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due and payable at the pleasure of the State in repair. The reason why the amendment $357,442.06. The remainder, $195,300.06, is was urged was, that the Agricultural Departpayable after January 1, 1880. If the Legisla- ment had reported that 1,800,000 acres of ture should provide for the payment of school- swamp lands could thus be reclaimed. These fund-interest orders out of the general revenue lands were estimated to be worth $12,869,286, fund, as was formerly done, the Illinois Central and wlien reclaimed they would be valued at Railroad fund would more than suffice to pay $52,958,603, being an increase of $40,089,317. all the principal of the bonded debt of the It is supposed that in two years, by ordinary State by January 1, 1881.

ditcling, etc., there can be rescued from water The municipal debt of the State, in the ag- and put under cultivation at least 1,100,000 gregate, is $51,811,691. The largest part of acres of as good and productive corn land as can this debt has been incurred in making useful be found in the State, and equal to an addition and pecessary local improvements, and is repre- of 45,000,000 bushels of corn, or 2,000,000 10 the sented by valuable municipal property. Abont number of hogs produced annually in the State. 30 per cent. of this total of municipal debt rep- This 1,800,000 acres of land consists mostly of resents the railroad-aid debt of the municipali- swamps, bogs, and lakes, worthless in its presties of the State. The Constitution of the State ent condition for agricultural purposes, and rennow forbids all counties, cities, or other mu- dering the surrounding country unhealthy by nicipalities from making subscriptions to capi- reason of its miasmatic atmosphere. It is protal stock or donations in aid of any railroad or posed to reclaim this land by drains and levees. private corporation, and further forbids the in- The amendment does not authorize any excurring of any indebtedness to an amount, in- penditure of the public money, or any tax to be cluding existing indebtedness, in the aggregate levied or debt created, for the purpose, but exceeding 5 per cent. on the value of the taxa- simply that the Legislature shall have the right ble property therein.

to authorize the improvement, and that the The expense to the State of the railroad dis- land benefited shall pay the expense. turbances of 1877 has been estimated at $80, The assessment of the State by counties for 880.25, of which $67,752.21 is due to the Va- the use of the State Board of Equalization tional Guard, $10,379.53 to the railroad com amounts to $812,887,188. The progress of the panies for transportation, and $8,748.53 is, the division of the State into small farms has been total expense for subsistence and quartermas. quite rapid. In 1850 there were 76,208 farms ter's stores.

in Illinois, averaging 158 acres each. In 1860 The legal rate of interest in the State has the number had increased to 143,310, and the often been changed. An act of March 2, 1819, average size reduced to 140 acres. In 1870 made the rate 6 per cent. per annum, but de- there were 202,8113 farms, the average being clared any rate lawful for the payment of which still further reduced 10 128 acres. The estian express contract had been nade. The Re- mate for 1878 is 220,000 farms, of the average vised Statutes of 1833 legalized any agreed rate of 120 acres. An equally noticeable feature of up to 12 per cent. per annum. The Revised the land ownership in this State has been the Statutes of 1845 authorized the collection of number of from two- to ten-acre patches which 6 per cent. and no more. In 1819 it was made afford families a living. In 1870 there were lawful to stipulate, by written contract, for the 3,500 pieces of cultivated land, containing over payment of 10 per cent. per annum for the use 3 and under 10 acres, belonging to gardenof money loaned, and in 1857 this provision ers and fruit - growers. There were 10,229 was extended to all contracts. It is now pro- pieces between 10 and 20 acres; 63,240 beposed to fix the rate at 8 per cent.

tween 20 and 50 acres ; 68,130 tracts between The following amendment to the State Con- 50 and 100 acres ; 05,940 between 100 and 500 stitution was submitted to the voters of the acres, this class being mostly farms of 160 acres. State at the election in November:

In the whole State tliere were but 1,368 tracts The General Assembly may pass laws permitting between 500 and 1,000, and only 302 over 1,000 the owners of lands to construct drains, ditches, and

The 202,803 farms which are given in levecs for agricultural, sanitary, or mining purposes, the census for 1870 employed 376,441 persons, across the lands of others, and provide for the organization of drainage districts, and vest the corporate

the proportion of owners and their sons being authorities thereotwith power to construct and inain- about 19 to 1. tain drains, ditches, and levees, and keep in repair

The yield of corn in 1876 was 208,112,910 all drains, ditches, and levees heretofore constructed bushels, valued at $62,992,5+1. In 1877 the yield under the laws of this State by special assessment was 269,8:39,742 bushels. This was valued at upon the property benefited thereby.

