Gambar halaman
PDF
ePub

blesome method of heating houses than those The boiler-house in Lockport is constructed now in use. It will furnish steam-power for for six boilers. Three were put up, but only machinery in any required amount, at any one or two used at a time the first windesired moment, more cheaply and with great- ter. Two were horizontal, 5 by 16 feet in er s:fety than manufacturers can supply them- dimensions. The consumption of coal was 25. selves; the steam can be used for laundry to 3 tons daily. The total length of pipe purposes, and perhaps soon a method will be through which the steam was conveyed was devised for utilizing it in the different opera- 3} miles. The largest main, 6 inches in ditions of cookery; it can furnish a constant ameter, branches into two 4-inch pipes a short supply of heat at an equable temperature for distance from the boiler, and these are divided greenhouses and forcing-houses. Vot the after running some distance into two 3-inch least of its benefits, as has been already expe- pipes, and they again into the smallest pipes rienced in Lockport, is that it can keep the of 14 inch diameter. The junction-service water-hydrants from freezing in severe weath- boxes, placed along the whole line of the mains er, and can afford an ever-ready supply of at a distance of 100 feet or more, provide for steam-power for the extinguishment of tires. the longitudinal contraction and expansion of In the heating of dwellings the greater health- the pipes, and at the same time afford a space fulness and cleanliness of the mode over any for the apparatus for distributing the steam. other are important considerations, and also A hood on the head of the service-pipe in the the reduction in care and labor and in the junction-box collects the water of condensarisks of fire.

tion, and conveys it into the house to a valve, The details of the invention, as applied in where it is wiredrawn, and by such reduction the Lockport works, are described by Mr. Hol- of pressure, at its temperature, which correly in his specifications as follows:

sponds to a pressure of 50 lbs. per square inch,

is reconverted in great part into steam and 1. All underground steam street main in combina conveyed into the radiators. The pressure of tion with steam-supplying, apparatus, and with a meter constructed to control the pressuro of steum in

the steam as served to the radiators is 2 or 3 a building, and also record the consumption of steam lbs. per square inch. from such main. 2. Junction-boxes admitting ex The combined meter and regulator both pansion and contraction of mains longitudinally, registers and measures out the supply in the and with heat-radiators in the buildings. 3. A houses. A valve, of the character of the steam-meter to control the pressure and record the consumption of steam in the building. 4. Ileat- slide-valve in a high-pressure engine, admits radiators. 5. Steam-trap. 6. Steam-trap and re the steam from the street main into a short heater. 7. Water-hydrant. 8. A street steam-hy- pipe, at the end of which is a similar valve, diant. 9. Steam automatic regulator or yovernor. which admits it into the radiators. The pres10. Snow and ico reservoirs having open-ended or perforated steam-pipes for escape of steam therein.

sure on both sides of the valves is shown by 11 and 12. Expansion chamber, hood, lorin pipo steam-gauges. Connected with this regulating and expansion chamber. 13. Adjustablo ring. 1.4

. apparatus is the indicator, which records the Junction box and outur covering of steam main, consumption in figures, showing its value in 15. Section of steam main made of nickel-plated dollars and cents. metal. 16. Convex ring, wall of expansion-chamber, eye-bolts. 17. Steam street main, isolated and

Mr. Ilolly estimates that 15,000,000 cubic drainod by tile. 18. Meter details. 19. Radiutors, feet can be warmed with ten boilers, 16 feet adjustable. 20. Spring clutch and pencil forger and long and 5 feet in diameter, with 54 tabes valvo-stem. 21. Conducting and steam pipes having 23 inches in diameter. This would make the a coil and connecting chainber. A contrivance or oontrivances for supplying steam for warming dis

total heating surface 11,360 cubic feet, giving tricts of dwelling-houses in cities and towns, and 1,300 cubic feet as the space to be warmed by for “ driving'; machinery and for other driving pur- every foot of heating surface. Experiments poses in said districts, consisting of steam-supplying made regarding the loss by condensation apparatus, street mains having heavy, expansion- showed that it amounted in 1,600 feet of 3junction service-boxes, service-pipes, having connecting pipes and meters. Connected with theso inch pipe, with a pressure of 18 lbs., to 9 lbs. several appliances are a boiler-house and stock, four of coal per hour; in an ordinary city street boilers with heaters for teel-water, 2.900 feet 4 that length of pipe could furnish 100 consumineles, 4,60)) fert 3 inches, 4:00 feet 2 inches, ers, giving 2.16 lbs. of coal per day as each 7,310 t'e:t 2 inches, 1,700 feet' 1:'inch, and 1,300 feet one's share in the loss from this cause. It of 11-inch wrought-iron pipes or street mains. These pipes or mains are first coated with asbestus

