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division, eight months were allowed; and on Concerning the national debt, no more recthe second six months from the conclusion of cent returns of an official character are availthe former.
able than those given in the “Annual CycloMinute details concerning the territorial di- pædia” for 1877, according to which the total visions, area, population, etc., will be found in amount was $3,877,384. In the course of the the “Annual Cyclopædia ” för 1875.
year the Government made proposals for a new The President of the Republic is General loan of $1,000,000 to meet current expenses Rufino Barrios (elected May 7, 1873). The and for the amortization of the convertible Cabinet is composed of the following min- debt. The gross receipts of the spirit moisters: Interior and Finance, Sr. A. Salazar; nopoly during the year 1878 were $748,870.Public Works, Sr. IIerrera; Foreign Affairs 10, which left a net product of $475,974.60. and Public Instruction, Sr. L. Montúfar; War, The district of Santa Ana was the largest conSr. Barbërena. The United States Minister suiner, the administration of that city being (to the Central American States) Resident in charged with $114,321.67, against $102,906.33 Guatemala is Mr. G. Williamson.
for the capital. The increase in the business The army is composed of 3,20) men, be as compared with 1877 was $53,432.96. sides a militia force of 13,000. "Guatemala The subjoined remarks on the International has just made an important addition to her Bank of Guatemala are drawn from the halfwar material," writes a newspaper correspond- yearly reports published in July and December
, ent, " by the purchase of some very powerful 1878. The bank was opened on October 1, artillery-so powerful indeed as to make any 1877, and in the short time in which it has attempt to attack her forts a matter of great been in existence has demonstrated the value dangor if not certain destruction to anything of such an institution for the country, and its at present on this coast. In thus arming it- merits as a means for the employment of surself, the Government of President Barrios is plus capital. Various circumstances have opernot contemplating commencing hostilities upon ated against its complete success, among which any of its neighbors, but simply preparing so may be mentioned the prejudices which reguas not to be taken unawares. It has deter- lar banking enterprises always meet with in a mined upon leaving everybody alone and mak- country unfamiliar with such institutions, but ing everybody leave it alone."
more particularly the commercial crisis throngh The condition of the national finances for which the country is passing. Notwithstandthe year 1877 is set forth in the following ta- ing these circumstances, enough has already bles:
been accomplished to establish its hold upon
the public confidence, and to enable the share
$41,507 holders to look forward with hope to more exIinport duties..
1,127,390 Export duties.
tended and profitable operations in the future. Coinmercial duties.
The capital stock, at first $100,000, was afterFrontier custom-houses, etc.
ward fixed at $600,000, to enable the directors Sugar-plantation tax...
to supply the increasing demands of the agriPaper stamps..
49,175 cultural and mercantile communities, more parGunpowder tax.
ticularly in handling the immense coffee crop Slaughter-house tax.
76,311 of the country. The class of business done inSale of public lands.. Spirit tax..
cludes every line of banking operations, dis
743,591 Outstanding debts..
426,267 counts, exchanges, deposits, loans on real esDeposits..
33,450 tate or collaterals, and the issue of notes. Of Receipts extraordinary.
these there were in circulation in July $106,
790 fully guaranteed, and to be increased es $ 1,50:3,523
required, some having already proposed an ertension to $254,270. Discounts to June 30th
amounted to $1,468,377, which gave a profit Ministry of the Interior and Finance.. $777,906 Ministry of Public Works,
of $30,815.44; and those to December 31st, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Public
233,912 $1,410,377.52. The bank has established relaMinistry of War
tions with the different monetary centers of
the world, and furnishes letters of credit, exOutstanding interest.
change, etc., to the public at reasonable rates
This branch of the business has yielded good 109,040
results, which will be greatly increased in the Capital... $511,301
future. A dividend of $400 per share was de151,970 ; 663,271
clared in July, leaving a reserve fund of over
73,741 National Bank..
$4,000. The net profits for the period in
357,92.5 Voluntary foreign loan.
which the bank has been in active operation
have been at the rate of over 13 per cent. per Loan of December 15, 1876 Sundries ...
annum; a very good showing for a new insti
tution, urder commercial conditions of the $1,425,298
most unfavorable character. A branch bank Surplus..
$75,225 has been established in Quezaltenango, and an
17,148 15,578 873.235 25,310
New coffee-tax bonds.
81.810 45,661 10,533 157,533
tema la will shortly have a lin GUATEMALA.
