« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »
GUTZKOW, KARL F.
and in Berlin, to which he removed in 1870. “Uriel Acosta” (1847). During the third peSubsequently he settled for a time at Wieblin- riod (1850-'60) the dramatic productivity of gen near Heidelberg, and finally removed again Gutzkow gradually ceased. Several new atto Frankfort. His literary life is divided by tempts he made met with but little success, or Rudolf Gottschall into four periods. During were entire failures. On the other hand, the first, extending to 1810, he earned the rep- however, he gained by two immortal works, utation of being one of the founders and lead- “Die Ritter vom Geiste" (9 vols., 1850–'52) ers of the literary school which was called and.“ Der Zauberer von Rom” (9 vols., 1859 Young Germany, and which made itself known -'61), the reputation of being one of the greatby its daring' attacks upon the religious and est German novelists of the day. During the moral ideas prevailing in German society. On last period of his life (1860–78) he appeared account of his novel “ Wally, die Zweiflerin” more as an eclectic writer. Among the most (1835), which was denounced as irreligious and prominent works of this period are the novel immoral, he was sentenced to three months' Hohenschwangau ” (5 vols., 1868), a picture imprisonment at Mannheim. Another work, of the age of the Reformation; the pedagogical “Die Zeitgenossen” (2 vols., 1837), he pub- novel “Die Söhne Pestalozzi's ” (3 vols., 1870), lished under the name of Buiwer. His novel “Fritz Ellrodt” (3 vols., 1872), “ Lebensbil" Blasedow und seine Söhne” (3 vols., 1838– der ” (3 vols., 1870–72), and “Die neuen Se+39) has a pedagogical tendency, and was one rapionsbrüder” (1877). Two new dramatic of the foremost works of its period. During attempts, “ Der Westfälische Friede" and this second period (1840–50) Gutzkow achieved "Der Gefangene von Metz,” did not meet a brilliant success as a dramatic writer. His with a favorable reception. An important “Richard Savage" opened the German stage contribution to his autobiography is given in to the new literary school of which Gutz- his “Rückblicke auf mein Leben" (1875). kow was one of the leaders. Many of his A collection of his complete works was bedramas have maintained themselves on the gun in 1871 (vol. I.-XIII., 1871-76). IIis last stage to the present day. The most celebrated work,“ Dionysius Longinus” (1878), is an works of this period are “Zopf und Schwert” excited reply to the attacks of some critics (1844), the “ Urbild des Tartuffe" (1847), and upon his works.
H HENRY, JOSEP, an American scientist, died nets at first used. Professor IIenry was also in Washington City, May 13, 1878. He was the first person who exhibited the great power born in Albany, N. Y., December 17, 1797. of the galvanic current in producing magnetic He was educated in the common schools of effects. He found that by surrounding a large his native city and the Albany Academy, in bar of iron bent into the forın of a biorseshoe which, in 1826, he was appointed a Professor with number of coils of wire, so connected of Mathematics. In the following year he be- with the battery of a single element that the gan a series of important experiments in elec- current in each wire would more in the same tricity, and in 1828 he published an account of direction, a magnetic power of astonishing various modifications of electro-magnetic ap- magnitude could be produced with a comparaparatus, which attracted general attention in tively small galvanic apparatus. As early as this country and in Europe. Ile was the first 1829' he exhibited before the Albany Institute to prove by actual experiment that, in the electro-magnets having a magnetic power greattransmission of electricity for great distances, er than that before known, and lie afterward the power of the battery must be proportioned constructed others on the same principle. One to the length of the current. Ile was also the of these, vow in the cabinet of the college at first to magnetize a piece of iron at a distance, Princeton, N. J., will readily support 3,500 and invented the first machine moved by elec- pounds, with a battery occupying about a cutro-magnetism. It consisted of an oscillating bic foot of space. In experiments made at the iron beam surrounded by a conductor of insu- Albany Academy in 1831, he transmitted siglated copper wire. A current of electricity nals by means of the electro-magnet througli a was sent through this in one direction, wbich wire more than a mile long, and thus caused caused one end to be repelled upward and the the rioging of a bell at the other end of the other attracted downward by two stationary wire. In the same year he published an acmagnets. The downward motion of the one count of these experiments and his electroend of the beam near its lowest point brought magnetic machine in Volume XIX. of Sillithe conducting wires in contact with the op- man's “American Jou'nal of Science, and posite poles of the battery, which produced claimed that the facts which he had demonthe reverse motion, and so on continually. In strated might be applied to instantaneous coma subsequent arrangement, the velocity of m)- munication between distant points by means tion was regulated by a fly-wheel, and electro- of a magnetic telegraph. This was several magnets substituted for the permanent ma- years before Professor Morse bad brought such
