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Letters sent and received,
Area in square miles.
ACSTRALIA AND POLYNESIA, The area and population of Australia and Polynesia
Newspapers Moneyare, according to the latest accounts, as follows
Bent. (see Behm and Wagner, Bevölkerung der Erde,” v., Gotha, 1878):
New South Wales* 732 13,521.200 6,658,800 260+ 112,684
896 18,903,503 10,919,438 284 123,025 COLONIES.
South Australia t.. 372, 5,723,578 · 3,860,914 33,709
177! Continent of Australia, with small
Queensland. 162 3,110,990 2,391,083 52 22,696 coast islands...
New Zealand.. 645 10,127,651 6,611,367 73,027 Islands south of the Tropic of Capricorn : Tasmania ..
26,214 105,154 The following table shows the number of New Zealand (including Maoris) 101,900 463,000
live stock in the different colonies : Other islands.
Sheer. Pigs. Islands north of the Equator.
New South Wales..' 366,703 : 3,131,013 24,503,359 173,604 Total
Victoria | 3,423,103
196,154 1,054,598 11,749,532 140,765 South Australia. 106,903 219,141 : 6.133,291
Western Australia .. 39,502 51,053 899,494 18.108 The estimated population of each of the Tasınania.. 23,622 124,459 1,755,142 60,681
New Zealand. British colonies was as follows:
99,261 494,113 11,647,563 123,741
Queensland.. 130),289 1,985,807 7,241,810 | 53,028 COLONIES.
Population. Victoria (June 30, 1877)
819,021 According to “Statistics of New Zealand, New South Wales (I)ecember 31, 1576).. 629,776 Queensland (December 31, 1576).
1877,” the total estimated population of this South Australia (June 30, 1:77).
230,929 colony on December 31, 1877, was 417,622, exWestern Australia (December 31, 1976)... 27,321 Northern Territory..
clusive of 45,470 Maoris. This shows an in713
crease over the population of 1876 of 18,547, 1,924,793
of which 12,171 was due to an excess of births Tasmania (December 31, 1876)..
105,451 New Zealand
417,622 over deaths, and 6,376 to immigration. A regNatives...
100,000 ular census was taken in March, 1878, but the Total...
results are not yet published. The total num2,547,890
ber of vessels that entered from foreign ports During the year 1876 the increase of births during 1877 was 812, of 388,568 tons; and the over deaths was: in Victoria, 13,288 ; in New number entered coastwise was 17,260, of 1,754,South Wales, 12,105; in Queensland, 3,496; 158 tons. The number cleared was 17,239, of in South Australia, 4,674; in Western Austra- 1,738,224 tons. The total value of the imports lin, 535; in New Zealand, 12,170. In each was £6,973, +18. colony the number of births was more than A vote of want of confidence in the Ministry, double that of deaths, and the number of males proposed in the Legislative Assembly of Victolargely exceeded that of females.
ria in January, was negatived by that body. The following table shows the revenue, pub- This vote was of great importance, as considlic debt, imports, and exports for 1876, for each erable excitement had prevailed throughout of the Australian colonies:
the colony at the course taken by the Legisla
lative ('ouncil in the wholesale dismissal of COLONIES.
Imports. Exports. Judges and other Government officials in No
vember, 1877. On February 7th, tho LegislaVictoria..
4,825,156 1-1,056, 529 15,705,353 14,196,457 New South Wales * 5,036,636 11,470,687* 13,672,776 13,003,941 tive Assembly passed a resolution in favor of South Australia + 1,491,225, 4,237,030+ 4,576.13 4.816.171 the payment of the public creditors on the auQueensland... 1,413,255 6,954,550 Tasmania..
