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missioners for regulating the frontier; and a of Crete: “I know that island well, and the week later General Sutzo, Commander-in-Chief aspirations of its inhabitants. I am convinced of the Greek army, M. Zenopulos, Secretary- that the people of Crete do not want annexaGeneral to the Ministry of the Interior, and tion to Greece; it is the restless committee of Major Colocoronis, were appointed the Greck ambitious Hellenes in Athens who cry out for commissioners for the same purpose. News it, not the Cretans.” At about the same time having been received at Athens froin Constan- the representatives of the Cretan National tinople that, notwithstanding the understood Assembly proposed that the Porte should determination of the Porte not to cede the grant to the people of the island administradistrict of Janina, the Greek Government was tive autonomy with civil and political equality, desirous of consolidating friendly relations with and that the Assembly should be authorized Turkey, and would not ask the mediation of to make laws which it would be beyond the the Powers, the newspapers of Athens con- power of the Sultan to modify. Mukhtar demned the adoption of such an attitude, and Pasha, on the other hand, offered them civil stated that, if the Government were to yield on equality, the plébiscite, and the establishment the question of Janina, its course would be of a police force and gendarmerie composed universally disapproved.
jointly of Mohammedans and Christians. The whole year was marked by events of These proposals were rejected by the Cretans. stirring interest in Crete, which, although Afterward deeming the concessions offered they were in large part of a peaceful charac- by Mukhtar Pasha worthless, the Assembly ter, showed the strong and constant desire of instructed the Cretan representatives at Conthe people of the island to become part of an stantinople to discontinue the negotiations, independent Greek nation. In January the and sent a protest to the foreign consuls at National Assembly which had been organized Canea declining to pursue the negotiations and was sitting, after an engagement between with Mukhtar Pasha. A week later an offithe Turks and the Christians, declared that cial telegram from Canea stated that a definithe Ottoman Government was overthrown, tive arrangement had been signed between and proclaimed the annexation of the island the Turkish authorities and the Cretans, by to Greece. A messenger was sent to Russia which the questions at issue were finally to present an address to the Czar, congratu- settled. This arrangeinent was confirmed by lating him upon the Russian victories, and en the Porte, with some slight modifications; à treating him not to forget Crete at the con- telegram was sent by the Porte to Mukhtar clusion of peace. It was reported in March Pasha, thanking lim for pacifying the island; that the insurgents had accepted an armistice and congratulations were presented to him by proposed by the Turks, the terms of which the Christian and Mussulman inhabitant:. stipulated that the Turks should be confined Alexander Caratheodori Pasha, first plenipoto the towns, wbile the Christians should re- tentiary at the Congress of Berlin, and aftermain unmolested in the open country. In ward Minister of Public Works, was appointed May the British consul at Canea informed the Governor-General of Crete, and the Britislı insurgent leaders that the Porte had decided Colonel Maurice Fawcett was intrusted with to grant the Cretans an amnesty, and promised the organization of the gendarmerie. tbem a better form of government provided The Greek Government has for several the insurgents would lay down their arms. years had the charge of the normal departThe leaders of the insurrection, in reply, de- inent of the schools of Dr. Ilill, of the Amerimanded an armistice, declaring that they con can Episcopal Church. It has within the past sidered the acceptance of an amnesty as equiv- year established a normal school at Athens, to alent to submission, and strongly urged the be under the charge of a Greek principal with union of the island with Greece. Hostilities two professors; and a circular has been sent were resumed in various districts during June. out to the local authorities advising them to The British consul at Canea proniised the As- select candidates for admission to the school, sembly that England would protect the rights with free tuition. The C'niversity of Athens of Crete. He also pointed out that the Porte las schools of theology, law, medicine, and pliihad proposed reforms and a provisional Cre- losophy, with 88 professors and 1,652 students. tan administration. About a month later the GREEK CIIURCII. The territorial changes National Assembly sent a note to the consul made in the map of Europe by the Berlin Consoliciting the mediation of England to obtain gress (see Europe) considerably affect the states autonomy for the island, in conformity with in which the Greek Church embraces a mathe desires of the population. Failing to ob- jority or a large portion of the population. tain this, tho Cretans were understood to be Two states professing the Greek Oriental reresolved to continue their resistance to Turk- ligion wlich were lieretofore dependencies of ish rule.