a telegraph into practical operation. In 1832 his researches would be of use to his fellow he was chosen Professor of Natural Philosophy men. The thought of profiting by his discorin the College of New Jersey at Princeton, and eries bad no place in his contemplation, and there continued his experiments. In the fol- so, with ample opportunities for making perlowing year he discussed the project of the sonal fortune, he had for himself and family. electro-magnetic telegraph, and demonstrated only the savings from the salaried earnings the practicability of producing mechanical ef- of a laborious and frugal life. Some of his fects at a distance by the electro-magnet. In personal friends, chief among whom was Mr. 1837 he made a visit to Europe, where his ex- George W. Childs, of Philadelphia, raised a periments and researches had made him well fund of $40,000 for his benefit, but he could known among scientists. When the Smith- not be induced to accept it until it was turned sonian Institution was established in Washing- into an endowment fund for the advancement ton in 1846, Professor Henry became its Secre- of scientific research after he and his family tary and principal director, a position which had passed away. he filled with great advantage to the public HODGE, CHARLES, D. D., LL. D., an Ameruntil the time of his death. In 1849 he was ican theologian, died in Princeton, N. J., June elected President of the American Association 19, 1878. lle was born in Philadelphia, Defor the Advancement of Science, and in 1868 cember 28, 1797, and was the son of Hugh he became the President of the National Acad- lodge, a physician. He was graduated from emy of Sciences. In 1871 he was made the the College of New Jersey at Princeton, in head of the Lighthouse Board of the United 1815, and from the Theological Serninary there States, in which position he rendered valuable in 1819. Ile was made Assistant Professor in services in perfecting the organization of the the Theological Seminary in 1820, Professor of National Lighthouse System. The degree of Oriental and Biblical Literature in 1822, and Doctor of Laws was conferred upon him by Professor of Didactic and Exegetical Theology Union College in 1829 and by IIarvard Univer- in 1810. The last named professorship, which sity in 1851. Besides “Contributions to Elec was enlarged in 1852 by the addition of polemtricity and Magnetism" (tto, l'hiladelphia, ic theology, he continued to hold till the time 18:39), he published numerous valuable papers of his death. In 1846 he was Moderator of in the American Philosophical Transactions,'
. the General Assembly of the Presbyterian the American Journal of Science and Arts," Church (Old School), and in 1858 one of a the “ Journal of the Franklin Institute," the committee to revise the “Book of Discipline." “ Proceedings of the American Association for In 1825 he founded the “Biblical Repertory the Advancement of Science," the “Transac- and Princeton Review," of which he continued tions of the National Academy of Sciences,” to be the editor till 1872, when it was changed and the annual reports of the Smithsonian In- into the “ Presbyterian Quarterly and Princestitution. Josepli llenry stood in the front ton Review.” Selections from his contriburank of the great scientists of his age. IIis tions to this periodical have been reprinted in name will be associated with those of Franklin, the “ Princeton Theological Essays (2 vols., Ampère, Arago, Thomas Young, Sir Ilum- 1846-'47) and in his " Essays and Reviews' phry Davy, Faraday, Sir William Thomson, (1857). Dr. IIodge also published "Commenand their eminent colaborers in the same field. tary on the Epistle to the Romans," which first His most important contribution to practical appeared in 1835, was abridged in 1836, and science was the electro-magnet, which is the rewritten and enlarged in 1866; Constitufoundation of all electro-magnetic telegraphy. tional History of the Presbyterian Church in Next in practical value bave been his investi- the United States” (2 vols., 1840-'41); “The gations into the philosophy and phenomena Way of Life” (1842); commentaries on Epheof sound for use in perfecting fog signals at sians (1856), 1 Corinthians (1857), and 2 Cosea, and the best methods for illuminating light- rinthians (1860); "Systematic Theology" (3 houses of the American coast. Out of these vols., 1871-'72); and “What is Darwinism?” have grown systems and appliances of the high- (1874). A volume containing an account of est use in promoting the safety of ocean and the celebration at Princeton, April 24, 1872, river commerce everywhere. Ile was the origi- of the semi-centennial anniversary of Dr. nator of the system of observation of the lodge's professorship, has also been pubweather which has expanded into the present lished. Signal Service," and for many years, until
NOLLINS, George N., an American naval its practical uses were fully demonstrated, the officer, died in Baltimore, January 18, 1878, Smithsonian Institution, under his direction, from the effects of a paralytic stroke. He was carried on the work with a corps of volunteer born in that city, September 20, 1799. He enobservers stationed throughout the United tered the navy as a midshipman in 1814, and States.
