11,239 11,577 10,205 3,242


2.301 :

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she opened a female seminary, which, on ac

161,816 Ixelles*.

150,630 Schaerbeek*,

34,177 count of ill health, she was obliged to discon

127,653 | Namur..

25,066 tinue after two years. She now began to de- Liége.

115,551 Courtrai

26,369 45,097 Saint Nicolas.

25,165 vote herself to the development of an extended Bruges.

39,029 Seraing..

24,315 plan for the physical, social, intellectual, and Verviers

37,823 Mons...

24,310 inoral education of women. For nearly forty Louvain..

33,917, Alost...

20,982 Tournay

20,102 years shie labored perseveringly in this work,

Molenbeek St. Jean*. 37,292 i organizing societies for training teachers and sending them to the new States and Territo

The movement of population was as follows

in 1876: ries, and constantly using her pen in furtherance of her cherished project. “Hundreds of the best teachers the West received," said her brother, “ went out under the patronage of this system.” As a part of her work in this direction, she wrote “Domestic Service,” “Duty Antwerp.. 10,301


4,184 16,992 11,688

7,528 of American Women to their Country,” “Do

Flanders, East. 14,507

8,200 7,760 5,520 mestic Receipt Book,' " " The True Remedy for

West 11,836

10,851 9,805 4,285

Hainault.. the Wrongs of Woman,” “Domestic Economy,


8,674 7,116 Liege.. 10,586



4,713 “Letters to the People on Health and Happi- Limburg. 3,413

2,055 1.319 ness, · Physiology and Calisthenics,” “Reli- Luxemburg.


1,994 1,368 Namur...

4,614 4,429 2,901 i 2,729 2,215 gious Training of Children,” “The American Woman's Home,”

"" Common Sense applied to Total ..., 90,439 | 86,476 60,561 | 55,926 38,228 Religion,” and “ Appeal to the People, as the Authorized Interpreters of the Bible.” She From the census tables we derive the followalso prepared the memoirs of her brother ing facts: The number of boys born for 100 George Beecher, and wrote “Truth Stranger girls was 101:6; the number of inhabitants for than Fiction.” She left several unpublished one birth, 30•6; the number of births per 100 manuscripts and an autobiography nearly com- deaths, 151.5 ; and the number of inhabitants pleted.

for one death, 46-3. In the same year the numBELGIUM, a kingdom of Europe. Leopold ber of still-born amounted to 7,930, 4,497 males II., King of the Belgians, born April 9, 1837, and 3,433 females, and the number of divorces is the son of King Leopold I., former Duke of to 135. Of the births, 164,348 were legitimate Saxe-Coburg, and ascended the throne at his and 12,507 illegitimate; and of the still-born, death, December 10, 1865. IIe was married 7,214 were legitimate and 716 illegitimate; August 22, 1853, to Marie Henriette, daughter making, in all, 171,562 legitimate and 13,283 of the laté Archduke Joseph of Austria (born illegitimate births. August 23, 1836), who has borne him three Instruction is well cared for in all grades. daughters. The heir apparent to the throne In 1875 there were 5,856 primary schools, with is the brother of the King, Philip, Couut of 669,192 pupils. Schools for adults have been Flanders, born March 21, 1837, lieutenant-gen- established in most communes; their number eral in the service of Belgium, who was married in 1875 was 2,615, with 204,673 pupils. The April 26, 1867, to Princess Marie of IIohenzol- number of normal schools for primary teachers lern-Sigmaringen (born November 17, 1815), was, in 1876, 31, with 2,018 students, of which and has a son, Baldwin, born July 3, 1869. 23 schools, with 1,282 students, were for fe

The area of the kingdom is 11,373 square males. The number of secondary schools in miles, the population according to the census

1876–77 was 198, with 17,881 pupils. Supeof December 31, 1876, 5,336,185. The follow- rior instruction is imparted in the two stato ing table exhibits the population of each prov- Universities of Ghent and Liége, and the two ince, as well as the number of arrondissements free l'niversities of Brussels and Louvain. The and communes into which each province is number of students in each of these in 1876– divided :

977 was as follows:


269 Liége

630 Brussels

615 Louvain...

1,052 Antwerp

538,391 Brabant.


2,566 Flanders, East.

869, 453 West.


The number of students in the special schools Ilainault..

956,354 connected with the universities was as follows: Liége.....

632 228 Limburg.


Students. Luxemburg


275 Namur


831 Brussels..

106 2,575 5,336,135 Louvain.



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