IIobart Pasha, who visited the Turkey-Roumania and Servia—have been European states during the latter part of the added to the list of the independent states of summer on a mission which was supposed to Europe, and both have received an increase of be partly official, wroto a letter before lear- territory and population. A new state in which ing London for Constantinople, reviewing the the Greek religion will prevail has been formed whole situation in the East, in which he said — Bulgaria—which, though it will pay for tho
present an annual tribute to the Sultan, is really nected with churches and monasteries was as independent as Roumania and Servia were 6,811, with an aggregate of 197,191 pupils, of before the war of 1877. It must be expected whom 170,461 were male and 26,730 female. that under a Christian government the Greek The number of church libraries was 15,770; Church of this state will awaken to a new the number of new libraries established in the life; and the same may be expected from Bos course of the year, 235. The church property nia and Herzegovina, which have been placed under the administration of the Procuratorunder Austrian rule.
General amounted on January 1, 1877, to 26,The population connected with the Greek 855,858 rubles (1 ruble = 78 cents). Oriental Church in 1878 may be estimated The Church of Greece lost one of her leadabout as follows:
ing and oldest prelates by the death of the Arch60,600,000 bishop of Thera, Zacharias Matthas, at the age
of about 80 years. He became Archbishop of Austro-Ilungary.
3,180,000 Bosnia and Herzegovina..
Thera in 1863, and was at the time of his death 4,500,000 a member of the Holy Synod of. Greece. As
a theological author he was well known by
his work entitled “ A Historic List of the BishBulgaria
1,270,00) ops and Patriarchs of the Great Church of Turkey (without Bulgaria, Bosnia, and Herzegovina).
3,500,000 Christ at Constantinople, from A. v. 36 to A. D.
5,000 1834.” This work was written by him in 1837, Japan..
while Archdeacon of Nauplia; it has been Total..
77,675,000 translated into Russian, and twice reprinted The report of Count Tolstoi, Procurator-Gen- in St. Petersburg. eral of the Iloly Synod of Russia, on the affairs the opening of the University of Czernovitz is
For the Greek Oriental Church of Austria of the Russian Church during the year 1876, was published in April, 1878. According to
an event of great importance. It is the only this report, there were in 1876 380 monasteries Austrian university which has a theological with 10,512 monks, and 147 nunneries with faculty of the Greek Oriental Church, and at 14,574 nuns. The number of cathedral churches which therefore the theological students of the was 625; of other churches, 39, 338; of chapels Church bave an opportunity of receiving a uniand oratories, 13,591. In the course of the versity education equal to that of the Cathyear 323 churches and 170 chapels and ora
olic and Protestant theologians of Austria and tories were built. There were 87 hospitals Germany. The university was established in with 1,192 inmates, and 605 poorhouses with October, 1875, with the three faculties of the6,763 inmates. The number of persons re
ology, law and political economy, and philosceived into the Russian Church was 12,340, ophy; but the philosophical faculty, was not embracing 1,192 Roman Catholics, 516 United completed until 1877, by the organization of Greeks, 8 Armenians, 688 Protestants, 2,5:39
the mathematical section. The theological Rascolniks or Old Believers (1,498 completely faculty. had in the winter semester of 1878–79 united with the Russian Church, and 1,041 re
six ordinary professors for the departments of served the use of the ancient canons), 450 Jers, church history' and ecclesiastical law of the
moral theology, dogmatics, practical theology, 219 Mohammedans, and 6,728 pagans. The number of divorces was 1,023; in 29 cases the Greek Oriental Church, exegesis of the old cause was romarriage of one party during the Testament, and exegesis of the New Testament, lifetime of the other; in 2, too close consan