was found that when the supply was cut off and covered with a jacket of cow-hair felting or other from the boiler, it required 18 minutes for the non-conducting substance, which is protected with pressure to fall from 60 to 45 lbs.; 28 minutes hard-wood strips secured with copper wire, and tho for it to decline from 45 to 30 lbs., or from 4 pipes thus prepared are inserted in logs of wood bored so as to leavo on air-chamber around the

to 3 atmospheres ; 40 minutes for to fall to pipes, and then the whole structure laid to a grade 15 lbs., and 54 minutes longer for it to sink to over well-constructed tile-drains. At intervals of the pressure of the atmosphere; or 2 hours 20 about 100 feet the junction-boxes, with hoods and minutes to condense the four atmospheres of service-pipe connections and nickel-plated movablo joints, aro inserted in a well of masonry 21 feet

pressure. The comparison of the different square, which give realy access at all times to their sizes of pipe with respect to their capacity for portions of the structure. The longest single stretch conveying steam and their loss by condensaof pipe is 1; mile.

tion shows that the latter increases in a direct

[ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

ratio with the increase of diameter, while the merce between the two countries would be
former increases sixfold when the diameter is speedily removed.
doubled. A pipe of 1} inch diameter will de The railway is now in operation from Puerto
liver steam only 1,000 feet from the boiler; a Cortez, on the Atlantic coast, to San Pedro
3-inch pipe will conduct it 3,000 feet; a 6- Sula, a distance of about 90 niiles. The value
inch pipe, 9,000 feet; and a 12-inch pipe, 18,- of the rolling stock is estimated at $500,000,
000 feet.' The Holly system has been intro- and the entire cost of the road is given at $2,-
duced in Auburn, N. Y., Springfield, Mass., 000,000. There are at present about 750 miles
and other cities. The apparatus is furnished of telegraph, and 500 miles additional are in
from the workshops of the Lockport company. process of construction. There is also a report

HONDURAS (REPÚBLICA DE IIONDURAS), one of an arrangement having been entered into
of the five independent states of Central Amer- between Ilonduras and San Salvador for the
ica. The territory of the republic, with an establishinent of telegraphic communication
area of 58,168 square miles, is divided into thir- beeween the five ('entral American republics.
teen departments. The population is estimated Should the project be carried into execution,
at 400,000. The capital is Tegucigalpa, with dispatches from Guatemala to Costa Rica will,
about 12,000 inhabitants. The President is it is presumed, be transmitted at the rate of $1
Dr. Marco Aurelio Soto, elected in May, 1876, per ten words, and from Nicaragua to Costa
for a term of four years. The sole minister of Rica, or from Honduras to Guatemala over San
the Republic is Dr. Ramon Rosa, general ad- Salvador lines, at 50 cents.
viser of the President. Honduras has thirty No official returns of the foreign commerce
seven representatives, but no senate, in lieu of the republic have been published. With
of which latter ten counsellors are appointed steam communication between the Atlantic
by the Government to act as advisers, and con- ports and New Orleans, the fruit trade already
vened at the President's pleasure. Tlie judicial existing might be developed to a scale of con-
authority is vested in two chief justices, one of siderable importance. Although the service is
whom resides in the present capital, and the at present confined to sailing craft, chiefly
other in the former capital, Comayagua; a schooners, shipments of the value of $400,000
district judge in each of the departments; and were made in 1877, by 180 vessels, with an
a justice of the peace in every town, these last aggregate of 14,143 tons. Exquisite fruits
being elected by their respective municipalities abound throughout the northern coast region
for the term of one year, while the higher and adjacent islands, and could be landed at
judicial dignitaries are elected for life by the New Orleans at an expense not exceeding those
Government. The actual strength of the stand- of gathering, packing, and freight. From 30,-
ing army is set down at 1,500, and that of the 000 to 40,000 head of cattle are annually ex-
militia at 20,000.