$77,562,879. The area of winter wheat sown The design of this amendment was to make in 1877 was 1,729,296 acres; in 1878, 2,032,the State Constitution possess a power which 813. The area in orchards in 1876 was 338,709 its framers supposed had been placed in it pre- acres; in 1877 it was 342,682, and the value of vions to an adverse decision of the Supreme the crop was estimated at $3,589,672. AccordCourt.

All the legislation for the object in- ing to the returns by counties to the State Detended was thus set aside. There had been partment of Agriculture, the number of hogs already extensive works commenced and nearly marketed in 1877 was 2,115,804 ; the total completed which could not be finished or kept gross weight was 535,969,071 pounds; the val

acres,

ue was $22,738,881. The total winter wheat added. The publication of the market prices crop of 1878, notwithstanding the increased of farm products at the great market centers acreage, was not more than 2 per cent. greater is another feature of these reports. than in 1877. In 1877 the winter wheat crop The new Constitution requires the Secretary was 29,510,032 bushels; in 1878, 30,013,147, of State to make an annual report on the afan increase of 503,115 bushels in favor of 1878. fairs of his department. He has the care of The average yield per acre in 1877 was 17 bush- the State Ilouse, the library, and the museum, els, against about 15 bushels in 1878. The value the last of which now contains 2,383 species of of the 1877 crop of 29,510,032 bushels at the fossils, 1,300 specimens of native birds, and a time of harvest was $1.15 per bushel, making nearly complete series of the native woods of $34,960,824. The crop of 30,013,147 bushels the State. A complete series of the fishes of of 1878 was valued at 80 cents per bushel, mak- Ilinois is now in the course of preparation, as ing $2:3,870,257. The difference in value in well as a full series of botanical specimens, tofavor of the former (1877) crop when compared gether with a series of the fresh-water and with the value of the latter (1878) crop, is over land shells of the Northwest. The complaint eleven millions of dollars ($11,090,567). The is made that, notwithstanding the advance of acreage of spring. wheat was 297,912, an in- the State, there are no facts or figures to be crease of 43,454 acres, as compared with the obtained from any reliable source showing its previous year's area of 219,453 acres. The vast resources in all branches of industry, in average yield per acre, 137 bushels, was larger all its departments of labor 'and business, and than in 1877, when the total area of the State the various ramifications thereof. No census producell only 12 bushels per acre. The 1877 of the State is taken except that of the Fedyield of 2,930,524 bushels was increased in 1878 eral Government once in ten years. As to the to 3,870,251 bushels, a difference in favor of State Library, not a dollar has been approthe latter crop of 889,727 bushels. The pre- priated since 1869; and during the last two vious crop at the time of harvest was worth years only ten new books have been obtained $3,041,253, or $1.02 per bashel; the latter crop by purchase, while forty volumes have been at 82 cents per bushel was valued at $3,189,203, donated by authors and publishers. The numor $147,9 15 more than the 1877 crop. In 1877 ber of books of all descriptions in the State the area of oats was 1,556,232 acres; in 1878, Library, and duplicate volumes in the docu1,563,120 acres, an increase of 11,038 acres. ment library and in store, two years ago, was The average yield per acre was the samo, 39 41,805. Since then, by exchange, donation, bushels. Th3 1877 yield of oats, 61,147,933 and otherwise, including the volumes of laws, bushels, was increasail in 1878 to 62,096,388, journals, and legislative reports published by or ne irly a million (950,+95) bushels in excess the State, there have been added 13,616 volof the previous crop. The prevailinlow umes of all classes and kinds of books. Eight prices of neurly all kinds of firm pro:lucts, daily newspapers and sixteen magazines and when conpired with 1877, finls no exceptio:1 monthlies have been donated for the use of in oits. The 1879 yield of nairly a million the public and placed upon proper reading more bushels of outs than in 1877 was worth desks; "and no place in the State House, nearly four million dollars ($3,817,757) less says the Secretary, “has more interested visitth:in the previous crop, which was valued at ors than the location of these books and pa$10,25:9,6 47, against $12, 151,899 for 1878. pers so freely given by the publishers thereof."