besides one extraordinary professor and one guinity; in 15, impotence; in 80, adultery; in tutor. Connected with the theological faculty is 650, the unknown residence of one party; in
a theological seminary and a special theologi247, the condemnation of one party to forced cal library: The number of theological students labor or exile. The institutions for the educa- has ever since the organization of the faculty tion of the clergy, with the number of their been about 40; the total number of students is
about 220. teachers and pupils, were as follows:
GREENE, WILLIAM B., died at Weston-saper-Mare, England, May 30, 1878, aged 59 years. He was born in Haverhill, Mass., and
was the son of the late Nathaniel Greene, for1,623
merly Postmaster of Boston. He was a student
at West Point Academy, but did not graduate. 2,612 40,812
He entered the army and served in the Florida
He was connected with the Brook Farm Of the pupils, 15,655 received support from movement, afterward entered the Baptist minthe stato; 265 were learning the languages of istry, and for several years was settled at Brookthe uncivilized tribes. Eleven female schools field, Mass. Though a Democrat, he was a belong to the department of tho Procurator- strong Abolitionist; and on the breaking out General, which in 1876 had an aggregate of of the civil war he returned from Europe, 962 pupils, of whom 294 were supported by where he had passed several years, and in 1861 the Governmont. The number of schools con was commissioned as colonel of the 14th regi
4 5:3 156
5-6 12, 101 27,855
ment of Massachusetts Infantry, afterward the Whether as Commissioner of the Republic or 1st regiment of heavy artillery. In 1862, while as Deputy, his motto, which he was accustomed stationed with his regiment at Fairfax, Va., he to repeat frequently, was: “ Politics is only a was recalled and assigned by General McClel- kind of business; it is of supreme importance, lan to the command of the artillery brigade of but should always be treated like other busiGeneral Whipple's division. Ilis brigade con ness, with the same rectitude and the same sisted of the 14th Massachusetts Infantry, 2d simplicity of means.” In the Assembly he adNew York Artillery, 16th Maine Infantry, and vocated the abolition of imprisonment for debt, 1st battery Independent Wisconsin Artillery. and opposed the extension of the state of siege On October 11, 1862, he resigned his commis over the deliberations upon the Constitution of sion, returned to Boston, and about a year and the Republic, but failed to carry the body with a half before his death went to England. Ile him on either measure. His name as a memwas a member of the Massachusetts Constitu- ber of this body is most closely associated with tional Convention in 1853, was active in labor the proposition of the so-called Grévy amendand reform movements, and, being zealous for ment, a measure especially defining the tenure freedom of speech, was instrumental in secur of the Presidential office. The Constitution, ing for Mrs. Victoria C. Woodhull a hearing in following the model of that of the United Boston. He was a fine mathematician, and States, declared that the President of the Rewas versed in Hebrew literature and in Ilebrew public should hold his office for a definite terin and Egyptian antiquities. In Freemasonry he of four years M. Grévy apprehended that the had taken the 33 degrees of the Ancient and Ac- operation of this system among a people so atcepted Rite, taking the earlier degrees in France. tached to personal government as the French Among his published works are Socialistic, lad been would be dangerous, and offered the Communistic, and Financial Fragments,” “The- following instead : “ The chief of the execuory of the Calculus," " Explanation of the The- tive power is elected by the Assembly. Ile ory of the Calculus,” Transcendentalism,' takes the title of President of the Council of “The Facts of Consciousness and the Philoso- Ministers; he is elected for an unlimited time; phy of Mr. Herbert Spencer," and several pub- he is always removable; he names and removes lications relating to Freemasonry, the most im- the ministers." In his speech supporting his portant being “ The Blazing Star."