827,310' 1,520,500 1,133,003 1,130,943 thority of votes passed by the Assembly alone. Western Australia, 162,189 185,000 35,036 397,293 In the course of the discussion Mr. Berry, the New Zealand...... 2,172,792 20-95,311 : 6,905,171 5,673,465 Premier, said it was intended that the resolu
tion should only be temporarily operative. lIe The telegraph statistics, on January 1, 1877, disclaimed any purpose to deprive the Legislawere as follows:
tive ('ouncil of the right of assenting to the
appropriations. On February 13th the AssemCOLONIES.
bly, by a vote of 53 to 23, adopted a motion
presented by Mr. Berry for an address to the New South Wales..
$472 151 854,204 Crown, in consequence of the unconstitutional Victoria..
801,946 Houth Australia..
course taken by the Legislative Council in re
3,904 124 371,141 Western Australia..
84,0864 jecting the appropriation bill, providing for Tasmania..
the payment of the members of the Assembly. Queensland.
479,078 New Zealand.
The Council on the 21st also voted an address to
the ("rown, in reply to that voted by tho AsThe postal statistics for the different colonies sembly. A compromise was, however, brought were as follows:
about between the Council and the Assembly, * For 1875. + For 1877.
* January 1, 1877. + For 1576. January 1, 1876.
40) 120 1-12
thus ending the political crisis which had troubled the colony for almost six months. Parliament was prorogued on April 5th. It assembled again on July 9th. In his opening speech, the Governor announced the introduction of bills for a new Joan for public works, and for the purchase of Hobson's Bay Railway. The Governor also announced that an international exhibition would be held in Melbourne in 1880. The Colonial Treasurer made his financial statement on August 16th. The actual revenue for the current year was
PARLIAMENT BUILDING, SYDNEY. estimated at £4,991,713, and the expenditure at £5,137,642, leaving a 1878 composed of Prince Adolf von Auersperg, deficit of £145, 929. This deficiency was to be President (appointed November, 1871); J. Lascovered by arrears and recoupments. There ser, Freiherr von Zollheim, Interior (November, were also to be loans for a total amount of 1871); C. von Stremayr, Pnblic Worship and £9,000,000 for railways and public works. In Instruction (November, 1871); Glaser, Justice the beginning of October a ministerial bill for (November, 1871); J. Ritter von Chlumecky, a reform of the Constitution, curtailing the Commerce (appointed in November, 1871, Minpowers of the Legislative Council
, was passed ister of Agriculture ; transferred to the Minison its third reading in the Assembly by a vote try of Commerce in May, 1875); Baron von of 50 against 21.
Pretis-Cagnodo, Finances (January, 1872); CoThe Parliament of New South Wales was lonel Horst
, Defense of the Country (appointed opened by the Governor on September 11th. pro tem. November, 1871, definitely in Marchi, Among the measures to be introduced by the 1872); Count Mannsfeld, Agriculture_(May, Government was a scheme for the construction 1875); J. Unger (November, 1871) and Florian of a thousand miles of railway.
Ziemialkowski (April, 1873), ministers withThe South Australian Ministry resigned in out portfolio. the beginning of October, and a new cabinet Area of the Monarchy, 240,348 square miles; was formed, composed as follows: Premier, population, according to the census of 1860, Mr. William Morgan ;: Attorney-General, Mr. 35,901,435. The area of Cis-Leithan Austria Bundez; Minister of Education, Mr. Rowland (the land represented in the Reichsrath) is Rees; Colonial Treasurer, Mr. Mann.
115,908 square miles. The civil population at A revolt broke out among the natives of the the end of 1876 was officially estimated at French colony of New Caledonia in the latter 21,766,887, to which must be added the army, part of June. It was said to be owing to the numbering (close of 1876) 177,449 persons; seizure of a large and fertile valley in which making a total population of 21,914,336. The was the large village of the chief Atai. A con- estimate is based upon the census of December siderable number of whites were massacred, 31, 1869, by adding the average percentage of but the resistance was subdued in a short time. increase. The civil population was distributed
AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN MONARCIIY, an among the different crown lands as follows: empire in Central Europe. Emperor, Francis Joseph I., born August 18, 1830; succeeded
2,172,488 his uncle, the Emperor Ferdinand I., Decem
154,584 ber 2, 1848. Heir apparent to the throne, Styria.