417 agency in the city of San Salvador. It is rec was reported that the work on the road was ommended by some to organize in connection actively progressing. To encourage the enterwith the establishment a savings bank. prise, the Government is said to have offered
The exports for the year 1877 were of a total à cash advance of $210,000, payable in suins value of $3,773, 183.74; comprising coffee ($3,- of $25,000 on every three miles during the 358,956.16), cochineal ($181,693), woolen goods progress of the work, and to guarantee to the ($115,939.20), muscovado ($28,303), hides ($62,- stockholders an annual profit dividend of 12 343,84), etc. These commodities were distrib- per cent. on a fixed cost of $1,000,000. Locouted among the various markets as follows: motives, rails, etc., were expected to arrive Great Britain, $1,073,977; California, $1,037,- from the United States during the month of 531 ; New York, $193,252; Germany, $819,- January, 1879. Track-laying, ballasting, etc., 910; France, $311,870 ; Belize, $181,660; Cen- were to commence as soon as the rails and ties tral America, $127,308 ; South America, $30,- were on the ground. A force of Chinamen 909. The chief sources of the imports and the from California was to perform that part of the values of these were as follows in the same labor. The rates of wages paid to laborers on year: Great Britain, $1,208,894.87; France, the railroad in the coast section are consid
$158, 162.44; Germany, $317,367.60; United erably higher than those current on sugar or States, $378,753.21. “Commerce generally, coffee estates. Six reals per day is allowed in Guatemala,” writes a journalist under date them, with rations, etc., while on the estates of June, 1878, “as in all parts of the west coast inen receive but three reals. It was intended, of America, feels the effects of overtrading. however, when the works should be completed Were there more producers and fewer middle- to Naranjo, to reduce the wages one half. It men, there would be more of the material of was understood that about March, 1879, a precommerce to handle and larger gains for those liminary survey would be made between Esable to handle them skillfully.” A decree has cuintla and the capital, to ascertain the probabeen issued by the Government granting a pre- ble cost of completing the railroad to the latter miam of four reals per quintal (100 lbs.) of city, and strong inducements were held out to muscovado sugar exported. The cultivators of the company to build the extension to the capsugar in Guatemala have enormous difficulties ital. Two routes are proposed. One is by to contend against as compared with Peru or Antigua, and las the advantage of passing the West Indian Islands. The price of labor is through a fertilo and populous country, whose so much higher than cooly labor, and the products are sugar and coffee, while the other freights both on land and sea are so much and the easiest route is ria Amatitlan, skirting heavier, that it is only by the most determined the shore of the lake, which it passes on the perseverance and industry that they are alle southeast side, and thence up through the valto obtain a scanty recompense from their crops. ley on a gradual ascent, until the plateau upon A privilege had been granted for a term of five which the capital stands is reached. The first years to a company for the introduction of route will be doubly more expensive, as there machines and the establishment of factories are several ridges to surmount, and one or two for the manipulation and perfection of manu rivers to bridge, but in a business point of view factures from the textile plants of the country. is preferable to the other. On the Amatitlan These exist in great abundance in sereral of route no serious difficulties are encountered, the departments, and the inhabitants have to and tle work would be comparatively an insome extent endeavored to utilize them. The expensive one, which should yield a revenue concession in question is not intended to inter- to the company, besides being a vast service to fere with the employment of the methods now the country. Though the name of the line is in uso by the Indians and others, but rather to the “ ('entral Railway of Guatemala,” it is improve and perfect them, or, so far as the ron very conimonly spoken of as the “San José & cessionists are concerned, to adopt those that Escuintla Railroad,” from the names of the may be new. The privileges received guaran- two towns which will be the termini of the tee freedom from all duties on machinery and portion now in procesy of preparation. The
materials, and also from export duties on all grading through the mountain passes between d'abr
ics, etc., which may be made and shipped Escuintla and Guatemala ("ity will be a formi-
ncourage the manufacture of cigars and condition of the country, thanks to the policy and cettes, after the methods employed in ('uba, of President Barrios, will enable the Governto t
with a view of exhibiting those methods ment to secure an admirable road-bed on the e public, the introduction free of duty of most economical terms, and with the greatest Ergoes of Ilavana tobacco is permitted. possible dispatch. The line is already looked
different concessions are made as aids forward to as one of material advantage to Soutie derclopment of tho industries of tho American shippers, particularly those sending mere now seems to be little doubt that Gua which port antaorseveral of those of Central
ris Pacific. Toward the end of the year it one Californian firm has advanced material for
VOL. XVIII.-27 A
the construction of the road, receiving very Public instruction, interesting details conliberal terms from the Government. With the cerning which were published in the “Annual completion of the Guatemala Central, the sea Cyclopædia” for 1870, continues to be the obroute between San Francisco and the Atlantic ject of assiduous attention on the part of the cities of the United States would be shortened Governinent; and it is proper here to observe by from 1,500 to 2,000 miles, and the additional that of 68 recompenses of merit awarded to alvantage would be obtained of an extensive exhibitors from Guatemala at the Paris Expolocal trale which the Panama railway is pow- sition in 1878, where the republic made a erless to favor.