amendment, le foreshadowed the danger of GRÉVY, François Jules Pati, President of the republic being overthrown. But lie was the French National Assembly from 1871 to supported by only 168 members against 643. 1873, President of the Chamber of Deputies in Another constitutional question was discussed 1876 and 1878, and President of the Republic in the reports which M. Grévy wade in Janin 1879, was born at Mont-sous-Vaudrey in uary, 1849, as a member of committees on the the department of the Jura, August 15, 1813. project which was known as the proposition His fainily were middle-class people, in easy Rateau. This measure provided that the Lecircumstances, living on a small estate, and at- gislative Assembly should be called to meet tached by feeling and tradition to the repub- March 19, 1849, and the powers of the Constitlican cause. Ile began his studies when ten uent Assembly should cease on the same day; years old, at the Coilege of Poligny, continued till then, the latter body should be occupied them at Besançon, and finished them at Paris. principally with the electoral law and the law He was still at the Lyceum, being serenteen relative to the Council of State. M. Grévy's years old, when the revolution of 1830 broke reports undertook to show that the Constitout, and took no part in that movement, al- uent Assembly had been called for a specific though it has been erroneously stated that he object to constitute tho republic, and that it was engaged in it. IIe continued his studies would be untrue to its duty if it suffered itin the faculty of law, and was enrolled in 1837 self to be dissolved without perfecting its task. as an advocate in the Royal Court of Paris. As a body, its business was to go on with its The effect of his studies and his associations was work without reference to the result of the reto confirm him in the republican principles cent elections, which concerned another funcwbich he had inherited; but he did not take tion of government, with which the present an active part in politics. In 1839 he, as ad- body had notlıing to do. These views were vocate, defended the prisoners Philipot and sustained by a majority of only six votes in Quignot, accomplices of Barbès. The finished the Assembly. From this time M. Grévy opqualities of his addresses early brought him posed steadily all the measures which led up into notice as an orator. At the period of the to the establishment of the empire. Ile derevolution of 1848 he had acquired the confi- nounced the appointment of M. Changarnier dence of the Republican party as a man of abil- as commander both of the National Guard and ity and sound discretion, who could be relied of the army of Paris, as a violation of the law apon. The Provisional Government of 1848 of 1834, wlich intended to keep these offices appointed him ('ommissioner for the Republic separate, and as threatening to the liberty of in the department of the Jura. The electors the nation, and declared that the peril of the of tho Jura, without bis solicitation, sent him republic lily no longer in popular tumults, but to the capital at the head of their list of dele- in coups 17'état. In a speech against the press gates to the National Constituent Assembly. law, made in the National Assembly in May,
1849, he charged the reactionary party with ought to be accomplished through a regular being the cause of all the disorders with which process and under legal forms, and not through the nation had been afflicted and of the popu a mere popular manifestation, which he thought lar discontent which broke out periodically, be- would fail to secure to it respect from its creacause they used all the power they could gain tors or consideration abroad. Urgency bad been to prevent the people from obtaining that voted upon the proposition of M. Jules Favre and which they were striving for, and which alone M. Thiers for a decree declaring the empire fallwould make them contented, liberty, and he en, instituting a governmental commission, and said to the ministers : Always the same con- ordering the immediate convocation of a legistempt for the law, for the right, for principle; lative assembly; and the subject had been restill the example of the same retractions. It ferred to a special committee. The committee is the fallen government which has brought agreed to report back the propositions in subFrance gradually to the condition in which we stance but in different form, and sent a depusee it, and you still attach yourselves to its tation, of whom M. Grévy was one, to the
You do not comprehend that at the lIôtel de Ville to announce their decision to point which France has now reached it is im- the Government of the National Defense, possible to govern it except by liberty. You which had already established itself there. are applying to it again the system of repres. The deputation did not succeed in inducing sion which it has broken over so often! 'You this Government to surrender its popular title are beginning again the task of your predeces- for one derived from the Assembly, but M. sors; you are taking your turn to roll up the Grévy believed that his friends of the Governstone till it falls back and crushes you!" An- ment had committed a mistake. He returned other speech which he made in this Assembly to the department of the Jnra, bnt came twice was in opposition to the law upon the state of to Paris to urge the convocation and election siege, of which he declared the operation would of the Assembly, feeling that in postponing be to establish a military dictatorship.