1,184,904 Archduke Rudolphus, born August 21, 1858.
339,035 The ministry for the common affairs of the
188,113 Empire consisted, toward the close of the year
217,478 1878, of Count Andrassy, Minister of Foreign Tyrol Affairs and of the Imperial IIouse (appointed Vorarlberg
103,775 1871); Baron Leopold Friedrich von IIofmann,
2,091, 802 Minister of the Finances of the Empiro (ap
565,195 pointed 1876); and Count Arthur Bylandt
5.53,949 Rheidt, Minister of War (appointed 1876). The ministry of Cis-Leithan Austria wus in
Inbabitants, Dec. 31, 1877.
Austria below the Enns...
9,770 13,169 4,462 5,701 8,013 19,003
03 41,1-19 16,1-19
4,040 45,-23 4,616 4,2:13
The movement of population in 1877 was as ger the passing of the tariff in the Diet, where follows:
these fiscal imposts were looked upon as a compensation for the increase of duties on textile
fabrics, of which Austrian industry had almost 66,213
the exclusive benefit. On January 25th the
Austrian Ministers had a conference with the 5,452 39,172
presidents of the clubs of the different parlia11,019
mentary factions. Three of the clubs, containing the majority of those who are called supporters of the Government, refused to ac
cept the bill. This conference was regarded 6,055
as decisive by the Ministers, and on the follow210,153
ing day, the 26th, they tendered their resig, 81,555
nations in a body. The Emperor accepted
them, but requested the Ministers to retain 24,156
offico pending the appointment of their suc
On February 5, Prince Auersperg,
in the blouse, read a letter from the Emperor, $32,030 679,534 161,712
calling upon the Cabinet to resume office, in
consequence of the imperative necessity of conOf the total number of children born, 18,719 cluding the compromise with Ilungary. The were still-born, and of these 16,781 were legit- Minister stated that the Emperor had taken imate and 1,938 illegitimate. Of the live-born this step only after having come to the conchildren, 716,577 were legitimate and 105,513 clusion that it was impossible to form a new illegitimate. Of the total number of children Ministry which could give sufficient guarantees born, 410,074 were males and 412,562 females. for the passage of the compromise as adopted Of the total number of deaths, 355,429 were by the two Governments. In conclusion, he of males and 324,405 of females. In regard to said that the Government had felt itself bound, age, 28 males and 34 females were upward of in view of the gravity of the situation, to com100 years old at the time of their death. ply with the request of the Emperor, and begged
The number of professors and students (in- the Ilonse to hasten the discussion of the comclusive of non-matriculated hearers) was in promise bills. On February 16, the Lower 1878 as follows:
Īlouse of the Reichsrath resolved by a large majority to proceed to the special debate upon the customs tariff, and on the 19th, by a vote of 159 to 130, passed the bill, imposing a duty of 20 forins on coffee. This was an important victory for the Ministry, as the duty on coffee
was the one which was most bitterly opposed Innspruck
in the Reichsrath, and which therefore threatLemberg. Prague
ened to bring the negotiations for a compromise to an end.
On March 8th, Prince Auersperg stated in the Lower llouse that the Government had
made searching investigation into the reported The Austrian Reichsrath, immediately upon execution of Polish subjects of Austria by the reassembling after the holidays, discussed the Russian authorities, the result being that the measures proposed by the Cabinet for the statements in question were totally unconAusgleich or compromise with Ilungary. Con- firmed. On the subject of the proposed Berferences were held during January between lin Congress, he declared that it only aimed the Austrian and Ilungarian Ministers, to ar
at the final settlement of Eastern affairs, and range the differences still existing with regard that it was in that sense that the Austrian to the renewal of the commercial and customs Government had issued invitations to the Powtreaty between Austria and Ilungary. An un
ers. Every other subject was therefore, he derstanding was finally come to on all but one said, excluded from European discussion. point-the increase of the import duties on
The budget was discussed in the l'pper IIouse articles of consumption, especially coffee and of the Reichsrath on March 28th; and in repetroleum, devised with a view to increase tho ply to the remarks of several speakers, Baron revenue. Tho Austrian Ministry, though in Pretis, the Minister of Finance, said that he faror of the higher tax, did not think it could had many years ago warned the blouse and the carry it through the llouse, while the lunga, public against taking a too sanguine view of rian Ministers, for their Government, declared the financial position of the country. The they could not consent to another change in Government would, however, be able soon to the existing agreement, since it would endan- m:
he revenue and expenditure balanc
provided that they were not compelled to take * In 1876. + Exclusive of the faculty of Evangelical theology. upon themselves fresh sacrifices for the defense
Professors. 1 Students.