was serving on the sloop of war Erie when she Dr. Ilenry was a most unselfish devotee of made an unsuccessful attempt to run the Britscience. What he discovered he gave freely ish blockade of Chesapeake Bay. He was then and immediately the world for the use of assigned to duty in Fort Washington, and afthe world. Io sought scientific and physical terward to the frigate President, Commodore truth for its own sake, hoping and believing Decatur. Ile was on board this vessel when
she was captured by the Britishı, and was kept for that end was that of Coleman for steama prisoner of war at Bermuda until peace was heating from a central source, quite similar to declared. He served under Decatur in the Al- the Holly plan, but never carried into effect. gerine war, and received from him a Turkish The Holly system was first introduced into the saber for his bravery in the capture of an Al- town of Lockport, where the works comgerine frigate. After serving on the Guerriere, menced running in October, 1877. During the Washington, the Franklin, and the Colum- the following winter 40 houses were warmed, bus, he took command at the close of the war besides a large schoolhouse and a public hall, of an East India merchantman. In 1825 he and the power was furnished to drive two was made lieutenant and assigned to duty in steam-engines, one of which was nearly half a the West Indies. In 1841 he became com- mile away from the boiler-house. In the secmander, and was assigned to the command of ond winter (1878–79) 1,000 consumers were the Pensacola navy yard. In 1844 he was flag supplied, the total space heated amounting to captain of the Pacific Squadron, and in 1846 about 10,000,000 cubic feet. With the methods again assumed command of the Pensacola navy used for isolating the conducting-pipes and reyard. In 1854 he bombarded and destroyed converting into steam a part of the water of the town of San Juan de Nicaragua. He was condensation, the steam is conveyed over long in command of the navy yard at Sackett's Har- distances without losing any material amount bor in 1858, and was afterward ordered to join of its heating power. With larger boilers and the Mediterranean Squadron. He soon received mains than those employed in Lockport, steam orders to return to the United States, which can be thus conveyed and distributed over an he reached in 1861. He then resigned his area of four square miles from a single cencommission, but the Department refused to ac tral boiler-house. Mr. Holly first seriously cept his resignation, struck his name from the directed liis studies to the problem of conveyrolls, and ordered his arrest. He succeeded in ing heat into the houses of a city in the year eluding the officers in search of him, went 1866. After he had satisfied himself of the South, and was inade a commodore in the practicability of such a scheme by long experiConfederate navy. On October 11th he at- ments, he started the Holly Steam Company tacked the Federal blockading squadron at the in January, 1877, with a capital of $25,000, passes of the Mississippi, and was appointed which undertook to warm the dwelling-houses Hag captain of the New Orleans Station for of Lockport at a price based on the cost of what he claimed as an important victory. Be- coal consunied in the ordinary methods of fore Farragut's attack on New Orleans in heating. A comparison of the cost of heating April, 1862, Commodore Ilollins was super- by the IIolly system and that by hot-air furseded by Commodore Whittle. After the war naces and private steain-heating apparatus was he was pardoned by President Johnson, and made on the basis of the results of the first took up his residence in Baltimore, where he winter's operation. The average cost of the became a crier in the City Court.
fixtures for each of 1,000 takers using the HOLLY SYSTEM OF STEAM-IIEATING. Ilolly system was taken at $200; the annual The idea of generating the heat required in interest, with the depreciation and cost of rethickly settled communities for the health and pairs, at $18; and the average yearly bills for comfort of the inhabitants, and perhaps also steam-service to the company announted to for cooking and laundry purposes, in central $39.80, making the total expense for a year establishments, and of conducting it stored up $57.80), against $113.75 required to keep a in steam or some such absorbent medium furnace costing $275, and consuming 10 tons through pipes and laying it on in dwellings in of coal a year, and $197 expended annually 'ike manner with water and illuminating gas, on a private steam-heater using 12 tons and has long been looked upon as a promising costing originally $800. This estimate of the scheme, which was likely to be realized in the cost of the heat is certainly very insufficient, march of mechanical improvements and in the being much higher than it would be if the evolution of social methods. Various invent- works were operated to their full capacity and ors have busied themselves with this scheme; the houses served not so few and so scattered. but its first practical illustration on a large Improvements and economies in the working scale has been accomplished by Birdsell Holly, of the enterprise can also be reasonably exof Lockport, New York, preriously known to pected to reduce the cost considerably after a the public from his invention of the Llolly longer trial; but, on the other hand, the safety water-works system. Improvement and econ- and durability of the elaborate conducting apomy in the methods of artificial heating is of paratus can only be determined after several more concern to the people of the United years' experience, and the deterioration and States than to Europeans, owing to the more cost of maintenance calculated ; and the wear continental climate of America, which is char- and destruction caused by such an active exacterized by a constant range of low tempera- pansive agent as steam, liandled under norel ture through about two thirds of the year conditions, may more than counterbalance any over all the Northern States, necessitating the possible reduction in the working expenses. warming of inhabited rooms through the most The Ilolly system offers many other advanof the year. Among the inventions offered tages besides a more healthful and less trou