this measure the Government was playing into M. Grévy was arrested, with other promi- the hands of the reactionary parties. nent Republicans, on the night of the coup M. Grévy was chosen to represent the ded'état, December 2, 1851, and was confined for partment of the Jura in the National Assembly some time in the state prison at Mazas. Ile which met at Bordeaux, and on the 16th of afterward returned to the practice of his pro- February, 1871, was chosen President of that fession. An election taking place in 1868 to body, receiving 519 votes. At the same sitting fill a vacancy in the Corps Législatif from tho of the Assembly, he brought forward, with M. department of the Jura, his old constituents Dufaure and five other of bis fellow deputies, returned him by a vote of 22,000 against 10,- the proposition for the organization of the ex000 for his Imperialist opponent. I few ecutive in the following terms: “M. Thiers is months later, at the general elections of 1869, appointed chief of the executive power of the he was reclected by a vote which was almost French Republic. He will exercise bis fuucunanimous. IIis most important effort in this tions under the control of the National Assembody was an argument against the plébiscite, bly, in conjunction with the ministers whom he in which, after having spoken to show that shall choose and over whom he shall preside." that method of taking a popular voto tended The period of his presidency in the Assembly to supplant legitimate legislativo authority and was marked by continued accessions of strength to deprive the people of the power of the in- to the ranks of the reactionists, so that, alitiative, he closed with the words: “Puerilo though he was chosen President nine times work! You believe you can shut up a great in succession, he was elected each time by a people in your little combinations. You be- smaller number of votes. On the 1st of April
, lieve you can stop the march of progress, and 18733, a scene occurred in which the Dnko de chain a nation to a constitution. Ilas not the Gramont characterized a remark made by a example of those who have preceded you in member of the Republican Left as an impertithis impossiblo attempt instructed you? The nence. The President called the speaker to people, in their turn, will break away all your order, but the Right protested against his rulrestraints, as they have broken away others, ing, and confusion ensued. The President detill they arrive at last, through all the revolu- clared the session adjourned and left his seat, tions of which you reopen the career, at the At the opening of the next day's session M. form of government of modern peoples, the (irévy's resignation as President of the Assemdemocratic form--the only one which is appro- bly was read. A new election was held impriate to our social stato; the only one which mediately, and M. Grévy was chosen again by is possible and durable; the only one, finally, a vote of 349 to 231 for M. Buffet. He refused in which it is possible to find the order, tho to accept the offer, declaring that the reasons liberty, the repose, and the pro-perity of which which had induced him to resign his functions they have so great need.''
would not permit him to resume them. These X. (révy's conduct in the revolution of tho reasons, privately expressed, were understood 4th of September, 1870, was marked by a cau to be that the monarchist factions were gaintious deliberation. Desiring the erection of a ing the ascendancy in the Assembly, and he, a genuine republic, he believed that this ohject Republican, would not consent to cover their
GRÉVY, FRANÇOIS JULES P.