70* 94 66 51 129 2-10
213 512* 8.30 620) 875 1.7-3 3,46
of the honor and prestige of the Empire. Even for the protection of the interests of the this latter event could do no more than defer Monarchy. The sum asked for, however, was for a short time the attainment of the object not to be expended in completing the equipin view; and he cautioned his hearers not to ment of the army. It was intended to afford believe for one single instant in the word the Government the means by which, at the “ bankrupt." There was, he said, no justiti- right time and on its own responsibility, it cation at all for applying such a term to the might“ take such measures as, by the prompt financial position of Austro-Hungary. The utilization of the advantages for which the orBudget and Financial law for 1878, as well as ganization of the army is alone fitted, to inthe bill prolonging the provisorium of the com sure the Monarchy against all danger and surpromise with Hungary until the end of May, prise." In the afternoon Count Andrassy was adopted on the following day without de- made a statement to the Delegations, explainbate.
ing the policy of the Government. In this The Austrian and Hungarian Delegations statement he said that in pursuing its exertions met on March 7th. On the 9th the Govern- to uphold the interests of the Monarchy by ment presented to both Delegations a bill au- pacific means, the Government could not abthorizing an extra credit of 60,000,000 florins. stain from taking care that if the worst should The preamble stated that in the present posi- happen the necessary measures should be tion of affairs it was not impossible that ex- adopted; for this reason the Government traordinary measures might have to be taken asked for 60,000,000 florins. With regard to
the attitude of the other Powers, it might confidential character, and not intended to safely be stated that Austria's interests in the be entered in the protocol of the sitting. East were at the present time identical with Count Andrassy in his replies dwelt especially those of Europe, and were on all sides recog- upon the question of an Austrian occupation nized as such. How far other Powers would of Bosnia, which he described as not comgo in protecting those interests could not be prised within the aims of the Austro-Hungadetermined, and the programme of the Gov- rian Government. He pointed out that to ernment conld not be made the subject of dis- guard against surprise was not the motive, cussion before the meeting of the Congress. but only one of the motives of the demand He specified in detail what he understood for a grant of 60,000,000 florins, and he added under the name of Austro-IIungarian inter- that communication was made to Russia of ests, and what changes could not be permitted what constituted the interests of the Austroby Austria-Hungary.