ported to the island of Cuba alone. The national revenue, which under former “ Honduras is in the midst of her task of esadministrations rarely exceeded $300,000, is tablishing schools,” writes a newspaper correnow reported to reach $800,000. In regard to spondent; and indeed schools are now to be the national debt, it has been stated on trust- found in every town and village of the repubworthy authority that the terins of the Chat- lic. In 1878 the Government organized a field-Cruz convention have been ratified in a national college and a seminary at the capicontract made between the representatives of tal, both of which are under the direction of England and IIonduras. The debt of $50,000 American teachers. The aggregate attendance which it recognizes is to be paid off at the at school in the republic was 20,000. rate of $10,000 per annum. Drafts on the four Ilonduras las fairly entered on the career principal custom-houses for $2,500 are to be of civilization in the highest sense of the term. given to the representative of ler Britannic Peace reigns undisturbed, the last ringleader Majesty's Government in January of each year. of discord, José Maria Medina, having been For the year 1878 the drafts had already been shot in the course of the past year. Both given. Should any deficiency in the amount government and people have discovered that occur at any of the ports, the Ilonduras Gov- their chief happiness is to be derived from inernment makes it good. During the five years, dustry and the enlightenment of the masses, and while the terms are being complied with, and manifest the utmost zeal in their endeavthe claim is to bear no interest. Should the ors to attain it by these means. Ilighways, Government of Ilonduras fail in its annual pay- bridges, and other facilities for internal transments, interest on the balance due is to be port are planned or constructed in the more charged at the rate of 5 per cent. per annum. important sections; postal and mercantile in

To the already mentioned significant indica- tercourse with other countries extended and tions of financial prosperity may be also added encouraged (a contract was signed in 1878 for that of a combination set on foot in the l'nited a line of bi-weekly steamers to Cuba), and exStates for the purpose of establishing a North tensive concessions of land to North Americans American banking, exchange, and commission for the cultivation of coffee, cacao, and other business in the capital of Ilonduras. With the staples, on a scale hitherto unthonght of in facilities to be derived from such an enterprise those regions. Nor are the elements of lealth the chief impediment to the extension of com and material confort left unheeded, as attested

יל

RECEIPTS.

1. Direct taxes...

nance...

EXPENDITURES.

3. Diet...

by the projection of commodious works for The Hungarian ministry at the close of 1878 the supply of potable water to the capital. was composed as follows: 1. President of the

Dr. Marco AURELIO Soto, President of Hon- Ministry, Koloman Tisza; 2. Minister near the duras, was born in the city of Tegucigalpa on King's person (ad latus), Baron Wenckbeim; 3. November 13, 1846. Ilis education was com- Minister of Finance, Koloman Tisza; 4. Minispleted in Guatemala, where he graduated as ter of the Interior, Baron Wenckheim; 5. Minisdoctor of laws in 1866. He is at present ter of Education and Public Worship, Dr. Aumember of the Law School and of the Eco- gustin von Trefort; 6. Minister of Justice, Thenomical Society of the capital of that country. odor Pauler; 7. Minister of Public Works, In 1872 he was appointed by President Barrios Thomas Pechy; 8. Minister of Agriculture, of Guatemala to the important offices of Min- Industry, and Commerce, A. von Trefort; 9. ister of Foreign Relations, Public Instruction, Minister of Croatia and Slavonia, Koloman and Public Worship, which portfolios he held Bedekovitch de Komor; 10. Minister for the until February, 1875, when he gained popu- Defense of the Country, B. Szende von Kereszlarity and distinction and the surname of the tes. Peacemaker in the unenviable mission of con The budget for the countries belonging to ciliating the contending fa then so nu the Hungarian Crown for 1878 was as follows merous throughout the Central American re- (in florins; 1 florin = 48 cents). publics. After these triumphs, achieved within the

83,606.300 brief space of six months, he was called (Au 2. Indirect taxes.

80,862,983 gust, 1875) to the provisional presidency of his

3. Receipts from Government property and State
institutions..

24,047,692 native country, and in May of the following 4. Extraordinary receipts of the Ministry of Fiyear he was elected by the unanimous voice

3,932,836 5. Receipts of the other ministries.