plots in any way with his patronage and his referred especially in his address to the manner presidential direction. If the return of royalty in which the views of that gentleman respecthad to be proclaimed, he desired at least that. ing the government best adapted to the country the unwelcome announcement should be made had been changed, and to the service he had from some other lips than his. In the begin- rendered in inspiring confidence in the repubning of November, 1873, he published a pam- lic. “Let us set ourselves,” said M. Grévy, in phlet, “LeGouvernement Nécessaire,” in which the conclusion of his address, " to show, like he unfolded his views regarding the form of him, that the republic is a government of orgovernment most suited to the wants of the der, peace, and liberty—the only conservative nation. Remarking upon the unique historical government in our country and time, because circumstance that eight governments had been it is the only one adapted to our interests and destroyed within eighty years by violent revo social condition." M. Grévy was again relutions, he inquired for the cause of the phe- turned to the Chamber of Deputies at the nomenon, and found it in the fact that France elections in the fall of 1877, and was again had within eighty years become a democracy, chosen President of the Chamber at its openbut during all that time had not been able to ing in November. Marshal MacMahon having constitute itself democratically; that, instead accepted the voice of the people as expressed of giving the democracy the only institution in the election of deputics, and having unwhich it could support, the leaders had persist- nounced his resolution to govern in accord ed in building up against it, for the purpose of with the Chambers, M. Grévy regarded it as his holding it back, governments from which it duty to support his government, and discounwas banished, weak dikes which could last no tenanced all intrigues to displace him. When longer than till the democratic wave could rise the Marshal resigned the office of President and break over them. It was necessary to or on the 30th of January, 1879, there was no ganize a government suited to the social state question as to who should be his successor. to which time had brought the nation, under Public opinion turned at once to M. Grévy; penalty, if this was not done, of rolling in rev and his election, which took place on the same olution after revolution to the bottom. Vo day by a vote of 536 to 99 for General Chanzy, choice was offered of roads of escape from the was only the announcement of what was a region of storins. Any restoration of the mon- foregone conclusion. As the resignation of archy would only be a pause between two tem- the Marshal took place on account of an honest pests: by the way of the republic only could difference with the Chambers on an important the haven be found.
political ineasure, and could not be regarded as On the 20th of November the project was in any sense the result of an intrigue, M. introduced into the Assembly for creating the Grévy had no hesitation in accepting the office Septennat, under which Marshal MacMahon to which he was called. was named President of the Republic for the GUATEMALA (REPÚBLICA DE GUATEMALA), term of seven years. M. Grévy opposed this one of the five independent States of Central as a measure exceeding the functions of the America, extending from 13° 50' to 18° 15' Assembly, and which would be after all only north latitude, and from 88° 14' to 93° 12' a prolongation of the provisional. Ile de- west longitude. It is borinded on the north clined to associate himself in the vote on the by the Mexican State of Chiapas, on the east constitution of February 25, 1975, because, al- by British Honduras and the Caribbean Sea, though the definite organization of the repub- on the south by the republics of Ilonduras lic was destined to grow out of it, it had its and San Salvador, and on the southwest by origin in the illegal prorogation of the powers the Pacific Ocean. During the past year a of Marshal MacMahon; but the Government convention was signed between President Barhaving been established under it, he garo it rios and the representative of Mexico for the his recognition. Ile offered himself again to appointment of a Commission of Engineers to the electors of the Jura as their deputy, and fix the boundary line between the two counwas returned almost unanimously. In the new tries. The commission was to be composed of Assembly of March, 1876, he was elected pro- twelve engineers, six to be named by each of visional President, receiving 414 votes, and the contracting parties, and meet in Tapachula afterward permanent President, for which within at least two months after the ratificaoffice he received 462 votes out of 468. Iletion of the convention—that is to say, about served till the 25th of June, when the Assem- November 1st. For the sake of convenience, bly was dissolved by the decree of the Mar- the boundary line was to be divided into two shal-President.
sections, one from the Pacific coast to the CerWhen M. Thiers died, in September, 1877, ro Izbul, and the other from the Cerro Izbul to M. Grévy was generally mentioned as the fittest the Atlantic. The present line was to be folsuccessor to that statesman in the leadership lowed as far as known, and in the disputed of the Republican party, and as the most suit- sections the whole adjacent districts were to able person to succeed Marshal MacMahon in be examined for the purpose of establishing case there should be a change in the office of what should appear to be the natural dividing President of the Republic. He was one of line. From the date of the signing of the conthe speakers at the funeral of M. Thiers, and tract to the conclusion of the work on the tirst