creditable display of various productions, one A wagon road, now for a number of years in was a gold medal for primary instruction, and course of construction, will soon open up the another, honorable mention for maps and geointerior to commercial enterprise, and place graphical and cosmographical apparatus. An the Atlantic port of Santo Tomás within seven agricultural school recently established under days of New York. This new facility, added the patronage of the Government is reported to those of the harbor of Santo Tomás itself, to be productive of most satisfactory results. will remove all difficulties hitherto impeding The establishment of a court of appeal in the extension of trade with the Atlantic shore the western department, and one of higher of the republic, no small element of which jurisdiction in the capital, is spoken of as very would be the immediate introduction of Amer- iinportant, as providing means for the more ican supplies for the mines, for the rich gold speedy trial of civil and other causes, which districts watered by the Motagua River, and have been in litigation for years. The want but two or three days' journey distant from of proper and sufficient tribunals has been the port, are attracting considerable attention, severely felt for many years, particularly since since the favorable report given of them by an the large increase in the population of the American mining engineer, who surveyed them western department, owing to the remarkable at the President's request. But trade with the development of coffee culture within the past United States would not be limited to any par- few years. The scarcity of common courts ticular branch. American manufactures of all and those of superior jurisdiction has been kinds are in Guatemala preferred to European, such that the trials of both civil and criminal and the demand for them will increase with in cases were almost suspended. Litigants and creased possibilities of transport. Some twenty their witnesses were forced to travel long disthousand American breech-loading rifles are at tances to try their causes, and often obliged to the present time in use in the Guatemalan submit to tiresome and expensive delays. This army.
evil has been remedied to a considerable de Aware of the benefits to be derived from gree, the administration of the courts, proimmigration, General Barrios's Government vision for their establishment in ontlying dishas taken steps to attract American settlers; tricts, etc., having received the special atten and a decree issued in August, 1878, offered tion of the Minister of Justice. numerous and substantial inducements to for GUTZKOW, Karl FERDINAND, one of the eigners disposed to engage in the cultivation foremost representatives of modern German of certain staples of the country-sarsaparilla, literature, born in Berlin, March 17, 1811, cacao, India-rubber, etc. The decree is to re died at Sachsenhausen near Frankfort, Decemmain in force for 10 years, and it may not be ber 16, 1878. Ilis life was almost wholly deinopportune here to enumerate a few of the voted to literary activity. In 1847 he succeedmore important clauses thereof: Probational ed Tieck as Dramaturg at the court theatre of gift of land in proportion to applicants' means Dresden, a position which gave him but little of cultivating it; title to the samo in perpetu- intluence, and which he only retained two ity on proof that the ground has been planted, years and a half. In 1862 he was appointed or forfeiture of right to title in the event of Secretary-General of the Schiller Institution failure to cultivate a reasonable proportion of in Weimar, but this position likewise, though the holding within the first two years of occu one of greater influence, did not satisfy him, pation of the same; a premium of $50 per as he disagreed on many important points thousand for cacao and India-rubber trees with the Council of Administration. He fell planted and thriving, or of $25 for a liko for a time into a state of deep melancholy, and number of sarsaparilla shrubs; no premium in a fit of insanity made an attempt upon his for any larger number than 12,000 troos or own life at Friedberg in 1864. lle recorered, plants.
however, after a while, and a "Gutzkow The telegraph lines (the property of the Fund” which was established at this time, and Government), some 1,100 miles in length, with to which the first theatres of Germany con4.5 stations in the most important parts of tho tributed, assured him of his continuing popucountry, have proved a profitable enterprise. larity. Gutzkow frequently changed his place The gross receipts for the month of March, of residence. During his youth be lived in 1878, were $7,923.84, with expenses not ex Berlin, Munich, Frankfort, Ilamburg, Dresden, ceeding $6,315. The number of messages and Weimar. After his recovery from the at14,817, of which 3,357 were on Government tempt upon his life he resided in succession in service.
Vevey, in Kesselstadt near Ilanau, in Bregenz