19,878,545 of the people as ("onstitutional President. A

6. Other receipts...

4,708,000 continued scene of internecine strife, the dis

Ordinary receipts... astrous monotony of which was only broken

216,535,561 Extraordinary receipts.

8,310,158 by intervals of war with the sister states, neglected industries, forsaken schools, a depleted

Total.........

219,846,019 treasury, an onerous foreign debt, distrust and confusion at home and discredit abroad--such

1. Royal Household.

4,650,000 was the discouraging condition of Ilonduras 2. Royal Cabinet Chancery

72,514 when the reins of government were placed in

1,329,677 4. Council of Ministers.

309,260 Dr. Soto's hands. Some idea of the changed 5. Ministry ad lutus.

50,848 aspect of affairs under his wise administration

6. Ministry for Croatia and Slavonia.

35,850

2,476,845 will be suggested, if not by the foregoing hur

6,152,025 ried sketch, certainly by the following remarks

of Education and Worship.

4,096.771

9,750,959 from the pen of a native writer: “The benefits

of Agriculture and Commerce.. 10,281,866 of peace are immense to a country ruled by a

of Communication..

12,192,394

of Finance.. man devoid of selfishness and living only for

38,879,047

14. Adipinistration of Croatia and Slavonia, 5,398,606 the public weal: this is now proved in the

of Fiume.

84,090 piece of ground which might formerly have

16. Pensions...

3,979,004

17. Public debt.. been called with reason the land of roes. War 18. Contributions to the common expenditure of

83,232,783 is a calamity; yet we of Ilonduras should bless the Empire and to the Austrian debt..... 80,669,468

19. Other expenditures.... the war of 1876 with Guatemala, not for its

94,819,112 calamities, but because to it wo are indebted

Ordinary oxpenditures.

233,425,624 for the illustrious patriot who is to be the re

Extraordinary expenditures..

7,541,811 generator of our country.”

Total expenditures...

240,967,485 HUNGARY, a kingdom of Europe, and one of the two main divisions of the Austro

21,121,416 Hungarian Monarchy. (See Austria, under The public debt of Hungary at the close of which head all the affairs which are common 1876 amounted to 660,176,996 florins, exclusive to the entire monarchy have been treated of.) of the common debt of the Empire. Hungary The area and population of the lands of the also has a share in the public debt of Austria Hungarian Crown are as follows, according to proper, abont 30 per cent. of its amount prethe Statistische lIandbuch der Österreich.-un- vious to 1868. This debt is regarded as exclugarischen Monarchie”:

sively Austrian, but llungary pays annually for
interest and its amortization 30,927,997 florins.

The assets of the state were estimated in 1876
Square miles.
Population in

at 762,500,000 florins.

The aggregate length of railways open for Hungary and Transylvania. 108,203 13,724,442 t'iuine (Free (lity)

traffic on January 1, 1878, was 6,773 kilome

18, 178 Croatia and Slavonia

8,552 1,218, 180

tres (1 kilometre = 0.62 mile). The number Military Frontier...

7,303

693,733 of private and official letters, newspapers, etc., Total..

124, 126 15,654,5:18

in 1876, was 78,765,000; the number of postoffices, 1,959; and the value of valuable letters

of the Interior..
of Public Defense,

[ocr errors]

6

7. 8. 9. 10, 11. 12. 18.

of Justice...

[ocr errors]

66

15.

Deficit........

COUNTRIES.

1876.

8

and packages, 750,200,000 forins. The length lows us to hope that we shall succeed in asof telegraph wires in January, 1877, was 49,- suring not only the interests of the Monarchy, 944 kilometres; of telegraph lines, 14,909 kilo- but also the blessings of peace.” metres. The number of telegraph stations was Elections were beld for Deputies on Augnst 931, and the number of dispatches sent and 5th. The result was a decisive victory of the received 2,667,318.