Hungarian Monarchy before the outbreak of In a subsequent sitting of the Budget Com- the war, and that the Russian Government mittee of the Austrian Delegation, Count An- acknowledged that the statement was well drassy gave further information as to Eastern founded. He also entered into details in anaffairs, and replied to several questions ad- swering the questions put to him as to the dressed to him by various delegates asking for objects of the partial mobilization projected in explanations which were to be regarded as of June, 1877, and with regard to the support
which the Government anticipated from the this measure, to the amount of 60,000,000 other European Powers at the Congress. IIe florins. In the Austrian Delegation the debate emphatically denied that it had been intended was continued until the 21st, and after some to ask for provision for a mobilization without remarks from Count Andrassy, who said that any mobilization being effected; and he fur- the vote was necessary to maintain the posither declared that the Government by no tion of the Monarchy as a great power, the means contemplated ordering a mobilization grant of 60,000,000 florins was adopted by a of the army as soon as the grant of 60,000,000 vote of 39 to 20. florins had been approved. It certainly re On May 28th Count Andrassy read a statequired to be provided with the means of show- ment to the Austrian Delegation explaining ing the world that the Monarchy was capable the manner in which a portion of the credit of protecting its interests in a practical man vote of 60,000,000 florins was to be employed. ner; but to institute a military force in lle said that, even though an agreement were presence of the Congress, from whose delib- established upon European questions, complierations a satisfactory understanding was an cations might arise which would imperil Austicipated by all-to appear before it at great trian interests. It was intended shortly to recost in a state of warlike preparation, only enforce the troops in Dalmatia and Transylultimately to disarm-would be a proceeding vania, and possibly to make other dispositions for which the Government could not assume for the protection of the communications. the responsibility. To those who maintained There was a prospect of the early meeting of that it was too late to mobilize, he should feel a Congress, and the Government would use inclined rather to reply that he considered it their endeavors in behalf of the peace of Eumuch too soon. In connection with this ques- rope, and to guard the interests of the Montion, he gave a denial to all the newspaper archy. statements of actual measures of mobilization On May 29th Count Andrassy answered the having been taken, of the ordre de bataille question put to him in the Delegations about having been drawn up, etc., all which reports the treaty of San Stefano. In both bodies the were absolutely unfounded.
question was the same-namely, whether the On March 12th the Hungarian Delegation Minister for Foreign Affairs would indicate the passed, by a unanimous vote, the bill of credit points he deemed incompatible with Austrian brought in by the Government. At the first interests, and the modification or eventual abositting on the 10th, the members of the various lition of which he had set himself as a task ; fractions of the opposition represented in the the answer likewise was almost identical in Delegation determined to make their vote de- both Delegations. The first and main contenpendent on the explanations of the Minister tion of the Government was that what should for Foreign Affairs in reply to questions they follow the war was a real, not a nominal peace, would put; but while doing so they wished it and that what was done should not conceal the to be understood that, even though they were germs of further disturbance and future comnot ready to vote the money in the form de- plications. From this point of view the extent manded, still, whatever might be the differ- which Bulgaria was to have, according to the ences of opinion between the Government and treaty, was open to great objections. Neither individual members of the Delegation, the mo- Austria-Ilungary nor any other Power in Eument the honor and interests of the country rope could well be opposed to the progress and were at stake, the Ministry might reckon upon advancement of those regions, but a large, comthe support of all parties. After hearing, pact State there in favor of one nationality at therefore, the explanations of the Minister, the expense of others was itself too artificial a all those who had previously deferred their creation, containing no guarantees of stability vote gave it in favor of the grant of 60,000,000 whatever. No European Power could well florins, in the form which the reporter chosen stand up for the maintenance of the territorial by the majority had proposed. This form was integrity and the status quo in Turkey, because somewhat different from that suggested by the it could scarcely take upon itself the responsiGovernment; for while the latter merely au- bility for this; but, on the other hand, it was thorized the common Ministry, in case of ur- in the interest of every Power that what regent and unavoidable necessity, to provide for mained to Turkey should be provided with the any extraordinary expenditure required by the conditions absolutely necessary for its existarmy to the extent of 60,000,000 florins, the ence, and from this point of view likewise the other declared that in case Eastern affnirs Bulgaria of the treaty was objectionable. Anshould render the mobilization of the army other objection roferred to clause 8 of the treaty, absolutely and urgently necessary for the pur- which relates to the transition period and conpose of more energetically defending the in- tains the stipulation for a two years' occupaterests of the Monarchy, the common Ministry, tion of Bulgaria, a correspondingly long ocouwhile bound to appeal at once to the legisla- pation of Roumania, and right of way through tive bodies for their coöperation, was author- that country. Now, this time was much longer ized in concert with the two Ministries of Aus- than was required. Apart from all other contria and Ilungary to incur meanwhilo, on its siderations, so lengthy an occupation would own responsibility, the expenses required for create a stato of uncertainty tending to perpet