Ther3 arə about 200 battör an:) cheese facto- The total number of copies of the various offiries in operation in the State, anıl the value of cial reports published by the State in two years the annual pro luct of the factories an:1 milk- is 183,500. The fees received at the office and condensing est:iblishments is estimited to be paid into the Treasury during the two years over $2,0 10,0:50; and all the dairy pro-lucts of amounted to $13,061. Over 20,000 letters the St.ite will be more than double this esti were received and over 40,000 sent out. Darma-e.

ing that period licenses have been issued for The St:ite Board of Agriculture, although the incorporation of 502 companies for pecunibut a short time in existence, is organizing a ary profit, of which 281 became fully organized. great work for the State. The present statis. Of the latter, 137 were manufacturing comtics have proved so imperfect that the Board panies, 69 for miscellaneous purposes, 36 for has arranged a system of crop reports and ar- mining: 17 for publishing, 8 for distilling, etc. ricultural and other statistics, gathered through There have also been 293 companies not for direct correspondence by the Secretary with pecuniary profit organized. The total numall suotions of the State, at monthly intervals, ber of applicants for incorporation under the th:vt has met a most cordial welcome from present law up to October 1st was 2,878, of the agriculturists, as well as the moro intel- which 2,040 companies became fully organized. ligunt in other pursuits of life, over the entire The whole number of railroad companies orState, and even extended to other portions ganized under the general law has been 136. of the country. Thesù reports have grown The number of pardons issued to prisoners in from a single sheet to a pamphlet from 24 Penitentiary, Reform School, and county to 13 p.ges. The meteorological statisties from jails of the Stato was 280. Certificates of resthe three grand divisions of the State are now toration of citizenship have been issued to 360

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discharged convicts; 192 warrants for surren- 1878, but “ip no country did he find such an der of fugitives from justice on requisition of exemplification of fostering care and public Governors of other States, and 335 requisitions benevolence in behalf of the unfortunate as is upon Governors of other States. Commissions exhibited in the United States.” have been issued during the two years to about The principal source of revenue to the State 4,000 justices of the peace and to 1,800 ta- is the taxes, as will be seen by the following ries public, besides those issued to all State statement of receipts: officers and officers of all State institutions,

$4,492 18 Since the last report 15 cities and 30 villages have organized under the general law. The average number of patients in the vari

152,660 59

1,680,041 50 ous charitable institutions of the State during

1,947,691 43 the last two years was 2,282. It is anticipated

redemption and sale of real estate...

8,195 88 judgment debtors,

8,880 60 that in consequence of their enlargement the sule of property average for the next two years will be about superintendent of Reform School.

400 00

proceeds of sale of Revised Statutes of 3,000, or an increase of nearly one third. The

4,566 00 appropriations recommended for the ordinary Secretary of State, for fees collected.. 15,15) 45

Auditor, for fees collected.. expenses of the nine institutions amount to

36,582 00 $1,114,000. The previous Legislature appro Total amount received...

$3,856,024 88 priated for the ordinary expenses of the same institutions for the last two years the sum of

The excess of receipts of general revenue $1,035,636. The proposed appropriations are

over disbursements was $351,840. to be distributed as follows:

The school fund receipts have been as fol

lows: Northern Insane Hospital, Elgin..

$290,000 Southern Insano Hospital, Anna..

180,000
From taxes of 1973..

*326 40 Central Insane IIospital, Jacksonville 216,000

304 37 I)eaf and Dumb Institution, Jacksonville...

160,000
1875..

24.463 76 Blind Institution, Jacksonville .....

50.000
1576.

1,106,928 84 Feeble-Minded Institution, Lincoln..

120.000
1077..

926,235 72 Soldiers' Orpbans' Home, Normal.

85.000 Eye and Ear Infirmary, Chicago..

40,000
Total amount received.......

$2,118,259 09 Reform School, Pontiac..

60,000

The excess of receipts over disbursements Total for two years

$1,114,000

was $96,266. The estimates for all these institutions, in

The receipts fron the Illinois Central Railcluding ordinary expenses, repairs, etc., amount road have been applied to the payment of the to $2,027,215.

principal and interest of the State debt: It appears that more than half of this ap From 7 per cent. on gross carnings for six months

ending ()ctober 31, 1876...

$179,044 57 propriation is to be applied to the maintenance

From i percent. op gross earnings for six months of the Insane Hospitals, viz., $686,000. А ending April 80, 1077..

139,745 17 fourth insane hospital is in progress, called the

Froin 7 per cent. on gross carnings for six months
ending October 31, 1877..

176,606 77 Eastern Insane IIospital, calculated to accom From 7 percent. on gross earnirgs for six months modate 800 patients. The capacity of the other

ending April 30, 1878..

151,229 54 hospitals is 450 patients each. The sum of

Total amount received.

$617,226 05 $200,000 was appropriated for the construction of the Eastern Hospital, and $480,000 more is

The excess of disbursements over, receipts asked for its completion. The number of pa

was $299,424. tients at present in the Central IIospital is 534. The following shows the balance remaining During the two years ending October 1, 1878,

in the State Treasury, ()ctober 1, 1878, to the 1,075 cases were treated. Of these 167 were

credit of the various funds: discharged recovered, 220 improved, and 69 Revenue

$1,750,503 66 State School.

270),432 77 unimproved. In the Deaf and Dumb Institu

Military..

7,218 58 tion there are 516 pupils, 20 teachers, and 20 Illinois (Central Railroad.

124,821 62 other employees. The average attendance for Delinquent land tax..

Illinois River improvement

807 99 1876–77 was 358; for 1877–78, 408. The cost Unknown and minor heirs..

6,891 22 of inaintaining each pupil, including board, tuition, books, inedical attendance, washing, light,

Total...

$2,165,653 12 fuel, and in inany cases clothing, for the past When a State so entirely relies upon taxes year was $194.93. From a statement of the for the support of its institutions, and the comparative cost per capita of the pupils in amount of these is so large, it niglit be supeach of the deaf and dumb institutions of the posed that the penalties for non-payment would United States, it appears that the highest cost be rather severe. Suclı, however, does not apis in California, $525; in Iowa, $343 ; in Penn- pear to be the case in Illinois. The State Ausylvania, $245; in Missouri, $205; and in In- ditor complains that the iosignificance of the diana, $217. In cone of them is it so low as in penalty seems to offer a premium for the failure Illinois. The principal, at the request of the to pay. In many counties there is little or no Board of Trustees, risited a number of simi- purchase for investment at tax sales. The taxlar institutions in Europe in the summer of payer allows his property to go to sale; he ir

831 06

present, or represented, when it is offered; his in all branches of study except grammar, presence or request will generally deter bids, which his father had forbidden him to study, but should there be persistent bidders the and failing in this alone he was refused admisworst that can happen to him is that he may sion. The Court said that a father might bave be forced to pay his tax. Ile can always make satisfactory reasons for desiring his son pera more favorable offer than any other bidder, fected in certain branches of education to the and thus he stands in no danger of a bona fide entire exclusion of others; and so long as, in sale of his property. Again, in the majority doing so, none others were affected, it could of cases, these forfeitures do not represent the be of no concern to those having the public inability of the owners of small amounts of schools in charge. Also, that under the cirproperty to pay the taxes thereon; they repre- cumstances shown, the requirement that a sent valuable properties, the tax on which is knowledge of grammar should be indispensaso large as to make the investment undesirable ble to an admission into the High School was for the average buyer. In such cases the diffi- unreasonable, and should be disregarded. At culty increases from year to year by the addi- the same time the State Superintendent has tion of the back tax. As the law now stands, given an official opinion as to the powers of there is no limit beyond which these forfeit- boards of education to exclude children from ures may not extend. In some counties there the public schools. Ile says: are large properties which have paid no taxes School directors or boards of education very prop. since 1872. The tax has been allowed to ac erly have large and discretionary powers in regard cumulate, and now represents such a formi to the management and control of schools, in order dable sum as to effectually discourage any bid that they may increase their usefulness and efficienat a sale for taxes. The owner has nothing at

cy; but they have no power given them by law to

adopt rules and regulations that will deprive any of stake. If in the end he is forced to pay the the children of school age of any of the school privtax, the penalty amounts to no more than or ileges for any fault not their own or for any act of dinary interest upon a loan ; but he rests se others. In section 29, page 9 of your rules, the folcure in the belief that eventually some methollowing is found : “Pupils of the High School who

vacate seats four successive weeks shall be redamitof wiping out this accumulation will be de

ted only on the recommendation of the principal," vised through which he will escape the pay etc. Tho 38th section, page 11, says every scholar ment of the greater part thereof.

in the High School, or in the grammar, intermediate, The number of fire, marine, and inland in

or primary schools, who shall be absent six half surance companies authorized to do business days in four consecutive weeks, without an excuse in the State is 181, classified as follows: 8 section also provides that the parent shall give as

from the parent, etc., shall forteit his seat. This joint-stock companies of Illinois, 2 mutual com surance that the pupil will be punctual in the future. panies of Illinois, 146 joint-stock companies of In my opinion the rules quoted are arbitrary and can other States, 8 mutual companies of other States,

not be enforced by law. According to the provisions and 17 foreign companies. The number of dis- prived of the privileges of the schools for no fault

of the 38th section of the rules, pupils may be detrict, county, and township mutual fire insur

of theirs, but for the fult of their parents, which is ance companies organized under the law of the clearly in violation of the provisions of the law. State, and doing business, is 119. In the State, The Supreme Court, in the case of Rulison rs. Post for the year 1877, the risks written by all com

(79th Ill., p. 567), says a child can not be deprived of

the benefit of the school for trivial causes, and also panies, including those organized under the

says, “School directors have no power to expel a insurance law of the State, amounted to $174,- scholar for any reason except disobedience, refrac531,241.39. The total amount of premiums tory or incorrigibly bad conduct, and only for these on insured property in the State during the after all other means have failed.” All rules and year was $1,908,293.16, and the losses paid promote the objects of the law. But for a board of

regulations must be reasonable, and calculated to on property were only $1,929,841.73, showing education to say that a child shall be deprived of the an excess of $2,978,453.43 in premiums over privileges of the public schools because parents fail losses.

or refuse to do their duty, is inconsistent and in vio The present military code of the State went lation of the spirit of the statute. Parents can not into operation on July 1, 1877. Since that date be compelled to give any assurances to the board as

to the attendance or conduct of their children in the 98 companies of infantry, 4 of cavalry, and 3 future. If a pupil absents himself from the school of artillery have been organized and mustered of his own accord, and he can not be induced to into the State service, and assigned to battal- change his course of action by any other means, tons, regiments, brigades, and divisions, accord- then I am of tho opinion that he may legally be ex ing to geographical situation and convenience fault and refuses to give the required excuse or as

pelled; but this can not be done if the parent is at of convening. The organized force of the State surances. To sum up the whole in a few words, I on September 30, 1878, was 7,765 enlisted men am of opinion that the punishment of a pupil for and 431 officers,

any act of the parent is a violation of law. The The Supreme Court of the State rendered a

public schools were established for the good of all decision relative to the admission of a pupil branches that are enumerated in the law; and to

the children, and for the teaching especially of those to the lligh School in Chicago which is of in- accompiish this, every roasonable means should be terest. It was on the application of a parent employed by school authorities. To bar the doors for a mandamus to compel the trustees of against children whoso parents are unreasonable, or

those who are unable to attend regularly for any schools to admit his son to the Iligh School. cause, is not reasonable and can not be sustained. The boy had passed the requisite examination There are children in every community who are

:

required to assist in procuring daily bread by their tions and peoples since the earliest period in the
labor, and to say that these shall not be allowed to history of civilized man; and
attend the schools when it is possible for them to Whereas, Silver coin has always constituted the
. do so, is inconsistent and not in harmony with the chief, and frequently the only metallic legal-tender
spirit of the law."

currency in general use among the masses of the

American people; and
In the cases of “Allen C. Calkins et al. 28. Whereas, The business and credits of the whole
Charles E. Cheney et al.," being the suit of country during almost the entire period of the na-
the Episcopal Diocese of Chicago to recover

tional existence have been adjusted to this standard possession of the Christ Church property in

measure of values; and

Whereas, All bonds of the United States by law, Chicago from the congregation and pastor of and the terms expressed on their face, are payable that parish, the Supreme Court in conclusion in coin of the standard of July 14, 1870, namely, silsays:

ver of 412), and gold of 25 8 grains : therefore,

Resolved, That the demonetization of the silver From these references to the statutes, it is clear coinage of the United States was a change in our that the trustees of an incorporated religious society monetary system so grave and radical in its characor association do not hold the property, in the ab ter, and so vitally affecting the commercial interests sence of a declared or clearly implied trust, for any and rights of the people, that it ought not to bave church in general, nor for the benefit of any peculiar been ventured upon, even under circumstances most doctrines or tenets of faith and practice in religious favorable, until after a full, thorough, and exhaustivo matters, but solely for the society or congregation discussion of its merits before the people; and the whose officers they are, and that they are not in the covert scheme by which this most important meadischarge of their duties subject to the control of bure was precipitated upon the country without one any ecclesiastical judicatory. The property belongs word of discussion either in or out of Congress, and to the society or congregation, so long as the corpo the obstinate persistence with which the scheine is rution exists; and when it coases to exist, the prop- still prosecuted, in a time of unparalleled business erty belongs to the persons or their heirs. The so- prostration and disaster, and with the forced resumpciety or congregation may not only crect a house of tion of specie payments in immediate prospect, disworship on the land, but it may also make such closes a reckless disregard for the public welfare on other uses of the land, and make such other im- the part of its movers which merits our severest provements thereon, as may be deemed necessary censure and condemnation. for the comfort and convenience of the society or Resolved, That one obvious purpose of the act decongregation.” If the society or congregation so monetizing silver was to increase the value of tlie directs, the trustees must convey away the land and Government bonds, and correspondingly increase property. The society or congregation appoints the the public burden by sccuring tlie payment of those trustees, and may remove them and fill the vacancies. bonds in gold, when by their terms, plainly exIt may adopt such rules and regulations in relation pressed on their face, they are redeeniable in coin to the duties of the trustees and the management of of the standard value of the United States on July, its estate as the members may dcem proper. In all 14, 1870, at which date silver dollars as well us

gold these things the society or 'congregation exercises dollars were lawful tender in payment of all debts, its discretion, and acts only in obedience to its own public and private ; that, in order to secure to the sense of what is right.

bondholders this advantage, to which they are in

nowise entitled, the people have been clandestinely The election in the State for tho year 1878 robbed of the legal-tender quality of one half of their was for the choice of members of Congress, a metallic currency, thereby greatly enhancing the State Treasurer, Superintendent of Public In- difficulty and the danger of the proposed resump

tion of specie payments and unjustly increasing the struction, one Clerk of the Supreme Court in burden of every individual debtor in the nation, as each grand division, one ('lerk of the Appel- well as that of the nation at large. late Court in each appellate district, members Resolved, That we view with just alarm the posiof the State Legislature, and the ratification tion taken by the President on this question in his or rejection of a proposed amendment to the late message; and we have good reason to believe

that his judgment has been warped and misguided State Constitution.

by the bad counsels of his constitutional advisers, into The first convention of the year assembled the adoption of a line of policy which would give at Springfield on January 16th, to express a the bondholders an undue and unjust advantage, demand for the remonetization of the silver greatly to the detriment of the people. We have dollar. Its constituents formed the National of true comfort for the struggling masses, by whose

searclied in vain through his message for any word party of the State. The convention was or labor the money must be earned to pay these bonds. ganized by the appointment of C. B. Lawrence, We regard his suggestion that, by yielding to the of Chicago, as President. The following plat- demands of the public creditors, thieso boids may form was adopted:

be exchanged for others at reduced interest, as a

delusion. There are two parties interested in this Whereas, By act of Congress of April 2, 1792, pro- question—those who are to pay, as well as thore vision was made for the coinage of a silver dolluir of who are to receive payment. We demand that jus. the value of the Spanish milled dollar, then current, tice, simple justice, be done to both, by restoring containing 371: grains of pure silver, to be the mon the old, time-honored standard measure of values etary, unit of tho United States, and although the The burdens of government will then rest lightly standard weight of the said dollar, which was origi- upon the shoulders of a prosperous people; but we nally 416 grains, including the alloy, was in 1837 re see no hope of returning prosperity in the financial duced to 4124 grains, yet the quantity of pure silver policy of the President and his maladvisers. which it contained, and its intrinsic value, remained Resolred, That the holders of the Government unchanged for a period of more than eighty years, bonds not only have no right, legal or equitable, to during all which time the silver dollar" so coined demand payment otherwiso than according to their continued to be the monetary unit and standard express torms, but the Government can not, with, measure of value for the United States; and

due regard to the rights of the people, anive its opWhere78, Silver and gold, concurrently, have con tion to pay in silver or gold, and restrict itself to stituted the basis of the monotary system of all nu- payment in gold only; and that when the attempt to

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