Government party. Out of 394 seats, the LibThe new developments in the Eastern ques- eral or Government party obtained 232, the tion were of so vital importance for the future United Opposition 70, the Extreme Left 66, and of Hungary that they absorbed the attention Independents 15, making 14 second ballots neof the Hungarian Parliament throughout the cessary. year. On February 19th the Prime Minister On October 1st the Minister of Finance, Szell, Tisza, after making explanations similar to resigned, because the financial plans for Ilunthose of Prince Auersperg in the Austrian gary were made impossible by the large exReichsratlı (see AUSTRIA), stated that the Gov- penses incurred by the occupation of Bosnia. ernment could not regard some of the stipula- This step of Szell was immediately followed by tions of peace now before it as cousonant with the resignation of the entire Ministry. After the interests of the Monarchy. There was now considerable negotiations, the Prime Minister no question of the amelioration of the lot of agreed to conduct the public business until the the Christians in Turkey; it was one of a total meeting of Parliament, taking charge of the transformation and change of influence and finances, wliile Baron Wenckheim became Minpower in the East. Many speakers urged the ister of the Interior in his place. The Diet was importance of a full understanding and close opened on October 20th. Koloman Gliczy, the alliance with England, the most powerful and ministerial candidate, was elected President by trusted ally of the Monarchy; but the Prime a large majority. Tisza then in a short speech Minister did not deem it opportune to make explained the origin of the ministerial crisis. any official statement on the intentions of the A inotion of the Extreme Left to impeach the Government. On April 9th Tisza pointed out Ministry was set down for debate on Novemthat the interests of Roumania and Hungary ber 5th. On that day a vote was taken on the were identical, inasmuch as both had a com- motion, resulting in 95 votes for and 150 against mon enemy in Panslavism. The discussion on impeachment. The reconstruction of the Minthe extraordinary credit of 60,000,000 florins istry was completed in the early part of Decemdemanded by the Government (see Austria) ber. Count Szapary and Baron Kemeny were began on May 14th. The remarks of Tisza on the only new members—the former for finance this occasion were explanatory of the foreign and the latter for commerce. On December policy of the Empire, which he said was de- 16th the Lower House by an overwhelming cided by national considerations. The Govern- majority passed a bill proposing the prolongament would never set up a policy of compen- tion of the military law, and on the 19th it sation in some of the western provinces of adopted by 179 votes to 125 the Government Turkey as their price for tolerating the forma- bill to issue 40,000,000 forins of gold rentes tion of new Slav states. The bill passed tie for the purpose of redeeming treasury bonds. Lower llouse on May 16th and the l'pper The House further passed, after Tisza had House on the 20th.

made a powerful speech in favor of the proThe session of the Diet was closed on June posal, the bill relative to the levying of recruits 29th by the Emperor in person. In the speech for 1879. A three days' debate in the Hungafrom the throne he remarked that the general rian delegation on Eastern affairs terminated political situation had weighed heavily every on December 14th in the adoption of a motion where upon the public credit, and that the to grant a sum of 20,000,000 forins for the oclength of time required to bring the compro- cupation expenses of 1879. Count Andrassy mise negotiations to an issue in the Ilouses of defended the Eastern policy of the GovernParliament had rendered it impossible to ac- ment, and maintained that the occupation of complish all that might have been desired. Bosnia wonld not disturb the Monarchy or shift Nevertheless, much had been done toward the its center of gravity, and was cheered. regulation of the national finances, as well as The policy of the Government with respect for administrative and judicial reform. llo to the settlement of the Russo-Turkislı questhen proceeded to review the measures passed tion, and particularly in the acceptance of the by Parliament during the session, and stated occupation of Bosnia, excited much dissatisfacthat the new Austro-Hungarian compromise tion in the opposition party, especially among law would promote the interests of both por- that part of the people who were inost devoted tions of the Monarchy and the welfare of the to strengthening and perpetuating the Niagwholo people. Ample compensation for the yar intluence. This dissatisfaction was partly concessions mutually made would be gained by shown in the result of the elections, when, notboth parties in the strength accruing from the withstanding the decided majority gained by fresh manifestation of the reciprocity of views the Government in the general result, several and interests of both portions of the Empire. of the chief members of the party wero deOn the subject of foreign relations, he added: feated at places which had been held for ten “ The present state of our foreign relations al- years by supporters of the Government. A

[ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small]

letter written by Kossuth was published about of October was interpreted in the sense of a
the time the elections were held, in which protest against excessive military expenditures,
M. Tisza was accused, with respect to the and as asserting a claim to effective control
Austro-Ilungarian compromise, of having sac over this expenditure and the policy connected
rificed the interests of llungary, and abused therewith. Just previous to the resignation
the system of parliamentary government. With of Szell, on the 27th of September, a large
regard to the occupation of Bosnia, Kossuth open-air meeting was held at Pesth to protest
said that it was not an idea of the Congress, but against the foreign policy of the Government,
a project of the Cabinet of Vienna, which had and resolutions were passed declaring that the
been prepared as long ago ay when the alliance occupation of Bosnia would be dangerous, that
of the three Emperors was established—when a convention ought to be concluded with Tur-
Prince Bismarck, whom Count Andrassy con- key and the army recalled, and that the Gor-
sulted upon everything, laid stress upon the ernment should be impeached. During Octo-
argument that Austria-Hungary, driven out of ber the municipality of Pesth passed resolutions
Germany and Italy, should look for compensa- asserting that the policy of the Government on
tion in the East. In occupying Bosnia, Aus- the Eastern question since its commencement
tria-IIungary invited Russia and Panslavism to had been unfortunate and dangerous for the
reëstablish themselves definitively in Bulgaria; country, and declaring that the Government
this would be the ruin of Austria-Ilungary had acted illegally in disposing of the blood and
and of the dynasty. In conclusion, Kossuth treasure of the nation without the consent of
said that Parliament must watch to see that Parliament. Minor manifestations of popular
the occupation does not become annexation. displeasure were given on various occasions, as
Shortly afterward, following the conflicts of when a bomb loaded with dynamite was ex-
the Austrian forces of occupation with the ploded on the night of the 26th of November
Bosnian insurgents, the losses suffered by the near the palace of Tisza, where Count Andras-
Ilungarian troops cause a considerable degree sy and the members of the delegations were
of excitement, and the langu:ige of the oppo- attending a soirée given by the Minister; anil
sition journals on the subject became vio- azain, during the same week, when a bomb
lent and unmeasured. Describing the Cab was exploded near the staircase of the Liberal
inet at Vienna as the “ Vienna Camarilla,'' ('lub while Tisza was making a report to the
they charged it with sending the Magyars to members of the Liberal party.
the slaughter with the objert of securing their The leader of the Panslavists of Hungary,
extermination. A few days later the civil Miletics, a member of the Ilungarian Parlia-
luthorities in Pesth were reported to have re- ment, who had been arrested more than a year
fused to execute a military order for the deliv. previously on a charge of high treason, was
ery of five hundred wagons. The crisis which found guilty in January, and sentenced to five
resulted in tho ministerial changes of the 1st years' penal servitude.

taxes refunded...

I
ILLINOIS. The amount of money in the Executive-embracing expenses of all onces
State Treasury of Illinois on October 1, 1876,

and departments of the State government not
specified below.

$301.418 86 was $1,991,080.78. The receipts for the two Judicial

476,915 74 years ending September 30, 1878, were $6,6.59,

Legislative

239,959 40

Educational. 771.36, and the disbursements for the s:imo

174,839 98 Charitable,

1,426,809 24 period were $6,538,628.18, leaving a balance Correctional..

420.080 31 on October 1, 1878, of $2,112,223 96. These

Building and maintenance of new State House 234,655 91
Canal.

62,403 15 receipts comprise not only the amount of money Printing, binding, and stationery.

$1,271 29 received through the State tax in general, but

Miscellaneous special appropriations, including through Central Railroad and other sources.

129,023 88 The disbursements of the State school fund

Total....

$3,538,937 have been in the payment to the counties of The estimate of the amount of money reschool-tax-lund orders, and the salary and of- quired to be raised by taxation for the next fice expenses of the Superintendent of Public two years for general State purposes is $3,627,Instruction. The Illinois Central Railroad fund 000; to which is to be added $2,000,000 for disbursed has been used in the payment of the school purposes. principal and interest of the State debt. The The principal of the bonded debt of the State military fund has been disbursed to the com on October 1. 1876, was $1,478,600.27. There mandling officers of the several regiments, bat was paid during the two years ending Septemtalions, etc., under the apportionment made by ber 30, 1878, $676,287.68, leaving the amonnt the Adjutant-General. The chief items of dis- outstanding on October 1, 1878, $802,312.59. bursements, those of the general revenue fund, Since that date to January 8, 1879, there which for the two years amount to $3,538,937.- has been paid $249,570.53, leaving outstand69, are as follows:

ing $552,742.06. Of this amount, there is now

« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »